Brief Overview and scenarios of Madhya Pradesh Disasters Madhya Pradesh Floods Flood Affected districts of Madhya PradeshSource: MP SDMA website http://mpsdma.nic.in/imagescroll/Slide2.GIF Flood Case studies / Scenarios Heavy flooding forces thousands to flee in Madhya PradeshMADHYA PRADESH, India, 12 July 2005 – Heavy flooding caused by torrential rainfall hasstruck the eastern region of India’s Madhya Pradesh state, forcing thousands to flee their homes.Children and families are taking refuge in relief centres and temporary camps. Emergencysupplies have already arrived on the scene.The flooding has affected thousands of people in the districts of Katni, Rewa, Sagar, Panna,Stana, Damoh and Chhatapur. The Katni district, named after the river that flows through it, hasvirtually become an island surrounded by flood waters on all sides.In Katni town over 4,000 people, including 600 children less than five years of age, have beenplaced in temporary shelters. Roads are blocked, telecommunication systems have broken down,and electricity is unavailable in many places. In some areas exposed waste, spoiled food andanimal carcasses are posing a threat of infection. In the Panna district, approximately
60,000 people have been affected, and more than 4,000 people are currently in relief centres andcamps.Within 24 hours of the beginning of the flood emergency, UNICEF rushed essential supplies toaffected areas, including water containers, plastic mats, buckets, shovels, candles, match boxes,mosquito coils, candles and other items. UNICEF rapid response teams have been deployed toKatni and Panna districts and are supporting district administration in relief efforts.An effort is being made to educate people at the camps about basic hygiene practices which areessential in emergency situations. UNICEF team members are providing information aboutcleanliness, sanitation, safe drinking water and the use of oral rehydration salts.“As the water recedes it will be essential to prevent outbreaks of disease that can affect people,especially children. Hence issues like environmental sanitation, chlorination of water, etc.become very important,” said Tapas Datta, State Represenative, UNICEF office for MadhyaPradesh and Chattisgarh.Many of the region’s health centres are now under water, meaning that access to essentialmedicines and health care is far more difficult for the population. Among the duties of theUNICEF rapid response team are repairing and cleaning health centres once waters recede,disposing of animal carcasses, and supporting restoration of basic health services.Source: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india_27628.html
MP earthquake VulnerabilitySource: MP SDMA website http://mpsdma.nic.in/imagescroll/Slide1.GIF Earthquake Case studies / Scenarios 1997 Jabalpur EarthquakeThe 1997 Jabalpur earthquake occurred on May 22, 1997 in Jabalpur District inthe Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The epicenter of the earthquake was located at 23.18°N80.02°E near Koshamghat village. According to geologist Dr V. Subramanyan, former professorat the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay), the quake was caused due to thepresence of Narmada Fault.
Major damages occurred in structures in the Jabalpur District, Mandla District, SivniDistrict and Chhindwara District in Madhya Pradesh. Jabalpur and Mandla were the worstaffected districts. A total of 887 villages were affected, approximately 8546 houses collapsed andnearly 52,690 houses were partially damaged. The death toll was 39 and 350 were injured.The quake was followed by little aftershock activity and the aftershocks did not cause anydamage. Longitudinal ground cracks were observed in some locations of the affected area.USGS estimates the depth of focus at a default 33 km. It caused significant damage to structuresin the districts of Jabalpur, Mandla, Sivni and Chhindwada in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Themaximum damage was in the districts of Jabalpur and Mandla. About 8546 houses collapsed andabout 52,690 houses were badly damaged. In all, 887 villages (or equivalent) were affected.More than 90% of houses collapsed or were badly damaged in at least two of these villages witha population of about 500. During this earthquake, about 38 persons died and about 350 wereinjured. The affected region consisted of both rural and urban areas and the campus ofthe Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University was the worst affected structure in the urban area.Diagonal cracks occurred in walls, buildings were partially collapsed and the hostel forpostgraduate students was severely damaged. Approximately 1500 houses owned by the IndianRailways were damaged. In Jabalpur, a 500,000 gallon-capacity shaft-supportedwater tank forstorage and distribution of drinking water sustained both horizontal cracking and diagonalcracking. Some earthen dams located in the districts of Jabalpur and Mandla reportedlydeveloped longitudinal cracks.Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1997_Jabalpur_earthquakehttp://www.nicee.org/eqe-iitk/uploads/EQR_Jabalpur.pdf (This document has more info onshelter aspect with regard to urban areas.) Jabalpur Earthquake of 6 August 2011An earthquake of 2.8 magnitude occurred in Jabalpur at 22.54 hours on 06 August 2011 withepicentre at 23.152 oN, 79.88 oE. The epicentre is southeast corner of Balsagar (reservoir)adjacent to Dhanwantri Nagar and Medical College. The earthquake was caused due to theactivity of Rampur-Madan Mahal fault. This fault was not active in the geological past andpossibly it became active due to previous earthquakes in Jabalpur area. The fault runs east-west
