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Ferro Alloy Perspectives for the Steelmaker

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Manganese alloys essential for steel making. …

Manganese alloys essential for steel making.

Like all RM even Mn :
a) depleting resources in most regions,
b) ore controlled & concentrated to a few  leading to steeper increase in RM price than steel price  profit shifting to RM
c) HG ore prices increasing faster than MG & LG Ore prices as more concentrated (geographic) spread of HG ore.

Way out :
Invest in technology for Mn alloys like steel industry has done for iron ore : viz beneficiation, agglomeration, pre-reduction and coke : viz washing, stamp charging PCI etc.
Beneficiation, Agglomeration, Alloy making not using electricity – direct reduction using coal/natural gas.
Use of lower grades of ferro alloys that can be made from LG Ores which are more easily available.


Steel Production Global + India Going Up
Manganese Alloy Demand Going Up
High Grade Manganese Ore Restricted To Few Countries & High Consolidation Of High Grade Mn Ore Resource.
Globally Steel Industry Has Tackled Poor Quality Of Principal Raw Materials
Iron Ore – By Viz Beneficiation, Agglomeration, Pre-reduction.
Coke - Washing, Stamp Charging, Pulverized Coal Injection Etc
Indian Mn Ore Of Poor Quality, High Grade Ore Price Increase & Electricity Cost Increase + Shortage.
Hence Need For Steel Industry To Invest In :
Beneficiation
Agglomeration
Alternate Methods Of Production For Mn Alloys

