COMPUTER NETWORKING

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just simple view of computer networks

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COMPUTER NETWORKING

  1. 1. byP.PRABAKARA PANDIANA.SURIYA MANIRAJ
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONABOUT NETWORKCOMPONENTSPHYSICAL TOPOLOGY AND ITS TYPESTYPES OF NETWORKLAYERS IN OSI MODELTCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITECONNECTING DEVICESAPPLICATIONSCONCLUSIONREFERENCES
  3. 3. A network is a combination of hardware and softwarethat sends data from one location to another.Two or more computers that are interconnected sothey can exchange data, information & resources.A networked connection allows computer tocommunicate with other devices.
  4. 4. A network is a set of devices (often referred to asnodes) connected by communication links.A node can be a computer, printer, or any otherdevice capable of sending and/or receiving datagenerated by other nodes on the network.
  5. 5. MessageSenderReceiverTransmission mediumProtocol
  6. 6. every device has adedicated point-to-pointlink to every other device.Need n(n - 1) physicallinks.Need n(n -1) /2 physicallinks.
  7. 7. Better privacy and securityMore robust•Installation is difficult•Reconfiguration is difficult
  8. 8. Each device needs only one link and one I/O port.Installation and reconfiguration is easyIf the central hub fails, the whole network fails.
  9. 9. Installation is easyRequire less cable and I/O port•If the backbone fails, the whole network fails.•Reconfiguration is difficult.
  10. 10. Fault identification is easyEvery node is given equal access to the token•Adding or removing nodes disturb the network•Failure of node in a ring can affect the entire network.
  11. 11. A local area network (LAN) is usually privately ownedand links the devices in a single office, building, orcampus.Speeds are normally 100 or 1000 Mbps.LAN topologies are bus, ring, and star.LAN size is limited to a few kilometers.
  12. 12. A wide area network (WAN) provides long-distancetransmission of data, image, audio, and videoinformation over large geographic areas that maycomprise a country, a continent, or even the wholeworld.A WAN can be as dial-up line that connects a homecomputer to the Internet.
  13. 13. MAN means metropolitan area network.A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a networkwith a size between a LAN and a WAN.It normally covers the area inside a town or a city.
  14. 14. Open Systems InterconnectionStandard Model for Data CommunicationsSpecified by International Standards Organization(ISO)Adopted by CCITT/ITUOfficial Model Explained in X.200 Series
  15. 15. The physical layer coordinates the functions requiredto carry a bit stream over a physical medium.The physical layer is responsible for movements ofindividual bits from one hop (node) to the next.
  16. 16. Physical characteristics of interfaces and mediumRepresentation of bitsData rateSynchronization of bitsLine configurationPhysical topologyTransmission modeBegin EndDataLink Layer
  17. 17. Data Link layer adds header and trailer to the datareceived from the higher layer.It transports the data as Frame.This layer is responsible for the delivery of framesfrom node to node.
  18. 18. FramingPhysical addressingFlow controlError controlAccess controlLL Hdr DataNetwork Layer
  19. 19. Network layer adds header to the data received fromthe higher layer.It transports the data as Packets.This layer is responsible for the delivery of packetsfrom source host to destination host.
  20. 20. Logical addressingRoutingNet Hdr DataTransport Layer
  21. 21. Transport layer adds header to the data received fromthe higher layer.It transports the data as segments.This layer is responsible for the delivery of segmentsfrom one process to another process.
  22. 22. Service-point addressingSegmentation and reassemblyConnection controlFlow controlError controlTrans Hdr DataUpper Layers
  23. 23. The session layer is responsible for dialog control andsynchronization.Session layer is also responsible for terminating theconnection.CharacteristicsDialog controlSynchronization
  24. 24. The presentation layer is responsible for translation,encryption and compression.Presentation layer defines the format in which thedata is to be exchanged between the twocommunicating entities.CharacteristicsTranslationEncryptionCompression
  25. 25. The application layer is responsible for providing servicesto the user.Application layer interacts with application programs andis the highest level of OSI model.Examples of application layer are applications such as filetransfer, electronic mail, remote login etc.CharacteristicsNetwork virtual terminalFile transfer, access, and managementMail servicesDirectory services
  26. 26. Data sharingInstant And Multiple AccessesVideo ConferencingInternet ServiceBroad CastingRemote Access And LoginSaves Cost
  27. 27. The development of the personal computer broughtabout tremendous changes for business, industry,science, and education.A similar revolution is occurring in datacommunications and networking.Technological advances are making it possible forcommunications links to carry more and fastersignals. As a result, services are evolving to allow useof this expanded capacity.
  28. 28. Data communication and networking by Behrouz A.ForouzanData and computer communication by WilliamStallingsComputer Networks by Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S.DavieComputer networks by Andrew S. TanenbaumComputer Networking by James F. Kuruse, keith W.Ross.

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