The word scam and corruption have become synonymous with the campaign that Anna Hazare, along with hissupporters, has unde...
Cost: Rs. 70,000 croresFace of the Scam: Suresh KalmadiThe Commonwealth Games held in India was an even that was soaked in...
Cost: Rs 176,000 croreFace of the Scam: A. Raja & M. K. KanimozhiThe 2G scam is one of the latest scams that have hit our ...
Cost: Rs 18,978 croresFace of the Scam: Ravi ShankaranThe Scorpene submarines scam was one of the biggest corruption scand...
Cost: Rs 20,000 croresFace of the Scam: Abdul Karim TelgiThe Stamp Paper scam was perhaps the most innovative scam in the ...
Cost: Rs. 300,000 croresFace of the Scam: Naveen Patnaik governmentThis scam was plundering at its best with the Naveen Pa...
Cost: Rs. 950 croresFace of the Scam: Lalu Prasad YadavBihars most famous scam was the one involving fodder and ex- Chief ...
Cost: Rs. 14,000 croresFace of the Scam: B. Ramalinga RajuThe Satyam Scam was the biggest corporate scam that the country ...
Harshad Shantila Mehta (Hindi:               ) was an Indian stockbroker. He is alleged tohave engineered the rise in the ...
A typical ready forward deal involved two banks brought together by a broker in lieu of acommission. The broker handles ne...
Perhaps the best example of a historically unethical advertising mistake was the presentation ofthe threat of complete nuc...
Lying or willfully ignoring truth in advertising is a strategy that ultimately amplifies harm to theend user, and creates ...
The National Union of Students is investigating the allegations surrounding the companyfollowing an emergency resolution a...
While the ad is certainly in poor taste, this particular one is borderline when it comes to obscenity.The fact that a woma...
Jewellery and wedding finery off, the advertisement then proceeds to exhort the viewer to ‗just zatakher‘.What? Did I hear...
quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers (or even students), usually under theleadership of their superviso...
Quality circles are an alternative to the dehumanizing concept of the division of labor, whereworkers or individuals are t...
United States, as it (was not properly understood and) turned out to be a fault-finding exercisealthough some circles do s...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Quality circle

1,567

Published on

Published in: Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,567
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
35
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Quality circle

  1. 1. The word scam and corruption have become synonymous with the campaign that Anna Hazare, along with hissupporters, has undertaken.These two words are, almost entirely, responsible for the political and social state that our country is in today. Theentire nation suffered economically and faced humiliation because of the greed of a few individuals.Though Anna Hazare, has been able to wake the nation from its slumber to a great extent, the damage that hasalready been done by these scams cannot be erased.Here is MensXP’s pick of India’s Top 10 corruption scams.1. Indian Black Money ScamCost: Rs. 7,280,000 CroresFace of the Scam: Hassan Ali KhanThis scam can be said to be the almost immediate cause of the anti-corruption movement being faced by the country.The revelation about the huge sums of money being stashed away in Swiss banks served as an impetus to rallyagainst the government that had been ignoring it. The magnanimity of the situation came into focus when Indianbusinessman was arrested on money laundering charges which was to the tune of Rs. 39,120 crores.2. CWG Scam
  2. 2. Cost: Rs. 70,000 croresFace of the Scam: Suresh KalmadiThe Commonwealth Games held in India was an even that was soaked in controversies and corruption to say theleast. While the organizing committee drew flak for various allegations like child labour, sex slavery, environmentalimpact, racism and financial costs, the one that shocked the nation was the humungous amount of funds that hadbeen mishandled by them. The chairman of the organizing committee was, resultantly, arrested on charges ofcriminal conspiracy and cheating.3. 2G Spectrum Scam
  3. 3. Cost: Rs 176,000 croreFace of the Scam: A. Raja & M. K. KanimozhiThe 2G scam is one of the latest scams that have hit our country driving it to incur huge losses. And caught at thecentre of the embarrassing controversy was the Telecom Minister, A. Raja himself. The scam became bigger withnew revelations of the involvement of politicians, bureaucrats, corporate personalities, media persons and lobbyists.The granting of licenses to various companies led to a massive loss to the exchequer. Also, daughter of politicalheavyweight, M. Karunanidhi, M. Kanimozhi was also arrested on charges of being a co-conspirator in the scandal.4. Scorpene Submarine Scam
