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  • 1. 2012 Chetana’s Hazarimal Somani College of com. Eco. & smt. Kusumtai Chaudari College of arts. Topic: Interview & Group Discussion Presented to: Prof: Shiva Prasad
  • 2. Agenda:Interview: 1. Introduction. 2. Types of interview. 3. ABC”S of interview. 4. Interview structure. 5. What is an interviewer looking for? 6. Preparation of an interview. 7. Interview skills. 8. First impression is the effective impression. 9. Tips of interview.Group discussion: 1. Introduction. 2. Types of group discussion. 3. Four important components of group discussion assessments. 4. Why do we have group discussion? 5. Why institutes conduct a group discussion. 6. 10 simple rules to crack a group discussion. 7. Common mistake made by the candidate. 8. Advantages of group discussion. 9. Disadvantages of group discussion. 1
  • 3. Interview: Introduction: Interview is a form of personal communication, wherethe person called for an interview i.e. interviewee and the one whotakes the interview i.e. the interviewer can vary from selection,appraisal and counseling to grievance handling and exit interviews. The term „interview‟ has been derived from the Frenchword „entre voir‟ that means „to „glimpse‟ or „to see each other‟. Bydefinition it means a meeting for obtaining information byquestioning a person or person. In this way an interview is a classicexample of communication that takes place through „the process bywhich meanings are exchanged between people through the use of acommon set of symbols”. Types of interview: Informational interview:An Informational Interview is a meeting in which a job seeker asksfor career and industry advice rather than employment. The jobseeker uses the interview to gather information on the field, andto find employment leads and expand their professional network. Telephone interview:Telephone interviews have become one of the most popular ways toconduct a one on one meeting when geography presents a challenge.Essentially, a telephone interview is simply a situation in whicha telephone call is used to create the foundation for an interactive 2
  • 4. meeting in which one party is conducting an interview with a secondparty In-person interview:The in-person interview is the culmination of all the steps in ourselection process. Taking into consideration your skills andexperience along with the talents you have revealed during youronline assessment and telephone interview. Selection interview:It is a situation in which a personnel selector, through personalcontact provides him with behavior to observe - in order to assessthe candidates suitability for a post. Work sample interview:Work samples are used as an additional tool, along with theinformation presented in the candidates application and theinterview process when making the final selection. Awork sample may be used to verify critical skills identified in theskills requirements for a specific position. Peer group interview:Provides an opportunity for you to meet and talk with yourprospective co-workers. Just as in other interviews, the peer groupwill evaluate you and determine how well you fit in. 3
  • 5.  Video interview:Uses video-conferencing technology so that people in differentlocations can interview you without traveling. Practice answeringquestions in front of a mirror or have a friend videotape you. Thiswill help you learn how communicate effectively on camera. Behavioral interview:A behavioral interview is an employment interview during which ajob applicant is asked to demonstrate his or her knowledge, skills,and abilities, also known as competencies. The applicant must tellabout specific experiences when he or she demonstrated thesecompetencies. Stress interview:The purpose of stress interview is to present before the candidatecertain situation or facts that make them uncomfortable or askthem simple questions at an alarming speed. Stress interview arelikely to reveal the true personality of a candidate. Promotion interview:Promotion interview as the name suggests is done prior to giving apromotion to an employee. It also serves as a selection interview ofone candidate over another, when there is more than one personshortlisted for the promotion. Problem interview:Problem interview is conducted when the behavior or performanceof the employee is not satisfactory. 4
  • 6.  Grievance interview:Grievance interview is conducted when an employee has somegrievance regarding his job, salary, colleagues etc. and he wishesto speak to higher authorities in this regard. Abc’s of job interview: A-attitude B=behavior C=compatibility A is for Attitude AN interviewer wants to find an outstanding candidateas much as you want to find a fulfilling job. It helps to think ofthe process as one where both parties are hoping for a positiveoutcome. A positive attitude will enable you to project an image ofenergy and enthusiasm. If you are competing against a group ofcandidates with a similar background of skills and knowledge,enthusiasm might be the deciding factor.Here are four attitude suggestions that will help you in manyinterview and job-related situations: Never bad-mouth a current or former employer, co-worker or company. It brands you as a “complainer,” and no one wants a complainer on the team. 5
