Student Affairs Career Resource: A Tool to Promote Student Learning By: P. Max QuinnUse the Career Planning Process diagram to help students navigate campus resources. By using this diagram in coordination with the student development theories below, you will be best equipped to handle the growing needs and concerns that college students face while in your care. Student Development Theories: Seven Vectors of Student Development 1. Developing Competence 2. Managing Emotions 3. Moving through autonomy, towards Interdependence 4. Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships 5. Establishing Identity 6. Developing Purpose 7. Developing Integrity Transitioning Theory -‐ The 4 S’s How the person perceives the experience of the transition determines how the transition will affect them. Three variables of adaption to transition: Individual’s perception of the transition, characteristics of pre and post transition environment, & characteristics of the individual experiencing the transition. PERCEPTION Situation -‐ Triggers Type -‐ Anticipated, Unanticipated, Non-‐events Self -‐ What the individual brings to the transition Context -‐ Relationship to the transition Support -‐ Family, friends, institutions a part of Impact -‐ How it affects daily life Strategies -‐ Coping, ability and liabilities Challenge & Support Finding a balance of challenge and support. Too much support with too little challenge creates a comfortable environment for the student, where little development is possible. However, too little support with too much challenge makes development an impossible and negative experience. Create dissonance so that the student can be challenged to grow. Support them, but don’t give them answers. Cognitive Development Describes students’ thinking about the nature of knowledge, truth, values, and responsibilities towards self and others.* • Stage 1-‐ Dualism (Black or White) o Look to an authority figure to tell them what to believe. / Everything is right or wrong; black or white. • Stage 2 – Multiplicity o Believe that everyone has their own opinion and there is no right answer • Stage 3 – Relativism o Believes that there is some grey area. / Accept the best answer that they can find. • Stage 4 – Commitment -‐ Have analyzed the evidence. Committed to their opinion. Experiential Learning Learning style: § Habitual way of responding to a learning environment. § Offered detailed descriptions of each of the styles. Influences: § Heredity § Life experiences § Demands of immediate environment Styles are not viewed as fixed traits but as current states of mind.
Informational summary: This student affairs career resource tool has been created to help professional’s navigate student needs and expectations. If college and universities are to provide students with the knowledge and resources to be successful post-‐graduation, we as administrators must assist in developing the whole student. Apart of each student’s goals involves their career path. This tool should be useful to student affairs professionals who have a good knowledge base of student development theories. If a professional is not competent in student development theories, the author suggests to take a course or to research the above theories to find their theoretical background, limitations, and other relevant theories not included on this handout. The goal of this resource is to assist students in their search for what to do after the conclusion of their college experience. In order to evaluate this resources’ effectiveness, one should utilize basic counseling and advanced counseling skills in combination with the above (and other) student development theories. The balance of challenge and support can be helping to gauge how much a student has developed. If a student is asking for answers, they may be in the 3rd Vector. Knowing this, professionals can identify influences, situations, and strategies that can help to explore options. Linking all of this back to the Career Planning Process diagram can help to select what step the student might need to take next. In addition, incorporating the experiential learning theory, one can help the student to identify whether they fit as an Accommodator, Diverger, Coverger, or Assimilator. This can be then linked to Holland’s career theory to identify a potential career path or avenue to explore. Non-‐traditional students, those that identify as LGBT or Q, or students who come from a culturally diverse background may not benefit from this resource. Instead, it is suggested that outside theories are referenced. An LGBT Lifespan model, Critical Race Theory, Spirituality, Feminist, or other moral, ethical, and cognitive reasoning theories may be best suited to assist students with diverse needs. Limitations: Limitations of this resource vary based on the fluency of the professional in their knowledge of student development theories and their ability to apply theory to practice in their work with students. Not buying into student development theories, or not having been taught these cornerstones can limit the effectiveness of the professional and this handout. Another limitation may be the brief nature of this resource. One page does not do justice to the wealth of information and guidance that these theories provide to professionals. It is highly recommended that professionals research and practice these theories if they wish for this tool to be effective in counseling students about their careers. Purpose: To promote student learning is the mission of most student affairs professionals. This resource helps to promote student learning through conversations with professionals about available resources, and also to help the professional judge where the student is at so that they can best meet their needs in the here-‐and-‐now. Using basic counseling skills in combination with the above theories and visuals can help to hone in on specific transitions or obstacles students are facing. This resource also enables professionals to offer resources and help students explore options that may seem unrealistic or unattainable to them. Much of the effectiveness of this resource will depend on the training and experience of the professional facilitating the discussion. Resources: Bridgewater State University -‐ Office of Career Services: http://www.bridgew.edu/CareerServices/parentspage.cfm Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., Guido, F. M., Patton, L. D., & Renn, K. A. (2010). Student development in college, theory, research, and practice. (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-‐Bass Inc Pub. Goodman, J., Schlossberg, N & Anderson, M. (2011). Counseling Adults in Transition: Linking Schlossberg’s Theory with Practice in a Diverse World. (4th ed.) New York: Springer Publishing Company. Kolb, D. (1999). Learning Style Inventory. Boston, MA: Hay Group, Hay Resources Direct. Kolb, D., & Kolb, A. (2005). The Kolb learning style inventory-‐version 3.1 2005 technical specifications Available from www.learningfromexperience.com Perry, W.G., (1981). Cognititve and ethical growth: the making of meaning (pp. 76-‐116). In Chickering and Associates (Eds.), The Modern American College. Responding to the New Realities of Diverse Students in a Changing Society. San Francisco: Jossey-‐Bass. Schlossberg, N. http://www.transitionsthroughlife.com Questions or Comments? Contact P. Max Quinn -‐ firstname.lastname@example.org