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An Overview: Reality Therapy
 

An Overview: Reality Therapy

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Reality Therapy as it relates to Student Affairs

Reality Therapy as it relates to Student Affairs
Source: Theory & Practice of Counseling & Psychotherapy by Gerald Corey

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    An Overview: Reality Therapy An Overview: Reality Therapy Document Transcript

    • 1                      Form  A  -­‐  Critical  Evaluation   Counseling  &  Development    Form  A  -­‐  Theory:  Reality  Therapy  Name:  Peter  Max  Quinn  Critical  Evaluation  Format  Dr.  Ciri  -­‐  CN528  Counseling  &  Development  Date:  December  12,  2011     KEY  Concepts  of  Reality  Therapy:  View  of  Human  Nature  /  Basic  Assumptions  Underlying  Reality  Therapy       • Choice  theory  posits  that  we  are  not  born  blank  slates  waiting  to  be  externally  motivated  by  forces  in  the  world   around  us.  Rather,  we  are  born  with  five  genetically  coded  needs   • Human  beings  are  motivated  to  change  once  they  determine  that  what  they  are  doing  is  not  getting  them  what  they   want   • When  students  believe  they  can  choose  other  behaviors  that  will  get  them  close  to  what  they  want,  they  are  more   likely  to  change!   • Because  we  are  by  nature  social  creatures  we  need  to  both  receive  and  give  love   • The  need  to  love  and  to  belong  is  the  primary  need  because  we  need  people  to  satisfy  the  other  needs   • Our  brain  monitors  our  feelings  to  determine  how  well  we  are  doing  in  our  lifelong  effort  to  satisfy  these  needs   • Whenever  we  feel  bad,  one  or  more  of  these  five  needs  is  unsatisfied   • We  do  not  need  to  satisfy  our  needs  directly   • We  keep  track  of  anything  that  does  not  feel  good  and  store  information  inside  our  minds  to  build  a  file  of  wants,   called  our  Quality  World  -­‐  At  the  core  of  our  lives:  The  world  we  would  like  to  live  in  if  we  could   o The  quality  world  consists  of  specific  images  of  people,  activities,  events,  beliefs,  possessions,  and  situations   that  fulfill  our  needs.  It  is  like  a  picture  album  we  develop  of  specific  wants  we  well  as  precise  ways  to  satisfy   them   o Students  choose  to  behave  in  a  way  that  gives  them  the  most  effective  control  over  their  lives   o Some  picture  may  be  blurred,  and  the  professionals  role  is  to  help  students  clarify  them   o Pictures  exist  in  priority  for  most,  yet  students  have  difficulty  identifying  their  priorities   • All  we  ever  do  from  birth  to  death  is  behave  and,  with  rare  exceptions,  everything  we  do  is  chosen   • Every  total  behavior  is  our  attempt  to  get  what  we  want  to  satisfy  our  needs    MOST  Important  Concepts   • Choice  Theory  -­‐  We  Choose  our  own  Destiny   • Total  Behavior:  Our  best  attempt  to  get  what  we  want  (Fulfill  needs  and  wants)   o The  student  must  have  control  over  heir  actions   o Acting   o Thinking   o Feeling   o Physiology   § Every  total  behavior  is  our  best  attempt  to  get  what  we  want   § Change  language  (use  a  verb):  Stan  Feels  Depressed,  Angry  &  Anxious  to                            Stan  is  depressing,  Angering,  Anxietying   • 5  Basic  Needs:   o Survival   o Love   o Belonging   o Power  or  Achievement   o Freedom   o Fun     • Focus  on  the  unsatisfying  relationship,  or  the  lack  of  relationship,  which  is  often  the  cause  of  students’  problems   • Do  not  listen  long  to  complaining,  blaming,  and  criticizing,  for  these  area  the  most  ineffective  behaviors   • Give  little  attention  to  self-­‐defeating  total  behaviors   • Emphasize  Choice  &  Responsibility   o If  we  choose  all  we  do,  we  must  be  responsible  for  what  we  choose   o As  students  begin  to  feel  good  about  themselves,  it  is  less  necessary  for  them  to  continue  to  choose  ineffective   &  self-­‐destructive  behaviors    