  4. 4. Cost: Rs 18,978 croresFace of the Scam: Ravi ShankaranThe Scorpene submarines scam was one of the biggest corruption scandals faced by the country and including thenavy. In the scandal, secret Navy documents were sold to the makers of the Scorpene submarine. The Indiangovernment had approved the 19,000 crore submarine deal with the French company. The purchase of six Scorpenesubmarines cost the Indian government a lot more than its actual price.5. Stamp Paper Scam
  5. 5. Cost: Rs 20,000 croresFace of the Scam: Abdul Karim TelgiThe Stamp Paper scam was perhaps the most innovative scam in the list. Abdul Karim Telgi, a former fruits andvegetables seller, duped the nation of crores of rupees by printing fake stamp papers. He began his counterfeit careerby making fake passports after which he started selling fake stamp papers to banks, insurance companies, sharebroking firms and bulk purchases. What was surprising, was the involvement of many police officers and othergovernment employees. In fact, one police officer was said to have assets worth Rs. 100 crores despite earning onlyRs. 9000 a month.6. Bofors ScamCost: Rs. 400 millionFace of the Scam: Ottavio QuattrocchiThe Bofors scandal that hit the country was a major corruption scandal which changed the fate of the, then ruling,Congress party. Top politicians like Rajiv Gandhi and S.K. Bhatnagar and high profile names like Win Chadha andthe Hinduja family were accused of "receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB for winning a bid to supply Indias 155 mmfield howitzer." The scale of the corruption was such that it immediately led to the defeat of the government headedby Rajiv Gandhi. Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrocchi, was the prime accused in the scandal and was chased bythe CBI for years.7. Mining Scam
  6. 6. Cost: Rs. 300,000 croresFace of the Scam: Naveen Patnaik governmentThis scam was plundering at its best with the Naveen Patnaik led government exploiting the states minerals to thetune of lakhs of crores of rupees. Apparently, the mine owners had been illegally using fake Transit Passes totransport minerals from Orissa to other states. The plundering was a large scale one and involved many high profilepeople from the government and bureaucracy.8. Fodder Scam
  7. 7. Cost: Rs. 950 croresFace of the Scam: Lalu Prasad YadavBihars most famous scam was the one involving fodder and ex- Chief Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav. The officials ofthe Bihar state government embezzled funds worth Rs. 950 crores by fabricating vast herds of fictitious livestock forwhich fodder, medicines and animal husbandry equipment were acquired. Soon, Lalu resigned from the postfollowing immense pressure from all quarters owing to his close involvement in the case.9. Hawala ScamCost: US$ 18 billionFace of the Scam: L.K Advani/ Late Narasimha RaoHawala scam was probably the first scam that gave the public an idea of the the loot of national treasure that wasbeing implemented by the top politicians. The scam revolved around the payments that the politicians received fromhawala brokers, who basically fund terrorism around the globe. Many prominent politicians like LK Advani, ArjunSingh, Yashwant Sinha, Kalpnath Roy, VC Shukla, Madhavrao Scindia, Sharad Yadav, Buta Singh, Natwar Singhand Madan Lal Khurana were indicted in this case, but no action was taken against them due to lack of hardcoreevidence.10. Satyam Scam
  8. 8. Cost: Rs. 14,000 croresFace of the Scam: B. Ramalinga RajuThe Satyam Scam was the biggest corporate scam that the country ever saw. The founder of the Satyam Group,Raju, resigned after he admitted to fudging the account books for years and falsely inflating the profit figures andrevenues of Satyam for years. The credibility of the company fell hugely, owing to the scam and it was finally takenover by the Mahindra Group. (MensXP.com)
