+ Women & Sexism Voice, Worldview, Clinical implications and their application to practiceP. Max QuinnMulticultural CounselingBridgewater State University
+ 1848 – 1893 n 1890 – National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) is formed – Waged state-by-staten 1848 – 1st Women’s Rights convention was held in Seneca campaigns to obtain voting rights Falls, NY for womenn 1850 – 1st National Women’s n 1893 – Colorado is 1st state to Rights Convention takes place adopt amendment granting in Worcester, MA women the right to vote. n National Conventions were n Utah & Idaho in 1896 held yearly through 1860 n Washington State in 1910n 1869 – National Woman n California in 1911 Suffrage Association was n Oregon, Kansas & Arizona & 1912 formed n Alaska & Illinois in 1913 n GOAL: Achieve voting rights n Montana & Nevada in 1914 for Women via Congressional Amendment to US n New York in 1917 Constitution n Michigan, S. Dakota, & Oklahoma n Wyoming passes 1st women’s in 1918 suffrage law – Women begin serving on Juries in 1870
+ 1896 – 1920 n 1896 – National Association of n 1916 – 1st US Birth-Control Colored Women is formed Clinic is opened in Brooklyn, NY n 1903 – National Women’s Trade n Clinic was shut down 10 Union League (WTUL) is days later, but in 1923, established – Advocates for Margaret Sanger opened improved wages and working another clinic in New York conditions for women City n 1913 – Congressional Union is n 1919 – The Federal Woman formed to obtain passage of Suffrage Amendment (written federal amendment to give by Susan B. Anthony) is passed women the right to vote. Later by the House of named National Women’s Party Representatives and the Senate. Sent to states for Ratification. - August 26, 1920 – 19th Amendment granting women the right to vote is signed into law!
+ 1921 - 1964n 1921 - Margaret Sanger founds n 1960 – The Food and Drug the American Birth Control Administration approves League Birth Control Pills n Later evolves into the Planned Parenthood Federation of n 1961 – President John F. America in 1942 Kennedy establishes the President’s Commission on then 1935 – National Council of Negro Status of Women Women is organized n 1963 – Congress passes then 1936 – A federal law to prohibit the Equal Pay Act, making it dissemination of contraceptive illegal for employees to pay information through the mail is a woman less than what a modified and birth control man would make doing the information is no longer classified same job as obscene n 1964 – Title VII of the Civiln 1955 – Daughters of Bilitis (DOB) is Rights Act bars founded as the first lesbian discrimination in organization in the US employment on the basis of race and sex
+ 1964 - 1972 n 1968 – The EEOC rules that sex-segregated help wantedn 1964 – Equal Employment ads in newspapers are illegal Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is n 1969 – California becomes established to investigate the 1st state to adopt a “no complaints and impose penalties fault” divorce law, whichn 1965 – Griswold v Connecticut - allows couples to divorce by Supreme Court decision to prohibit mutual consent the use of contraceptives by n By 1985 every state had married couples adopted a similar lawn 1966 – The National Organization n 1972 – The Equal Rights for Women (NOW) is founded Amendment (ERA) is passed by Congressn 1967 – Executive Order 11375 n Eisenstadt v Baird - expands affirmative action policy Supreme Court rules that of 1965 to cover discrimination the right to privacy based on gender includes an unmarried persons right to use contraceptives
+ 1972 - 1978n 1972 – Title IX of the Education Amendments bans sex n 1976 – The 1st marital rape law is discrimination in schools enacted in Nebraska, making it n As a result, enrollment of women in illegal for a husband to rape his wife athletic programs and professional schools increases dramaticallyn 1973 – Roe v Wade – Supreme Court n 1978 – The pregnancy established a women’s right to safe Discrimination Act bans and legal abortion, overriding the employment against pregnant anti-abortion laws of many states women. A woman cannot be fired or denied a job or a promotion becausen 1974 – The Equal Credit Opportunity she is or may become pregnant, nor Act prohibits discrimination in can she be forced to take a consumer credit practices on the pregnancy leave if she is willing basis of sex, race, marital status, and able to work religion, national origin, or receipt of public assistance
+ n 1994 – The Violence Against 1984 – 1999 Women Act tightens federal penalties for sex offenders, funds services for victims of rape and n 1984 – EMILY’s List (Early domestic violence, and provides Money Is Like Yeast) is for special training of police established as a financial officers network for pro-choice n 1996 – United States v Virginia – Democratic women running Supreme Court rules that all- for national political office male Virginia Military School has to admit women in order to n 1986 – Meritor Savings Bank v continue to receive public Vinson – Supreme Court finds funding that sexual harassment is a form of illegal job n 1999 – Kolstad v American Dental discrimination Association – Supreme Court rules that a woman can sue for n 1992 – Planned Parenthood v punitive damages for sex discrimination if the anti- Casey – Supreme Court discrimination law was violated reaffirms the validity of a with malice or indifference to the woman’s right to abortion law, even if the conduct was not under Roe V Wade especially severe
+ 2000 – Present Day n 2009 – President Obama signed n 2003 – Nevada Department of the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Human Resources v Hibbs – Restoration Act, which allows Supreme Court rules that victims of pay discrimination to states can be sued in federal court for violations of the file a complaint with the Family Leave Medical Act government against their employer within 180 days of their n 2005 – Jackson v Birmingham last paycheck. Board of Education – Supreme Court rules that Title IX also inherently prohibits disciplining someone for complaining about sex-based discrimination n 2006 – Supreme Court upholds the ban on the “partial-birth” abortion procedure – Upholds the Partial-Birth Abortion Act
A Womans’ Voice:Values, Norms, Behaviors, and Worldview + The impact on the counseling process
+Because I am a woman, I must make unusual efforts to succeed. If I fail, no one will say, “She doesn’t have what it takes”. They will say, “Women don’t have what it takes.” ~Clare Boothe Luce Clinical Implications & Application to Practice The emotional, sexual, and psychological stereotyping of females begins when the doctor says, "Its a girl." ~Shirley Chisholm http://whoneedsfeminism.tumblr.com/
+ Best Practices: Counseling Women Why should counselors demonstrate an awareness of Women’s Oppression when counseling them? What is the potential impact of this information on the counseling process?
