By niharika sharma Prabhakar kumarUnder the guidance of k.K ojha (B.H.U)
Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human flu, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection.
Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3.
The disease originally was nicknamedswine flu because the virus that causes thedisease originally jumped to humans fromthe live pigs in which it evolved. The virusis a "reassortant" -- a mix of genes fromswine, bird, and human flu viruses.Scientists are still arguing about what thevirus should be called, but most peopleknow it as the H1N1 swine flu virus.
In April 2009, a new strain of H1N1 swine flu emerged that contained a combination of swine, avian, and human influenza viruses. In the past, swine flu had mainly affected people who had direct contact with pigs. The new virus is unusual because it has spread among people who havent been near pigs. H1N1 swine flu, which was first observed in Mexico, has crossed borders and oceans, spreading to different countries and continents.
Symptoms of swine flu Symptoms of the swine flu are the same as those of seasonal influenza, and can include: cough fever sore throat stuffy or runny nose body aches headache chills fatigue nausea and vomiting
Tests for swine flu Because the symptoms of swine flu closely mimic those of seasonal flu, only a lab test can determine for sure whether you have the H1N1 swine flu. Rapid flu tests, done in the doctors office, often give false negative results, so they cant be relied on to diagnose pandemic flu. To test for swine flu, your doctor collects a sample from your nose or throat. Not everyone with suspected H1N1 swine flu needs to be tested to confirm diagnosis, according to the CDC. The CDC says priority for testing is for people who are hospitalized or have high risk for severe disease, such as:
Children under 5 years old People aged 65 or older Children and adolescents (under age 18) who are receiving long- term aspirin therapy and who might be at risk for experiencing Reye syndrome after influenza virus infection Pregnant women Adults and children who have chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular, hepatic, hematological, neurologic, neuromuscular, or metabolic disorders Adults and children who have immunosuppression (including immunosuppression caused by medications or by HIV) Residents of nursing homes and other chronic care facilities
Swine flu is a relatively new strain of influenza (flu) thatwas responsible for a flu pandemic during 2009-2010. It is sometimes known as H1N1 influenza because it is the H1N1 strain of virus. On 10 August 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the swine flu pandemic was officially over. However, this does not mean that swine flu can be ignored. The swine flu virus will be one of the main viruses circulating this winter. It has therefore been included in the 2012-13 seasonal flu vaccine.
What to do if you have swine flu People with swine flu typically have a fever or high temperature (over 38C or 100.4F) and may also have aching muscles, sore throat or a dry cough (see symptoms of swine flu). The symptoms are very similar to other types of seasonal flu. Most people recover within a week, even without special treatment. Contact your GP if you think you have swine flu and you are worried. They will decide the most appropriate action to take. The National Pandemic Flu Service no longer operates.
Prevanting the spread to swine flu The most important way to stop flu spreading is to have good respiratory and hand hygiene. This means sneezing into a tissue and quickly putting it in a bin. Wash your hands and work surfaces regularly and thoroughly to kill the virus. Anyone who is concerned about flu symptoms should contact their GP, who will determine the most appropriate action to take. For more information about how the H1N1 virus spreads, see causes of swine flu.
vaccination It is recommended that people in high-risk groups be vaccinated against swine flu. This includes all pregnant women, at any stage of pregnancy. Pregnant women in high-risk groups and those not in high-risk groups are advised to take the seasonal flu jab, which protects against swine flu. This is because there is good evidence that all pregnant women are at increased risk from complications if they catch swine flu. For more information, see swine flu advice for pregnant women. Until now, only pregnant women in high-risk groups were advised to take the seasonal flu vaccine. For general information about flu, see seasonal flu and seasonal flu jab
The swine flu virus is spread in exactly the same way as the common cold and other flu viruses. The virus is contained in the millions of tiny droplets that come out of the nose and mouth when someone coughs or sneezes. These droplets typically spread about 1 metre (3 feet). They hang suspended in the air for a while, but then land on surfaces, where the virus can survive for up to 24 hours. Anyone who touches these surfaces can spread the virus by touching anything else.
Everyday items at home and in public places may have traces of the virus. These include food, door handles, remote controls, hand rails and computer keyboards. People usually become infected by picking up the virus on their hands from contaminated objects and then placing their hands near their mouth or nose. It is also possible to breathe in the virus if it is suspended in airborne droplets
protein responcible for swine flu HA, NA, M1, M2, NS1, NS2, NP, PB1, PB1-F2,P2, PB2 These are protein codes found on pdb,the links is http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/
We can take amore information by ncbi http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ http:// www.iedb.org Reference, Wikipedia .org Ncbi pubmed