  9. 9. Harshad Shantila Mehta (Hindi: ) was an Indian stockbroker. He is alleged tohave engineered the rise in the BSE stock exchange in 1992. Exploiting several loopholes in thebanking system, Mehta and his associates siphoned off funds from inter-bank transactions andbought shares heavily at a premium across many segments, triggering a rise in the Sensex. Whenthe scheme was exposed, banks started demanding their money back, causing the collapse. Hewas later charged with 72 criminal offenses, and more than 600 civil action suits were filedagainst him. Mehta died in 2002 with many litigations still pending against himContents 1 Early life 2 Stock Market Scam 3 See also 4 References 5 External links[edit] Early lifeHarshad Shantilal Mehta was born on 29 July 1954 in a Gujarati Jain family of modest means.His early childhood was spent in Mumbai (Kandivali), where his father was a small-timebusinessman. Later, the family moved to Raipur in Chattisgarh after doctors advised his fatherto move to a drier place on account of his health. Mehta studied in Holy Cross Higher SecondarySchool, Byron Bazar, Raipur.[edit] Stock Market ScamMehta gradually rose to become a stock broker on the Bombay Stock Exchange and had anexpensive lifestyle. He lived in a 15,000 square feet (1,400 m2) apartment, which had aswimming pool as well as a golf patch. By 1990, Mehta had risen to prominence in the stockmarket. He was buying shares heavily. The shares which attracted attention were those ofAssociated Cement Company (ACC). The price of ACC was bid up to Rs 10,000. When asked,Mehta used the replacement cost theory as an explanation. .Through the second half of 1991 Mehta had earned the sobriquet of the „Big Bull‟, because hewas said to have started the bull run. On April 23, 1992, journalist Sucheta Dalal exposedMehtas illegal methods in a column in The Times of India. Mehta was dipping illegally intothe banking system to finance his buying. The authors explain: “The crucial mechanism throughwhich the scam was effected was the ready forward (RF) deal. The RF is in essence a securedshort-term (typically 15-day) loan from one bank to another. Crudely put, the bank lends againstgovernment securities just as a pawnbroker lends against jeweller. The borrowing bank actuallysells the securities to the lending bank and buys them back at the end of the period of the loan,typically at a slightly higher price.” It was this ready forward deal that Mehta and hisaccomplices used with great success to channel money from the banking system.
  10. 10. A typical ready forward deal involved two banks brought together by a broker in lieu of acommission. The broker handles neither the cash nor the securities, though that wasn‟t the casein the lead-up to the scam. “In this settlement process, deliveries of securities and payments weremade through the broker. That is, the seller handed over the securities to the broker, who passedthem to the buyer, while the buyer gave the cheque to the broker, who then made the payment tothe seller. In this settlement process, the buyer and the seller might not even know whom theyhad traded with, either being known only to the broker.” This the brokers could manageprimarily because by now they had become market makers and had started trading on theiraccount. To keep up a semblance of legality, they pretended to be undertaking the transactionson behalf of a bank.Another instrument used was the bank receipt (BR). In a ready forward deal, securities were notmoved back and forth in actuality. Instead, the borrower, i.e., the seller of securities, gave thebuyer of the securities a BR. As the authors write, a BR “confirms the sale of securities. It acts asa receipt for the money received by the selling bank. Hence the name - bank receipt. It promisesto deliver the securities to the buyer. It also states that in the mean time, the seller holds thesecurities in trust of the buyer.”Having figured out his scheme, Mehta needed banks which issued fake BRs, or BRs not backedby any government securities. “Two small and little known banks - the Bank of Karad (BOK)and the Metropolitan Co-operative Bank (MCB) - came in handy for this purpose. These bankswere willing to issue BRs as and when required, for a fee,” the authors point out. Once these fakeBRs were issued, they were passed on to other banks and the banks in turn gave money to Mehta,assuming that they were lending against government securities when this was not really the case.This money was used to drive up the prices of stocks in the stock market. When time came toreturn the money, the shares were sold for a profit and the BR was retired. The money due to thebank was returned.The game went on as long as the stock prices kept going up, and no one had a clue aboutMehta‟s modus operandi. Once the scam was exposed, though, a lot of banks were left holdingBRs which did not have any value - the banking system had been swindled of a whopping Rs4,000 crore. When the scam was revealed, the Chairman of the Vijaya Bank committed suicideby jumping from the office roof. He knew that he would be accused if people came to knowabout his involvement in issuing cheques to Mehta.Mehta made a brief comeback as a stock market guru, giving tips on his own website as well as aweekly newspaper column. This time around, he was working with owners of a few companiesand recommended only the shares of those companies. This game, too, did not last long.[1]By the time he died, Mehta had been convicted in only one of the many cases filed against him.The Mehta scandal was portrayed in a recent Hindi movie, Gafla.[2]Heres an article by Sucheta Dalal after Harshads death:
