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Musculoskeletal

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Occupational Health- from "Health Action" (CHAI magazine)

Occupational Health- from "Health Action" (CHAI magazine)

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  • 1. Preventionof M loskeletaluries uscu lni inlndustrial Workers S.Senthilkumar MPT (Ortho) o r k - r e l a t e dm u s c u l o s k e l e t ad i s o r d e r s l maintenance the hi_shest of de_9ree physical, of mental have becomea major problem in many and social well-beingof workersin all occupationsl industrialized countries. Thesedisorders prevention amongst workers of impairment of healthcause a considerableamount of human suffering and causedby their working conditions; protection ofare also economically very costly becauseof reduced workers in their employment from risks resulting fromworking capacity and lessenedproduction. These factors adverseto health; placing and maintenanceofdisorders describe a wide range of inflammatory and the worker in an occupationalenvironment adaptedtodegenerativediseases that result in pain and functional their physiologicaland psychological capabilities;and,impairment and may affect the bodys soft tissues to summarize, the adaptation of work to man and ofincluding tendons,tendon sheaths, musclesand nerves eachman to his job InternationalLabour Organization.of the hands,wrists,elbows,shoulders, neck,andback. problemsfor industrial MusculoskeletalSuchdisorderscausework disability amongemployeesand are frequently associatedwith long periods of workers oDisorder of neck: The working groups with levelsdisabilityand sick leave. of staticcontraction,prolongedstaticloads,or extreme According to the World Health Organization,work- work posturesinvolving the neck muscles are atrelatedmusculoskeletal disorders(WMSDs) arisewhen increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders resultinsexposedto work activities and work conditions that cervicalspondylosis spondylitis. andsignificantly contribute to their development or oDisorders of shoulder: A relationship betweenexacerbationbut not acting as the sole determinant ofcausation(World Health Organization, 1985). These repeatedor sustainedshoulder postureswith greaterdisorders have been found to be associatedwith than 60 degreesof flexion or abduction to developnumerous occupationalrisk musculoskeletaldisorder.factors, including physical Pitc.h6! Slould( o Disorder of upper extremity: (t1dts tulT6dn6r)workload factors such as Disorders of upper extremity are due to :ff;.So"^force, posture, manual o+cftdvri0$ improperuseof tools and or work postures.handling,repetitivework and T h e p r o b l e m s a r e t e n d o s y n o v i t i s ,d evibration, psychosocial Quervainsdisease, trigger finger, tendonitis,stressors,and individual tennis elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, Lsac!.Fffifactors. These factors a,prrw.r Raynaudssyndrome,Spaceinvaderswrist. r)ffimebecome hazardous due to oTendosynot,itis: this case, the Inprolonged,repetitive,often in tendons are affected. The signs anda forceful and awkward *l".,fJ:;:, symptoms are pain, swelling, crepitus, andmanner, without sufficient loss of function. It occurs in the situationrest or recovery. where the job requires side-to-side wristOccupationalhealth should movement.aim at promotion andHealthAction o October2012
  • 2. with have disorders multifactorial in origin and may be associated Work-related musculoskeletal disorder. is importantto distinguishing It occupational becomea majorProblemin manY u*ong the variousout comemeasures suchaslow back Thesedisorders countries.industrialized cause pain,"sciaticpain, low back impairment low back a considerableamountof humansufferingand disability,lumbago are alsoeconomicallyvery costlybecauseof oManagementof musculoskeletal disorders - working capacity lessened and Relaxition techniques Alexander technique reduced backstrain production. Alexanderskills will reduce[or] eliminate of by increasingproficiency at "consciousinhibition" ode quervainsdiseasez this case, long abductor g"neral posturat and muscular malcoordination In are Alexander and sometimesthe sort extensor of the thumb L"ngttt"ning the spine in all activities sheath affected.This is because the fibrosis of the of techniqueteaches preferablebalanceand coordination a and narrowing of the intrathecal lumen The workers that improve posrure,reducesstressto neck and back who use their thumb repeatedly get this disease und kinestheticand proprioceptive skills "nhun.es frequently. Stretching exercisesProgrammeoTriggerfinger: This is a type of tendosynovitis seen oCuhle.strettlt; -hile sitting with chin in shoulders thumb is in workers when any finger other than relarecl. handsrelaredin lap, andfeetflat on the floor f l e x e d a g a i n : tr e s i s t u n c d u r i n s t h e e three frequently rr.naginecablepulling theheadupwardhold for a pedormance of a job. secondsand relax. RePeatthriceoTendonitis; this case.the muscietendon;unction oDiagonal rteckstretch; Turn the head slightly and In of and muscle tissuesaround, get fatigued because then look down as if looking in your pocket hold for the frequent abduction movement The main muscle 15 seconds then relax Repeatthrice on each side body to body stretchesaway from the middle of the oExecutivestretch: While sitting, lock hands behind which it is attachedleading to inflammation head. Bring elbows back as far as possible inhale oTenniselbowis alsocalled lateralepicondilitisIn this hold for 2O deeplywhile leaningback and stretching condition, pain appearsnear the epicondyle on the seconds. exhale and relax Repeatthrice outerside.The pain is due to the chronic inflammatory oTherttpertticetercises: These exercisesare active reactionof the soft tissue in the elbow region In the isometricexercises free and assisted. acttveexercises, industrial situation it follows the repeatedeffort exercises. with requiring palm upward and extensionof the wrist iniuries palm downwards. Prevention musculoskeletal of play The ergonomicapproaches preventdisorders to iCorpol tunnel syndrome:It is a common disorder welcomesto play in the a greatrlt.. ttt. discipline, which causedby the compressionof median nerve biomechanics and their role in preventionof them, is the carpal tunnel in the wrist through which the nerue must be used and Its principles in view of the applicability the flexors of the fingers passesto the hand and methods *ttit" O"rigning the machines,work places forearm. The characteristicsymptoms are tingling their task The used by the employee to perform sensation. pain and numbness the finger and the to be in can help in job requiring main biomechanic procedures which first threefingers.In industrialsituation a disordersarestraightback preventionof musculoskeletal repeated urist flexion is the cause wris rule, Belly buttonrule, Swinging arm rule Straight oR)ynaudsstntlronrci lt is an episodeof constriction ruleandNo Brair of the rule,Eye rule, Skin rule, Think first of the small blood vesselsin the periphery extremityresultingin intemrittent changes colourof machinerule. in car This is Through the applicationof biomechanicswe can the skin such as pallor or c1anosis both or effectivr in for people Uy mating their tasks easiermore particularlydue to vibration and cold tetnperature will go I situation und *or" pioductive and use of ergonomics the industrial disorder long way in preventingthe cumulativetrauma oSpaceinvaderswrlsr: This is resulted the condition in work methodsor wor The cau--secl ill-designedmachines, by where frequent finger movements are required stiffness Places. I characteristic symptoms are felling of (Tlrc ttuthor is OrthopaedicPhysical TherapistResear headache, numbness, swelling,musclespasmdunng Sclutlur.Depttrtmentof RehabilitationScience HoIy Cro movementsor even on a posturalchanges Cct IePe I (A utonomous TiruchirapaIIi 620 00 ) oDisorder of low backz Back disorder is ffi16-n616n a October2012

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