+ The Four Forces Psychodynamic Cognitive-Behavioral Existential-Humanistic Multicultural
+ Best Practices: Counseling Women “Gender politics” influence how we see ourselves as girls(and boys) and women (and men) throughout the course of our lives... Girls = sweet, sensitive, and docile Boys = strong, stoic, and brave• A woman’s sense of identity and self-concept develop in the context of relationships• Foster mutuality, relational capacities, and growth in connection
+ Principles of Counseling WomenThe Personal is Political• Personal or individual problems that individuals bring to counseling originate in a political and social contextCommitment to Social Change• Inspire direct action for social changeWomen’s and Girl’s Voices and Ways of Knowing are Valuesand their Experiences are Honored• Replace patriarchal “objective truth” with feminist consciousness, which acknowledges diverse ways of knowing• The valuing and facilitation of women’s voices in and out of therapy directly counteracts the often forced silence of women and contributes to an ultimate change in the body politic of society
+ Principles of Counseling WomenThe Counseling Relationship if Egalitarian• Take measures to strive for an egalitarian relationship, keeping in mind that the client is the expert in her own lifeA Focus on Strengths and a Reformulated definition ofPsychological Distress• Consider intrapsychic factors as only partial explanations for the pain that people bring to therapy• Psychological distress is reframed, not as disease but as a communication about unjust systemsAll Types of Oppression are Recognized• Women can be best understood in the context of their sociocultural environments• Acknowledge that and political inequalities have a negative effect on all people
+ n Become aware of your own gender-role socialization process n Identify internalized messages and replace them with more self-enhancing beliefs Understand how sexist and oppressiveDO the following... n societal beliefs and practices influence you and your clients in negative ways n Acquire skills to bring about change in the environment n Restructure institutions to rid them of discriminatory practices n Evaluate the impact on social factors on the lives if you and your clients n Develop a sense of personal and social power n Recognize the power of relationships and connectedness n Trust the clients own experience and their intuition
+ n n Make assumptions or “think you know” Make general or broad statements about what women value (each women may value different things, and you do not want to offend them or assume) n DO value the female perspective: Traditionally held notions of feminine traits (e.g., empathy, intuitiveness, cooperation, affiliation) are oftenDON’T do the devalued in U.S. culture, so female clientsfollowing... often learn to devalue these traits in themselves (Choate, 2009) n Ask too personal or intimate of questions at the onset of the counseling relationship (gauge openness of the client) n Make comments on physical appearance (clothing, hair, weight loss, etc...) n Make inappropriate jokes (it is very easy for good intentions to be perceived poorly)
+ BibliographyChoate, L. H. (2009, March). Girls’ and Women’s Issues in Counseling: ATheory-Based Course Design [Electronic version]. Counselor Education &Supervision, 48, 179-190.Corey, G. (2009). Theory and Practice of Counseling andPsychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.Gutwill, S., Gitter, A., & Rubin, L. (2011). The Women’s Therapy CentreInstitute: The Personal is Political. Women & Therapy. doi:10.1080/02703149.2011.532703Imbornoni, A. (2009). In Womens Rights Movement in the U.S.. RetrievedJune 16, 2012, from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/womenstimeline1.htmlJun, H. (2010). Social justice, multicultural counseling, and practice: beyonda conventional approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Spain, D. (2011, March). Womens Rights and Gendered Spaces in 1970sBoston [Electronic version]. Frontiers: A journal of women studies, 32(1),152-171.