  11. 11. Perhaps the best example of a historically unethical advertising mistake was the presentation ofthe threat of complete nuclear obliteration, coupled with a little girl innocently plucking a daisy.In 1964, Lyndon Johnson‟s advertising team commissioned the nuclear advertisement. It wasso controversial that it was shown only once, but has remained burned into the collectivememory of historians, ordinary citizens, and anyone else with a passing interest in advertising.Was the controversy worth it? While Johnson was re-elected, that ad launched a conversation inthe marketing and advertising communities that continues to this day; namely, what are theethics of advertising? Cigarette advertising in the 1960‟s completely ignored the harmful healthrealities of their products, instead trumpeting „flavor‟ and „personality‟ and other attributes. Theresult: millions of deaths that could have been easily prevented.Perhaps the most insidious form of unethical advertising is that which targets children.Companies which sell sugar-based products have frequently conflated joy with the consumptionof their products, when in fact unrestrained consumption results in serious health problems suchas diabetes, tooth decay, and obesity. While parents are ultimately responsible for what theirchildren consume, it is difficult to combat the pervasive culture of unethical advertising thatblankets most forms of childhood entertainment.
  12. 12. Lying or willfully ignoring truth in advertising is a strategy that ultimately amplifies harm to theend user, and creates a culture of one-upmanship within the advertising community that leads towildly inaccurate depictions of products and services. While some companies may experience atemporary sales „bump‟ by utilizing this strategy, in the long run this form of unethical behaviorbreeds a kind of automatic skepticism and distrust in the consumer. Cynical advertisingexecutives have been known to say that “consumers are like cockroaches: you spray them andspray them, and eventually it doesn‟t affect them.” This attitude demonstrates why advertisingmust enforce a baseline ethical standard.Creating ethical ads that accurately convey the benefits of a product without omitting importantdetails has become the responsibility of every advertising agency. Agencies that wish not only tomeet the needs of their clients, but to continue to engage meaningfully with the public, mustwork to rebuild trust with consumers. Truth in advertising, combined with a set of enforceableand fair guidelines, will ultimately boost sales and the quality of advertisements. Instead ofearning recognition for wildly unethical work, advertisers should design each campaign forinclusion in a future museum retrospective.Coca-Cola is banned from students union over unethical practicesSussex University has become the first campus in the country to ban all Coca-Cola productsfrom its students union in protest at the companys allegedly unethical practices. Other campusesare expected to follow suit, amid calls for a nationwide student boycott of the soft drinks giant.The decision to withdraw Coca-Cola from the university comes at a time when its products havealready been banned in schools, as concerns rise about rates of obesity among children.Universities in the US have also banned Coca-Cola and a quarter of states in India have outlawedproducts following concerns that they contain 27 times the permitted levels of pesticides.Campaigners also claim that bottling plants in India have depleted local water tables anddeprived farmers of their livelihoods. In Colombia and other South American states, thecompany has been accused of ignoring anti-union abuses at its factories.Dan Glass, the president of Sussex Universitys students union, said: "We had objections toCoca-Cola on the grounds of health but the really big things were the anti-union practices inColombia and the environmental damage they have done in India ... Our ultimate goal is to makeCoca-Cola accountable for the crimes it has committed, but by banning all its products from thecampus, we can hit them where it hurts them most - in the wallet."Coca-Cola products will be withdrawn from all the campus bars from next week and replacedwith organic colas, as well as the Virgin soft drinks range.Other universities, including Middlesex, Leeds, Portsmouth and theUniversity of East Anglia,are planning to remove products from their campuses.
