Use of network scheduling technique


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Use of network scheduling technique

  1. 1. USE OF NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUE (CPM) TO SET UP A TEAM AND TO FABRICATE A FSAE CAR BY THE TEAM A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course of OPERATIONS RESEARCH by BOLISETTI SIVA PRADEEP 09BEM080 SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND BUILDING SCIENCES Vellore – 632014, Tamil Nadu, India www. APRIL 2012 0
  2. 2. CONTENTS Chapter No. CHAPTER 1 Title INTRODUCTION Page No. 3 1.1 Introduction to network scheduling 1.2 Introduction to the team, objectives and whole content of the project CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 4 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 6 3.1 Problem Statements 3.2 Solutions 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Results and its significance CHAPTER 4.2 CHAPTER 9 Advantages - Applications 5 CONCLUSIONS 10 REFERENCES 10 1
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK SCHEDULING The complexities of the present day management problems and the business competitions have added to the pressure on the brains of decision makers. In a large and complex project involving a number of interrelated activities, requiring a number of men, machines and materials, it is not possible for the management to make and execute an optimum schedule just by intuition based on the organizational capabilities and work experience. Management are thus always on the lookout for some methods and techniques which may help in planning, scheduling and controlling the project. The aim of planning is to develop a sequence of activities of the project, so that project completion time and cost are properly balanced and that the excessive demand of key resources is avoided. CPM is one of the many network techniques which have been widely used for planning, scheduling and controlling the large and complex projects. The network technique which emphasizes more on activities is called CPM. CPM does not take into account the uncertainties while estimating its activity times. The main difference between CPM and PERT is PERT emphasizes more on events while CPM on activities.The estimates in PERT are probabilistic while the times in CPM are relatively less uncertain and are thus of deterministic in nature. 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE TEAM, OBJECTIVES AND WHOLE CONTENT OF THE PROJECT In V.I.T university we have many teams which make a car of their discipline to compete in their corresponding event, for example BAJA. Team Pravega is one among them. Team Pravega is a team which designs a small formula type race car. Each student team designs, builds and tests a prototype based on a series of rules. The success of any team depends on the commitment of its docile members, planning, scheduling and controlling the activities efficiently, on contrary if planning, scheduling and controlling of the activities is not done efficiently the team is vulnerable to failure. Construction of a FSAE car is a complex project which involves many activities. These activities have to be planned, scheduled and controlled properly so that project completion time and cost are properly balanced. The aim of my project is to find out all the activities involved in design and fabrication of FSAE car by Team Pravega and to draw the network and to apply network scheduling techniques like CPM for planning, scheduling and controlling of this project and to finally find out the critical activities and critical path. 2
  4. 4. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW N.K.Kwak et al in the year 2002 studied on critical path method and CRTI, a computerized CPM program, as a tool for reporting and developing management information system Microbiology Department of Deaconess Hospital to synchronize and coordinate the various tasks for efficient management. Edward L. Hanna et al in the year 2002 demonstrated on how goal programming can be used to incorporate considerations other than project completion time and total project cost into the typical CPM problem. Lawrence Jones et al in the year 2002 dealt with application of CPM scheduling for the National center for Drug Analysis. The model was constructed based on empirical data obtained at the center for a five year period. It assists the management of the center in developing a complex work planning process and in controlling the project tasks. J.F.Barlow et al in the year 2003 studied on plotting of activity on node by computer using output obtained from critical path analysis program. Three types of connections was allowed between activities which are shown as boxes. Yu Cheng et al in the year 2004 studied on optimal train traffic rescheduling simulation by knowledge based system combined with critical path method for getting a nearly optimum rescheduling under time and resource constraints. Global information concerning final completion times of trains is used as a feedback function to control the delay and resolve the resource conflict concerning current processing trains. Shin Pin Chen et al in the year 2006 proposed an approach to critical path analysis for a project network with activity times being fuzzy numbers, in that the membership function of the fuzzy total duration time is constructed. The basic idea was based on the extension principle and linear programming