    • 2                      Form  A  -­‐  Critical  Evaluation   Counseling  &  Development     Therapeutic  Process:  Most  important  Therapeutic  Goals   • To  help  students  find  better  ways  to  meet  their  5  basic  needs   • Changes  in  behavior  =  Satisfaction  of  basic  needs   o Personal  Growth   o Improvement   o Enhanced  Lifestyle   o Better  decision  making    Functions  and  Role  of  the  Student  Affairs  Professional   • Challenge  students  to  examine  what  they  are  doing,  thinking,  and  feeling  to  figure  out  if  there  is  a  better  way  for  them   to  function   • Use  Reality  (or  Choice)  Therapy  with  Behavior  Therapy  for  a  better  result  in  student  change   • Teach  students  choice  therapy  so  that  they  can  identify  unmet  needs  and  try  to  satisfy  them   • Assist  students  in  prioritizing  their  wants  and  uncovering  what  is  most  important  to  them   • Don’t  ever  lose  sight  of  the  fact  that  students  are  responsible  for  what  they  do   • Change  the  focus  of  responsibility  to  choice  and  choosing   • Focus  on  areas  where  students  have  choice,  for  doing  so  gets  them  close  to  the  people  they  need   • Convey  the  idea  that  no  matter  how  bad  things  are  there  is  hope!   • Instill  a  sense  of  hope  in  students,  they  will  feel  that  they  are  no  longer  alone  and  that  change  is  possible   • Function  as  an  advocate   • Be  gentle,  but  firmly  confronting   • Q:  Is  what  your  choosing  to  do  brining  you  closer  to  the  people  you  want  to  be  closer  to  right  now?   • Q:  Is  what  you  are  doing  getting  you  closer  to  a  new  person  if  you  are  presently  disconnected  from  everyone?   • Self-­‐evaluation  is  key!   • Foster  a  supportive  and  understanding  relationship    The  students’  role  in  the  Therapeutic  Process   • Not  expected  to  backtrack  into  the  past  or  talk  about  symptoms   • Talk  about  feelings  related  to  acting  and  things  as  part  of  total  behaviors  that  they  have  direct  control  of   • Self-­‐Talk:  I  can  begin  to  use  what  we  talked  about  today  in  my  life   • Self-­‐Talk:  I  am  able  to  bring  my  present  experiences  to  therapy  as  my  problems  are  in  the  present  and  my  therapist  will   not  let  me  escape  from  that  fact       Applications:  Techniques  and  procedures  of  Reality  Therapy-­‐    -­‐Techniques  and  Methods  applicable  to  Reality  Therapy  practice  in  Student  Affairs-­‐   • WDEP  -­‐  Wants,  Doing,  Evaluation,  Planning  &  Commitment   o Q:  What  do  I  want?   o Q:  What  am  I  doing  to  get  what  I  want?   § Q:  How  much  effort  am  I  putting  into  it?   o Q:  Is  it  working?   o Wants:   § Exploring  wants,  needs,  and  perceptions   § Q:  What  is  it  that  you  want?   § Q:  What  are  you  doing  now  to  get  what  you  want?   § Q:  How  much  effort  are  you  devoting  to  get  what  you  want?   § Q:  How  do  you  perceive  yourself  &  significant  others  in  your  life?   § Q:  Are  you  meeting  your  basic  needs?   o Doing:   § Focusing  on  what  the  student  is  doing  (behavior)  and  the  direction  this  is  taking  them   § How  does  the  student  spend  heirs’  time?    -­‐  Explore  this  with  them   § Discuss  core  beliefs,  ineffective,  &  effective  self-­‐talk   § Explore  the  direction  total  behavior  is  moving  the  student   § Q:  What  are  you  doing?   § Q:  What  do  you  think  to  yourself?     § Q:  What  do  you  ask  of  yourself?   § Q:  What  are  you  currently  doing  &  to  what  degree  is  it  working?  
    • 3                      Form  A  -­‐  Critical  Evaluation   Counseling  &  Development     § Q:  Is  your  present  behavior  helping  you  to  get  what  you  want  or  hurting  you  and  your  significant  others?   § Q:  Are  your  wants  realistic  and  attainable?   § Q:  If  you  had  in  your  life  what  you  wanted  at  this  point,  what  would  that  be  like?   o Evaluation:   § Challenging  students  to  make  an  evaluation  of  their  total  behavior   § Behavior,  what  is  the  constant?  Variable  =  Students’  Behavior   § The  “Cornerstone”  of  procedures   § Q:  How  willing  are  you  to  make  a  searching  self-­‐evaluation?   § Q:  What  would  you  want  most  to  accomplish  in  your  life  in  the  next  few  years  in  these  areas:     Emotionally,   Socially,  Spiritually,  Professionally,  Physically,  Family  Relationships?   § Q:  What  actions  or  thoughts  would  you  like  to  change  because  they  are  not  working  for  you?     § Q:  What  are  your  assumptions?   § Q:  To  what  degree  do  you  think  you  are  getting  what  you  want?   o Planning  &  Commitment:   § Help  the  student  change  the  direction  of  their  lives   § Formulate  realistic  plans  and  make  a  commitment  to  carry  them  out   • Choose  a  particular  target  area  that  the  student  decides  is  important   • Plans  should  be  simple,  attainable,  measurable,  immediate,  and  controlled  (by  C.  &  student)   § Q:  Are  you  ready  to  make  plans  to  more  effectively  meet  your  needs?   § Q:  Would  you  be  willing  to  write  down  a  plan  for  change?   § Q:  What  will  help  you  follow  through  with  your  plan  and  make  a  commitment  to  change?   § Q:  If  you  follow  through  on  your  plan  how  might  your  life  be  different?     • Use  a  contract  with  students  -­‐  They  help  the  student  articulate  that  they  plan  to  do  to  make  change  in  their  life   o Pinning  Down  Technique:  Helps  the  student  to  be  specific  in  when  and  how  they  will  follow  through  with   their  plan   § Outlines  the  WHEN?   • Positive-­‐Addicting  Behaviors  -­‐  Behavior  that  without  doing  the  student  feels  a  void  (social  media)   o Socially  appropriate  ways  that  have  meaning  and  fill  voids  in  students  lives:         Exercising,  Praying,  Meditating,  Helping  others,  Volunteering    -­‐Major  strengths  of  Reality  Therapy  from  a  diversity  perspective-­‐   • Reality  therapists  respect  the  difference  in  worldview  between  themselves  and  their  students   • Counselors  demonstrate  their  respect  for  the  cultural  values  of  their  students  by  helping  them  explore  how  satisfying   their  current  behavior  is  both  to  themselves  and  others   • Help  students  formulate  realistic  plans  that  are  consistent  with  their  cultural  values   • Allow  the  student  to  select  what  behavior(s)  need  to  be  changed,  not  the  counselor   • Challenges  students  to  arrive  at  their  own  answers   • Focus  on  thinking  and  acting  rather  than  on  identifying  and  exploring  feelings,  many  students  are  less  likely  to  display   resistance  to  this  form  of  counseling    -­‐Evaluation  of  Reality  Therapy  as  it  relates  to  Student  Affairs-­‐   • Reality  therapy  consists  of  the  cycle  of  counseling:  The  Counseling  environment  &  Specific  procedures  that  lead  to   behavior  change   • Reality  therapist  (SA  Professional)  acts  as  a  teacher,  a  mentor,  and  a  model,  confronting  students  in  ways  that  help   them  evaluate  that  they  are  doing  and  whether  their  behavior  is  fulfilling  their  basic  needs  without  harming   themselves  of  others   • Teach  students  to  learn  how  to  make  better  and  more  effective  choices  and  gain  more  effective  control   • Students  must  take  charge  of  their  lives  rather  than  being  victims  of  circumstances  beyond  their  control   • Focus  on  what  students  are  able  and  willing  to  do  in  the  present  to  change  their  behavior   • Teach  students  how  to  make  significant  connections  with  others   • Ask  students  to  evaluate  the  effectiveness  of  what  they  are  choosing  to  do  to  determine  if  better  choices  are  possible   • Weaves  together  the  counseling  environment  and  specific  procedures  that  lead  to  changes  in  behavior   • Enables  students  to  move  in  the  direction  of  getting  what  they  want   • The  goal  is  for  behavioral  change,  better  decision  making,  improved  significant  relationships,  enhanced  living  and   more  effective  satisfaction  of  all  the  psychological  needs        
    • 4                      Form  A  -­‐  Critical  Evaluation   Counseling  &  Development    -­‐The  most  significant  contributions  of  Reality  Therapy  as  it  applies  to  Student  Affairs  -­‐   • Provides  students  with  tools  to  make  changes  they  desire   • Focus  on  positive  steps  that  can  be  taken,  not  on  what  cannot  be  done   • Students  identify  target  problems  and  those  become  the  targets  of  change   • Short-­‐term  focus   • Deals  with  conscious  behavioral  patterns   • Students  self-­‐evaluation,  a  plan  of  action,  and  a  commitment  to  following  through  are  the  core  of  this  therapeutic   process   • Strongly  encourages  students  to  engage  in  self-­‐evaluation,  to  decide  if  what  they  are  doing  is  working  or  not,  and  to   commit  themselves  to  do  what  is  required  to  make  changes   •    -­‐The  most  significant  limitations  of  Reality  Therapy  -­‐   • Reality  therapy  may  not  take  into  account  some  very  real  environmental  forces  that  operate  against  them  in  their   everyday  lives   • Discrimination  and  racism  are  unfortunate  realities,  and  these  forces  do  not  limit  many  minority  students  in  getting   what  they  want  from  life   • If  counselors  do  not  accept  certain  environmental  restrictions,  students  may  be  likely  to  feel  misunderstood   • Because  of  oppression  and  discrimination,  some  students  have  fewer  choices  available  to  them,  yet  they  do  have   choices   • Some  students  are  very  reluctant  to  directly  verbally  express  what  they  need   • Reality  therapy  does  not  give  adequate  emphasis  on  the  role  of  insight,  the  unconscious,  the  power  of  the  past,  and  the   effect  of  traumatic  experiences  in  early  childhood,  the  therapeutic  value  of  dreams,  and  the  place  of  transference   • Focus  is  exclusively  on  the  consciousness,  it  does  not  take  into  account  factors  such    as  repressed  conflicts  and  the   power  of  the  unconscious  in  influencing  how  we  think,  feel,  behave,  and  choose.