  13. 13. The National Union of Students is investigating the allegations surrounding the companyfollowing an emergency resolution at its annual conference in June.Students unions belong to a purchasing consortium called NUS Services Limited (NUSSL),which supplies food, drinks and other goods to campuses at low prices. But the NUSSL contractslimit the choice of products the unions can buy and the Sussex students found it hard to get theconsortium to agree to the withdrawal of Coca-Cola. NUSSL has four multimillion-poundcontracts with Coca-Cola.UK Students Against Coca-Cola, a pressure group, hopes the investigation will lead to theNUSSL terminating all its contracts with Coca-Cola.Mary Rayner of Ethical Consumer magazine said: "People have so much more information nowabout what companies like Coca-Cola are doing around the world and increasingly they arerealising that they do have an alternative." Coca-Cola comes bottom of the magazines"ethiscore" table that rates soft drinks on ethical principles, with a score of three out of 20. Sheadded: "It has been very slow to address the ethical concerns, partly because it is so big that itmay think it just doesnt need to do anything."Despite plummeting sales in the fizzy drinks market as a whole, Coca-Colas worldwide profitsrose by 8 per cent in the first half of this year. And sales in the UK rose by "single digits" after adrastic fall over the last few years.Just Zatak Her?July 17, 2010 — meetawsenguptaThere is a fine line between glamorous, sexy and vulgar. And then there is language, which may haveunintended consequences. As always, these are matters of perception and opinion, but I must admitto being a bit disturbed by the trend of the advertisement series for this deodorant called Zatak. Itssexual innuendoes may cross over into the vulgar and that is unpleasant enough, but it is the tag lineof this series that causes concern: the tagline being – ‗Just Zatak Her‘.Objectifying women or stereotyping them is not new in advertising. This has been the object of debateever since advertising began, which is why advertising standards were created for each nation. Somenations manage to implement them much more effectively than others. India has the AdvertisingStandards Council of India that has given its judgment on one of the Zatak series of ads as recently asMarch 2010 saying, ‗Visual is not likely to cause grave or widespread offence.‘ The complaint wasspecifically about the Zatak ad where a woman emerges from a swimming pool in a bikini with thevoiceover in the background saying ‗very very sexy‘. The complainant had objected to cheap dialogueand claimed that the ad is obscene.