formulation. The total duration time is completely expressed by a membership function. Tarun Gupta et al in the year 2006 proposed an idea of applying CPM to continuous production systems, and to implement the CPM not just at the outset but throughout the process. The algorithm calls for repeatedly calculating the critical path through the production process and routing parts so as to remain off the path. Glenn R Dundas et al in the year 2006 studied on application of CPM for introducing an industrial product. The paper suggests use of critical path method to ensure success at the announcement/ introduction phase of the new product development. R.A.Web et al in the year 2007 studied on application of critical path analysis to strawberry fruit production from runner propagation to first harvest in an experimental situation. The analysis indicated three phases of development. 3
  5. 5. Yan Lie Chang et al in the year 2007 investigated on two types of time constraints commonly encountered in project management. The first is the time window constraint and second is the time schedule constraint. An efficient linear time algorithm for finding the critical path and for analyzing the flow time of each arc was developed for activity networks with these time constraints. 4
  6. 6. 3.METHODOLOGY 3.1 PROBLEM STATMENTS A list of all the activities involved and time taken for each activity has been found out by interacting with the team members. A table showing list of all activities involved in fabricating a FSAE car and the corresponding time take for each activity has been tabulated to draw the network and to find out the critical activities and critical path by using CPM. ACTIVITY TASK INVOLVED A Setting up a productive team through rigorous selection procedure involving written tests followed by interview and presentation. B To get to know the first hand information about all the departments in a car, for example suspension system etc. C Preparing a question paper for splitting the team into corresponding departments. D Splitting the team into various departments based upon the individual performance in the test and his field of interest. E Knowing the in-depth concepts by an individual corresponding to his department and simultaneously designing the components. F Selecting the event location. G Start of ordering the parts based on the calculations made and receiving the parts. H Design of prototype by using software's. I Validating the final designs. J Fabricating the roll cage based on the designs made. K Machining the components which are to be custom made. L Assembly of all components. M Test run and troubleshooting. Table 3.1 List of activities and their duration 5 No OF DAYS 7 10 3 5 40 7 60 25 5 30 50 20 10
  7. 7. 3.2 SOLUTIONS For the above list of activities the precedence relationship has been found out, a network involving all the activities has been dawn and finally the total length of the project, critical activities and critical path has been found out using CPM. PRECEDENCE RELATIONSHIP A < B, C B, C < D D < E, F E, F < G, H G, H < I I < J, K J, K < L L<M NETWORK Fig 3.1 Network involving all the activities 6
  8. 8. REPRESENTATION IN TABULAR FORM PREDESES SOR EVENT (i) SUCCES SOR EVENT (j) ACTIVI TY DURATI ON tEij 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 13 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 7 3 10 0 5 7 40 0 60 25 0 5 30 50 0 20 10 EARLI EST START TIME Esi EARLIES T COMPLE TION TIME Ecij 0 7 7 10 7 17 10 10 17 22 22 29 22 62 29 29 62 122 62 87 122 122 122 127 127 150 127 177 157 157 177 197 197 207 Table 3.2 7 LATE ST STAR T TIME Lsij 0 14 7 17 17 55 22 62 62 97 122 122 147 127 177 177 197 LATEST COMPLE TION TIME Lcj 7 17 17 17 22 62 62 62 122 122 122 127 177 177 177 197 207 FLO AT 0 7 0 7 0 33 0 33 0 35 0 0 27 0 20 0 0
  9. 9. 4.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 RESULTS AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE The total length of the project was found out to be two hundred and seven days. The critical activities were 1-2, 2-4, 4-5, 5-7, 7-8, 8-9, 9-10, 10-12, 12-13, 13-14. The critical path is 1-2-4-5-7-8-9-10-12-13-14. By applying CPM the total length of the project was found out to be two hundred seven days but according to the previous year's team database the length of the project was three hundred and thirty days. This increased length of the project can be attributed to the delay of critical activities, as we know that the delay of critical activities leads to the delay of the entire project. The delay of critical activities can further be attributed to scheduling of the university exams during the project and non availability of the team members due to some reasons like health problems etc. An example of delay in critical activity may be delay in receiving the ordered parts. 4.2 ADVANTAGES - APPLICATION Finding out the critical activities and critical path assists the team in developing a complex work planning process and in controlling the project tasks. 8
  10. 10. 5. CONCLUSIONS Thus the total length of the project, critical activities and critical path has been found out by applying CPM technique in network scheduling. It has been found that the previous year's total length of the project is exceeding the calculated total length of the project which may be due to the delay in critical activities. REFERENCES 1. D.S.HIRA, PREM KUMAR GUPTA (2008) Operations Research, S.Chand 2. 9