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Biometric Security advantages and disadvantages

Biometric Security advantages and disadvantages



Biometric Security advantages and disadvantages Visit : http://www.dailygk.com/

Biometric Security advantages and disadvantages Visit : http://www.dailygk.com/



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    Biometric Security advantages and disadvantages Biometric Security advantages and disadvantages Presentation Transcript

    • In the terms of computer security, biometrics refers to authentication techniques that rely on measurable physiological and individual characteristics that can be automatically verified.  A Biometric System is a system for the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristics.  Depending on the context, in a biometric system, there are two different ways to resolve a person’s identity  I) verification  Ii) identification 
    •  Verification:- Comparing a sample against a single stored template is called verification ? 1  Input stored Template
    • Identification :- Search a sample against a database of templates. 1 input data database
    • 1) Physical biometrics:         Fingerprint—Analyzing fingertip patterns Facial recognition/face location—Measuring facial characteristics Hand geometry—Measuring the shape of the hand Iris scan—Analyzing features of colored ring of the eye. Retinal scan—Analyzing blood vessels in the eye Vascular patterns—Analyzing vein patterns DNA—Analyzing genetic makeup. Earprint—this method is based on geometric distances, force field transformation
    • It actually have  Crossovers  Core  Islands  Delta  Pore 
    • The distance between eyes  Size of mouth  It is sensitive to environmental variables such as dust and lighting and other factors such as facial expression, facial hair, hats and spectacles.  Templates are typically between 80 and 1,000 bytes in size. 
    • The colored ring surrounding  The pupil of the eye  Iris patterns are formed in the eighth month of age and, remain stable throughout the life of the individual  The iris can have approximately 270 distinct characteristics including meshwork, striations, rings, freckles.  high-quality black and white image of the iris is taken for processing into a template that is typically around 256 bytes in size. 
    • Retinal scans record the pattern of blood vessels at the back of the eyeball  The biometric sensor projects a light into the eye and requires close proximity and a high degree of user cooperation.  Retinal patterns are affected by medical conditions, for example high blood pressure or eye disease  Retinal scan templates are typically 40 to 100 bytes in size. 
    • 2) Behavioral biometrics:  Speaker/voice recognition—Analyzing vocal behavior  Signature/handwriting—Analyzing signature dynamics  Keystroke/patterning—Measuring the time spacing of typed words
    • It’s a habitual speaking recognition.  Voice recognition systems analyze differences such as in pitch, and tone.  This biometric is also sensitive to environmental conditions such as background noise.  Template size can vary significantly according to the length of the pass phrase. 
    • This biometric analyses signature characteristics such as total time, speed, acceleration, character direction, stroke order, stroke count, pressure and contact with the writing surface.  These templates are typically 50 to 300 bytes in size. 
    • Similar to signature verification, this measures the characteristics of an individual’s input of a pass phrase or password. Characteristics may include total time, speed with particular keys and pressure.  Again the template size can vary significantly depending on the length of the password or phrase. 
    • 1. Sensing ◦ User’s characteristic must be presented to a sensor ◦ Output is a function of:  Biometric measure  The way it is presented  Technical characteristics of sensor 2. Signal Processing ◦ Feature extraction ◦ Extract the desired biometric pattern  remove noise and signal losses  discard qualities that are not distinctive/repeatable  Determine if feature is of “good quality”
    • 3. Pattern matching ◦ Sample compared to original signal in database ◦ Closely matched patterns have “small distances” between them ◦ Distances will hardly ever be 0 (perfect match) 4. Decisions ◦ Decide if the match is close enough ◦ Trade-off: ↓ false non-matches leads to ↑false matches
    •  Something you have: (token: key, card)  Something you know: (Password, Pin )  Something you are: (biometric :physiological, behavioral)
    • Biometric representation Capture & processing Feature extraction Template creation Storage Or database
    • Location  Security  Task( identification, verification)  Number of users  Circumstances(user’s)  Existing data 
    •     Biometrics is a rapidly evolving technology that is being widely used in forensics, such as criminal identification and prison security, and that has the potential to be used in a large range of civilian application areas. Biometrics can be used to prevent unauthorized access to ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networks. It can be used during transactions conducted by telephone and Internet (electronic commerce and electronic banking). In automobiles, biometrics can replace keys with keyless entry devices.
    •  Vertical markets that are using biometrics: Government—Passports, national identification (ID) cards, voter cards, driver’s licenses, social services, and so on  ✓ Transportation—Airport security, boarding passes, and commercial driver’s licenses  ✓ Healthcare—Medical insurance cards, patient/employee identity cards  ✓ Financial—Bankcards, ATM cards, credit cards, and debit cards  ✓ Security—Access control and identity verifications, including time and attendance  ✓ Education—Student/teacher identity verification and access control. Biometrics are now being implemented in large-scale ID systems around the globe.
    • Biometrics cannot be lost, stolen or forgotten. Barring disease or serious physical injury, the biometric is consistent and permanent.  It is also secure in that the biometric itself cannot be socially engineered, shared or used by others.  There is no requirement to remember passwords, or PINs, thus eliminating an overhead cost. The biometric is always available to the individual; 
    • Coupled with a smart card, biometrics provide strong security for any credentials on the smart card.  Biometric system provide a high degree of confidence in user identity.  Organizations can implement recognition systems to obviate the need to log onto a system manually. 
    •  Lack of standardization  While the reliability and the accuracy of biometric devices continues to improve.  Biometric systems must be able to accommodate changes to the biometric over time which may be caused by ageing, illness or injury.  The effectiveness of the sample collection process is strongly influenced by environmental conditions, user training and usability. For example, lighting, facial orientations, expression, image resolution and the wearing of hats can affect the quality of the sample.