  14. 14. While the ad is certainly in poor taste, this particular one is borderline when it comes to obscenity.The fact that a woman is in a bikini is certainly not objectionable – she has a right to wear whatevershe wants. What troubles me is the voyeuristic eye, via the camera that raises the tempo of the ad tothe theme – ‗very very sexy‘. A random search online revealed comments and discussions that werelewd which was reflective of the general response to the advertisement in question. Others, includingon twitter were aghast: 1. Twitter / Sandeep Pathak: Was it ―Just Zatak Her‖ th …Was it ―Just Zatak Her‖ the guy sure looks more like he might ―Just Attack Her‖, the woman suredoes.twitter.com/patondaback/status/14111840391 – Cached 1. Twitter / Shakthi: I find the Zatak ad showin …8 May 2010 … I find the Zatak ad showing a bride throwing her ring and clothes off pretty vulgar andcheap !twitter.com/v_shakthi/status/13614773773 – CachedAdvertising is the art of influence. Influence enough to move people through the four phases ofeffective communication popularized by the simple acronym AIDA – Attention, Interest, Desire, Action.Effective promotions and advertisements are all about taking potential customers through these fourphases and every junior marketing executive is taught to build these stages into the promotion.The advertisement in question does exactly that.. literally. One advertisement starts with a beautifullydecked up bride who responds to the smell of the neighbour‘s deodorant which arouses both interestand desire. Another advertisement in the series starts with a bare chested man at a party where,seemingly, all the other guests are glamour models. This man carries two axes in his hand, as onedoes at parties. Not. (Yes, it is an unsubtle attack on a competitor of the same name.) At the literallevel, it is still a sharp and dangerous weapon that he swings around, ineffectually. Of course, anotherperson, the suave ‗zataker‘ gets the girls. Subliminally, we are being told that just having the weaponis not enough, one has to use the (z)ata(c)k. Get it?The other advertisement, which is the more objectionable one, we have the beautiful brideperforming a not so subtle strip for the voyeuristic boy next door. As the bride () starts to take her
  15. 15. Jewellery and wedding finery off, the advertisement then proceeds to exhort the viewer to ‗just zatakher‘.What? Did I hear that right? Did the syllables of the first and second words in the tag-line just mergea little, sort of accidentally? What I heard, the first time I saw the ad, was – ―Just attack her‖. Right. Anubile bride and glamour girls, and the voice tells me to attack. And, of course, we have just theweapon to support this Action, which is what we are promoting. Zatak!When has the word ‗attack‘ ever indicated a positive interaction with the opposite party? Look up thedictionary meaning of the word attack. It is clearly aggressive, with intent to dominate, conquer andmost often hurt the other party. The Zatak advertisement is a case of very clever advertising, justthis side of the line. While each element in this is (barely) justifiable, it does not make it ethical. Whencombined with linguistic tricks, such as, the sibilant second syllable of the ‗just‘ merging with the firstletter of the next word, ‗zatak‘ almost absorbing it in the process, leaving enough ambiguity to bedefensible, and yet – not unintelligible. This is not about sexual innuendo; this is about theassociation of sexual innuendo with aggression, potentially seeding intent to cause harm.Did anyone even think this one through and see how dangerous it could be? As a nation, our recordof safety for women is dismal. There are 18 reported sexual assaults on women every hour. Ournational capital was just reported to be one of the worst places for women to live and work, with threeout of every five women reporting sexual harassment. Centre for Civil Society too found similarresults in their study. An Assocham survey a couple of years ago revealed the same picture: over halfthe women felt unsafe, the proportion of working women was significantly higher. Women travelling toIndia receive advisories from their governments to be extra careful and dress conservatively. And thenour television channels boom out the exhortation – just zatak her!Using the concept of sex to sell perfumes is arguably logical. Ad industry professionals in this articleargued that fragrances are associated with attraction and male grooming is an established behavioralfact. Hardly objectionable. Is it? However, the advertisement seems to have moved beyond mereattraction to aggressive action with the admonishment to ‗just zatak‘, and more specifically to zatak‗her‘. In this I fear, we have crossed a line that should never have been crossed.
  16. 16. quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers (or even students), usually under theleadership of their supervisor (but they can elect a team leader), who are trained to identify,analyse and solve work-related problems and present their solutions to management in order toimprove the performance of the organization, and motivate and enrich the work of employees.When matured, true quality circles become self-managing, having gained the confidence ofmanagement.Quality circles are an alternative to the dehumanising concept of the division of labour, whereworkers or individuals are treated like robots. They bring back the concept of craftsmanship,which when operated on an individual basis is uneconomic, but when used in group form (as isthe case with quality circles), it can be devastatingly powerful and enables the enrichment of thelives of the workers or students and creates harmony and high performance in the workplace.Typical topics are improving occupational safety and health, improving product design, andimprovement in the workplace and manufacturing processes.quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers (or even students), usually under theleadership of their supervisor (but they can elect a team leader), who are trained to identify,analyze and solve work-related problems and present their solutions to management in order toimprove the performance of the organization, and motivate and enrich the work of employees.When matured, true quality circles become self-managing, having gained the confidence ofmanagement.