between Madan Mahal on the northern side and Rampur on the southern side. It passes throughBalsagar to further west although surface manifestations of the fault are absent near Balsagar.Jabalpur lies in seismic zone III. It has a network of small faults which belong to NarmadaSouth Fault System. Many small magnitude earthquakes, which are not felt by people, occurregularly in Jabalpur area after 1997 earthquake of 6.0 magnitude. This is probably the first timethe epicenter of earthquake is in the city itself. The epicenters of most of the previousearthquakes in Jabalpur area, including earthquake of 22 May 1997, were to the southeast ofJabalpur.The 06 August 2011 earthquake of Jabalpur was not felt in the entire city. It was, however, feltin Panagar, Bheraghat and Patan 15 to 35 km away from Jabalpur. The rumbling sound, heard inmany parts of city, due to very small magnitude earthquake indicates nearness to epicenter andthe shallow focus of the earthquake, which is 12-13 km deep. Although the earthquake was feltfor just 3-4 seconds, the total duration of the vibrations recorded by Broad Band SeismologicalObservatory of Geology Survey of India (Jabalpur) is 27 seconds. The fumarolic activity on alimited scale in Naga Pahari area near Barela, about 25 km to the SE of Jabalpur, on 26 April2011 was on account of Narmada South Fault and not due to any volcanic event.Source: http://www.geosocindia.org/contents/2011/oct/news_3.pdf
MP Droughts Drought Case studies / ScenariosIn village Karmaura, of district Tikamgarh lives Mohan Yadav. At 75, Mohan is helplesslystruggling to meet the ends. Distressed by the undignified manner of livelihood, which meantborrowing food from neighbours everyday, his family decided to move to Delhi in search ofwork. This decision has affected Mohan badly. His old age has prevented him from moving outalong with his family on the one hand and on the other, has rendered him unfit to earn a livingout of his job card even in the village. Depressed by the situation, Mohan has contemplated
suicide a number of times, although he was provided a Job card for guaranteed employment,with no guarantee of job under NREGA.Such cases and situations abound in several districts of Madhya Pradesh today. The droughtsituation over the last two decades has persisted due to deficient rainfall year after year leading toan alarming rise in the rate of migration. Even as the worst of the summer season is still to hitthe state, several districts are already faced with a severe water crisis.This year, scanty rainfall in the state has badly affected 39 out of 48 districts. The seriousness ofthe situation can be gauged from the shocking fact that water has started being traded as acommodity. “We had never imagined that we would have to buy water someday” says Jheetabaiof Ghura village - district Palera. A private owner of a well located 2 kms from village Ghuracharges Rs 50 for two pot fulls of water. In the absence of any other alternative, the villagers areforced to yield to his exploitative pricing.Out of the 8 hand pumps installed in Dheemarpura, none are working any more. The villagecomprises of people largely from the Kevat community whose primary occupation is fishing.Following the drought situation of the past 4 years, that has led to drying up of all rivers andponds, the people of this community are finding it impossible to earn a living out of theirtraditional occupation. As a result, around 60% families of the village have already migratedleaving behind only the aged and immobile as told by Jheetabai, resident village Ghura.Similar figures have been reported from other parts of Tikamgarh district. Report on Drought byMadhya Pradesh Apda Niwaran Manch discloses the hard facts about sever migration inBundelkhand districts, out of the 600 families in Jatara Block of the Tikamgarh district, 400families have already moved out in Karmaura village.Source: Drought in Bundelkhand (Madhya Pradesh) by Right to Food Campaign MadhyaPradesh and MP Apda Niwaran Manchhttp://www.mediaforrights.org/reports/eng/droughtbundelkhand.pdfPlease note This document has many such case studies and lot of other data.
Industrial Hazards in Madhya PradeshSource: http://mpsdma.nic.in/imagescroll/Slide5.GIF Industrial disaster case studyTheBhopal disaster(commonly referred to asBhopal gas tragedy) was agas leakincidentin India, considered one of the worlds worstindustrial catastrophes. It occurred on the night ofDecember 2–3, 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited(UCIL) pesticide plant inBhopal,Madhya Pradesh, India. A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plantresulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. The toxic substance made its way inand around the shantytowns located near the plant. Estimates vary on the death toll. The officialimmediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of3,787 deaths related to the gas release. Others estimate 3,000 died within weeks and another8,000 have since died from gas-related diseases. A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leakcaused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partial and approximately 3,900 severelyand permanently disabling injuries.Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhopal_disasterPlease note : Much more material is available of different websites on this.