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  • 1. Manganese Ferro Alloys -Perspectives for the Steelmaker Prabhash GokarnHead Marketing & Business Development, FAMD
  • 2. Storyline Summary Storyline- Manganese alloys essential for steel making.- Like all RM even Mn : a) depleting resources in most regions, b) ore controlled & concentrated to a few  leading to steeper increase in RM price than steel price  profit shifting to RM c) HG ore prices increasing faster than MG & LG Ore prices as more concentrated (geographic) spread of HG ore.- Way out : - Invest in technology for Mn alloys like steel industry has done for iron ore : viz beneficiation, agglomeration, pre-reduction and coke : viz washing, stamp charging PCI etc. - Beneficiation, Agglomeration, Alloy making not using electricity – direct reduction using coal/natural gas. - Use of lower grades of ferro alloys that can be made from LG Ores which are more easily available.
  • 3. Presentation Flow • Steel Production Global + India Going Up • Manganese Alloy Demand Going Up • High Grade Manganese Ore Restricted To Few Countries & High Consolidation Of High Grade Mn Ore Resource. • Globally Steel Industry Has Tackled Poor Quality Of Principal Raw Materials – Iron Ore – By Viz Beneficiation, Agglomeration, Pre-reduction. – Coke - Washing, Stamp Charging, Pulverized Coal Injection Etc • Indian Mn Ore Of Poor Quality, High Grade Ore Price Increase & Electricity Cost Increase + Shortage. • Hence Need For Steel Industry To Invest In : – Beneficiation – Agglomeration – Alternate Methods Of Production For Mn Alloys
  • 4. Manganese Ferro Alloys -Perspectives For The Steel Maker
  • 5. Steel Production Global + India Going UpProjected Global CS Growth (Mn MT) 1,952 2,040 1,788 1,868 1,622 1,711 1,121 1,171 1,224 973 1,026 1,073 649 684 715 747 781 816 CY11 CY12 CY13 CY14 CY15 CY16 Long Flats Projected CS Growth in India (Mn MT) 97 89 82 68 73 64 52 44 48 36 39 34 38 41 45 30 32 34 FY12 E FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 LP FP
  • 6. Manganese : Driven by Steel World over, Manganese is the 4th most used metal in terms of tonnage after Iron, Aluminum and Copper. Total world’s production of Manganese Ore reached almost 47.21 million tons in 2010. • About 95% of the world’s production of Manganese Ore is used directly or indirectly in steel making and other metallurgical usages. • Manganese ore and Alloy Industry have historically derived demand from steel Industry and hence is directly related to the volatility and movement of Global steel Industry. World demand for Manganese ore depends directly on the outlook of steel Industry.
  • 7. Indian Steel Production Increase is Rapid
  • 8. Resulting in a Proportional Rapid Increase in ManganeseAlloys Requirement Globally…6000 Global FeMn Demand 6000 Global SiMn Demand 5260 5260 4995 4995 4747 268 4747 2685000 4513 266 5000 4513 266 4193 4267 263 353 4193 4099 4267 263 353 4099 260 260 343 3434000 232 241 333 512 4000 232 241 333 512 241 323 474 241 323 474 334 314 439 377 334 314 439 377 310 406 366 310 406 366 348 362 376 355 701 348 362 376 355 7013000 345 3000 345 694 388 328 335 694 388 328 335 680 687 680 687 734 660 660 734 660 6602000 2000 2664 2851 2664 2851 2175 2327 2490 2175 2327 24901000 1973 2033 1000 1973 2033 0 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 OTHERs SOUTH KOREA AMERICAS INDIA OTHERs SOUTH KOREA AMERICAS INDIA JAPAN EUROPE CHINA JAPAN EUROPE CHINA Global Manganese Alloy Demand is growing at > 6% yoy
  • 9. ….. and in India 800 250 SiMn Demand – India kT 683 FeMn Demand – India kT 210 700 652 196 200 180 600 560 517 166 489 153 500 461 140 150 400 300 100 200 50 100 0 0 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 lndian Manganese Alloy Demand is growing at > 10% year on year
  • 10. Most Manganese Alloys – made in China 14000 6000 SiMn Supply International kT FeMn Supply International kT 5219 11,531 4932 12000 4665 10,734 5000 460 400 4417 4188 460 292 451 4154 4016 460 10000 8,944 1100 290 329 8,655 8,685 460 287 8,365 1100 4000 425 460 329 338 1615 462 284 329 335 976 314 281 329 8000 1658 978 1481 301 332 672 1814 400 329 328 623 910 3000 365 325 576 843 410 534 6000 841 860 1323 349 1202 494 1074 416 449 976 2000 4000 7996 7335 2896 3128 2483 2682 4750 4814 5055 5409 1000 2189 2090 2299 2000 0 0 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Others South Africa Ukraine India China OTHERS JAPAN CIS EUROPE INDIA CHINA China is the largest consumer as well as producer of Manganese Alloys India is also a significant producer & consumer Ukraine is the largest exporter of Manganese Alloys
  • 11. India is a Significant Manganese Alloys Exporter SiMn Supply from India kT FeMn Supply from India kT1800 1615 800 1481 6721600 700 622 1323 5771400 1202 600 534 1074 683 494 2101200 976 652 449 196 500 1801000 560 166 517 400 153 800 489 140 461 300 600 932 200 426 462 400 763 829 341 368 397 585 685 309 200 515 100 0 0 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 Export Domestic Export Domestic However, it is forecast that the proportion of Mn alloys needed to service the domestic steel industry will increase rapidly, and Mn alloy exports out of India (as a proportion of production) will fall.
  • 12. Asia accounts for 65% of World Steel Production and 70% ofWorld Manganese Alloy Demand
  • 13. Five Countries Account for 99% of Asia’s MnConsumption, with China dominating
  • 14. China and India have dominated this increase….
  • 15. Growth of Asian Mn alloy production has been fuelledlargely by imported Manganese Ore
  • 16. Though, low grade Mn Ores are produced in many regions
  • 17. HighORE CONCENTRATION MN Grade Manganese Ore available in few regions only… High Grade Mn Ore High/Med Grade Mn Ore Low/Med Grade Mn Ore
  • 18. This is why Manganese Ore is highly traded (fourth aftercrude oil,IS HIGHLY TRADED coal)…. MN ORE iron ore and
  • 19. Manganese Ore sea borne volumes have risen sharply, withmost manganese ore bound forAsia…China, India, Korea, Japan
  • 20. And this high grade Manganese Ore comes from very fewcountries…. Highly consolidated supply base…. Manganese Ore Exports, in Mn MT Others, 5.79 6 South Africa, 6.27 Brazil, 0.844 Australia, 4. Gabon, 2.52 8
  • 21. Import of Manganese Ore in India has rapidly increased ….
  • 22. And is likely to increase in future rapidly too …. IFAPA 5 YEAR PLAN DATA
  • 23. Key Conclusions … • Asia is the key region for manganese demand, accounting for two thirds of global consumption • China is 70% of Asian consumption. Japan, India and South Korea also significant • Asia will continue to increase as a percentage of global demand, fuelled by need for structural steels for construction and infrastructure in developing countries • Asia overall is now consuming >90% of the Mn alloys it produces and is exporting less • The region’s Mn alloy production is largely non-integrated, and increasingly dependent on imports of Mn ore from outside of Asia AS HIGH GRADE MN ALLOYS ARE GETTING SCARCE, & IMPORT BASED ALLOY PRODUCTION IS NOT ALWAYS SUSTAINANBLE THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO DEPEND ON THE ORE AVAILABLE IN INDIA – LOWER GRADES OF MN ORE WITH LOWER Mn/Fe
  • 24. Steel Makers have developed technology to counter similarsituation in iron ore and coalTECHNOLOGIES ADOPTED BY STEEL MAKERS TO COUNTER INFERIOR RAW MATERIALS :Inferior Coals : Coal beneficiation by washing Use of semi coking coals by Stamp charging Use of non coking coal by pulverized coal injectionIron Ore : Iron Ore Beneficiation Iron Ore fines used by sintering & pelletizing Flux input through sinterEnergy Efficient Alternate Technologies : Sponge Iron / HBI using coal & natural gasProcesses that use Inferior Raw Materials : Use of iron ore fines & coke/non coking coal fines in iron making by FINEX, ITKM3 etc.Secondary Metallurgy : Ladle/runner treatment of hot metal for dePhos, deSulphurization RH, RH-OB, CAS-OB, MRP, VD/VAD, AOD etc. for Steel refining
  • 25. Urgent Need for Similar Advances in Ferro Alloy MakingNEED FOR SIMILAR ADVANCES IN FERRO ALLOY MAKINGInferior Mn Ores : Mn Ore beneficiation (specially high Mn/Fe ores)LAM Coke : Advances in use of alternate reductants : - coal, char, lignite, anthracite, woodEnergy Efficient Alternate Technologies : Advances in Non Electricity based processes for Ferro Alloy Production - Direct Reduction using coal or gas (like HBI/sponge iron) - Coal based BF like production of FeMn and Spigelsen Stabilization of DC Arc technology and it adoption in India/ChinaFerro Alloy Processing : Post tap refining of ferro alloys – dePhos / deSulphurization / deCarburize Advances in direct pig casting of molten ferro alloys eliminating resizing and generation of fines etc.
  • 26. Back UpSummary of Technological Advances in Steel Making
  • 27. Technology Developments(1) : Beneficiation,Agglomeration,Reduction
  • 28. Technology Developments(2) : BF Iron Making Advances…
  • 29. Technology Developments(3) : New Smelting Technologies
  • 30. Technology Developments(4) : Steel Making, SecondaryRefining, Continuous Casting
  • 31. Technology Developments (5) Non Coking Coal Use

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