  17. 17. Quality circles are an alternative to the dehumanizing concept of the division of labor, whereworkers or individuals are treated like robots. They bring back the concept of craftsmanship,which when operated on an individual basis is uneconomic but when used in group form can bedevastatingly powerful. Quality circles enable the enrichment of the lives of the workers orstudents and creates harmony and high performance. Typical topics are improving occupationalsafety and health, improving product design, and improvement in the workplace andmanufacturing processes.The term quality circles derives from the concept of PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) circlesdeveloped by Dr. W. Edwards Deming.Quality circles are not normally paid a share of the cost benefit of any improvements but usuallya proportion of the savings made is spent on improvements to the work environment.[citation needed]They are formal groups. They meet at least once a week on company time and are trained bycompetent persons (usually designated as facilitators) who may be personnel and industrialrelations specialists trained in human factors and the basic skills of problem identification,information gathering and analysis, basic statistics, and solution generation.[1] Quality circles aregenerally free to select any topic they wish (other than those related to salary and terms andconditions of work, as there are other channels through which these issues are usuallyconsidered).[2][3]Quality circles have the advantage of continuity; the circle remains intact from project to project.(For a comparison to Quality Improvement Teams, see Jurans Quality by Design.[4]Contents 1 History 2 Student quality circles 3 See also 4 References[edit] HistoryQuality circles were first established in Japan in 1962; Kaoru Ishikawa has been credited withtheir creation. The movement in Japan was coordinated by the Japanese Union of Scientists andEngineers (JUSE). The first circles were established at the Nippon Wireless and TelegraphCompany but then spread to more than 35 other companies in the first year.[5] By 1978 it wasclaimed that there were more than one million quality circles involving some 10 million Japaneseworkers.[citation needed] They are now in most East Asian countries; it was recently claimed thatthere were more than 20 million quality circles in China.[citation needed]Quality circles have been implemented even in educational sectors in India, and QCFI (QualityCircle Forum of India) is promoting such activities. However this was not successful in the
  18. 18. United States, as it (was not properly understood and) turned out to be a fault-finding exercisealthough some circles do still exist. ref Don Dewar who together with Wayne Ryker and JeffBeardsley first established them in 1972 at the Lockheed Space Missile Factory in California.There are different quality circle tools, namely: The Ishikawa or fishbone diagram - which shows hierarchies of causes contributing to a problem The Pareto Chart - which analyses different causes by frequency to illustrate the vital cause, Process Mapping, Data gathering tools such as Check Sheets and graphical tools such as histograms, frequency diagrams, spot charts and pie charts[edit] Student quality circlesStudent quality circles work on the original philosophy of Total Quality Management[6]. Theidea of SQCs was presented by City Montessori School (CMS) Lucknow India at a conferencein Hong Kong in October 1994. It was developed and mentored by duo engineers of IndianRailways PC Bihari and Swami Das in association with Principal Dr. Kamran of CMS LucknowIndia. They were inspired and facilitated by Jagdish Gandhi, the founder of CMS after his visit toJapan where he learned about Kaizen. The worlds first SQC was made in CMS Lucknow withthen 13-year- old student, Ms. Sucheta Bihari as its leader. CMS conducts internationalconventions on student quality circles which it has repeated every 2 years to the present day.After seeing its utility, the visionary educationalists from many countries started these circles.The World Council for Total Quality & Excellence in Education was established in 1999 with itsCorporate Office in Lucknow and head office at Singapore. It monitors and facilitates studentquality circle activities to its member countries which are more than a dozen. SQCs areconsidered to be a co-curricular activity. The have been established in India, Bangladesh,Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Mauritius, Iran, UK (Kingston University), and USA. InNepal, Prof. Dinesh P. Chapagain has been promoting this innovative approach through QUEST-Nepal since 1999. He has written a book entitled "A Guide Book on Students Quality Circle: AnApproach to prepare Total Quality People", which is considered a standard guide to promoteSQCs in academia for students personality development.[

×