  • 7. Positive attitudes are catching and you have a great deal of control over sustaining a positive atmosphere throughout the interview process. Maintain a positive attitude – from the moment you wake up until the interview is over and you‟ve sent a “thank you” note. Attitude can save interviews from “going bad”. B is for Behavior Attitude drives the second factor, behavior. When youhave a positive attitude and desire to perform well at theinterview, you‟ll plan to get a goodnight‟s sleep, eat a nutritiousbreakfast, and allow plenty of time to get to the appointment. Youwon‟t schedule important activities following the interview, sinceyou may be asked to stay and complete an application, take sometests or meet with another decision-maker. Be polite and friendlyon the phone and to the people you encounter on the way to theinterview. It pays to be courteous, professional and friendly withthe receptionist, the secretary, and even the people you encounterin the parking lot and elevator. You have no way of predictingwhich people you encounter on the way to and from the interview ispart of the hiring team of having input into the hiring process. Communication is a four-way street. 1) Focus your attention on what the interviewer is saying (not on what you‟ll say next). Don‟t talk too much. If you do most of the talking, you will probably miss cues to help you know what the interview feels is important. 2) Once you‟ve determined where the interviewer is “coming from,” you can follow his or her lead. Try to speak with the same rhythm and tone of voice. Make some friendly observations about your surroundings. 6
  • 8. 3) If the interview is conversational, make small talk about your interests, hobbies, or what you did last weekend. Be positive and upbeat. This will help both of you relax and establish a connection. 4) Remember that communicating information about yourself is your responsibility. It is not up to the interviewer to drag it out of you. C is for Compatibility An interview is primarily an attempt to assess youcompatibility with the job and the organization. “What kind or workenvironment do you prefer?” “Do you work better by yourself orwithothers?” Many questions don‟t have an obvious “right or wrong”answer, but these questions are clearly intended to measure thecompatibility between. Think of two overlapping circles – one is you and one isthe company.Everything that you say and do during the interviewshould contribute to enlarging the space where these circlesoverlap. The bigger and more clearly defined you can make thisarea, the more desirable you will be as a candidate. Yourpreliminary research of the company and the position should giveyou a clear idea of the skills being sought. Assume your answerswill reveal interesting information and be reliable predictors of yourbehavior infuture situations.Think of each question as a TableTopic and give yourself about one minute to create and interestinganswer. 7
  • 9.  Interview structure: Like every communication event, an interview has arather well defined structure .In other words we can say that aninterview is a formal communication event that aim and outcome ofwhich is understood by both the parties .They have, therefore,care of the three stage-beginning, middle, anend, just as in apresentation the speaker alone has to manage these stages. Eachof these stages requires effective communication skills as statedbelow: Opening/start: Introduction: Statement of the purpose of the meeting Making the other person comfortable Creating an atmosphere of relaxed open-minded approach, commitment to the purpose stated above, and preparing to start discussing things frankly Middle: Aim at exchange of information. Keeping the discussion to the point. Listen attentively and patiently. Keep eye-to-eye contact. Give carefully thought out answers. Make sure to cover the agenda. Take care that interruptions, if any, are polite. 8
  • 10.  Closing: Summing up the discussion/exchange of information. Describing the action decided upon. Avoiding a hurried or abrupt ending. Closing on a positive note. Exchangingfeelings of gratitude, thankfulness for favor of interview etc. Confirming, the worthwhileness of the interview / communication event / meeting. What is an employer looking for?We may classify the information which an employer seeks whileconsidering a person for a job, into the following sub headings.1) State of health: every organization desires its employees to be in healthy state. Apart from judging at the interview, the organization requires an entrant to undergo a medical examination, standards of which differ from profession to profession.2) Attainments: A probe is made through searching questions to verify what is written by the candidate in the bio data and to assess the nature and quantity of these achievements.3) Intelligence: A close observation is made of the reflexes and responses of the interviewee to discover the extent of his grasp and confidence.4) Applitude: certain questions are directed merely to find out the candidate‟s aplitude for the job has applied for. 9
  • 11. 5) Interest: An attempt is made to understand the other dimensions of the personality of the candidate by encouraging him to speak about his intellectual or social pursuits.6) Disposition: A vital piece of information that all employers would like to have whether the candidates has the ability to work with others.7) Circumstances: A peep into the interviewee‟s previous environment and family circumstances may give some clue to the candidate‟s capacity to work. Preparation for an interview: The main purpose of the employer is to judge thesuitability of the applicant to the job and the objectives of theapplicant is to find out whether the needs and requirements of thejob would suit him and also whether the environment in theorganization would be conducive to his professional growth. Itprovides an opportunity to both the participants for closeobservation of each other‟s personality traits as reflected in verbalbehavior and body language.Once you have secured the interview, you should begin to focus oninterview preparation. Do not be fooled into thinking that you cansimply walk into an interview and answer a few questions. Theemployer will often meet with several hundred candidates in orderto find 5-7 potential employees. Your goal must be to demonstrateyour interest and qualifications for the position. Preparation is key!Interviewers have many expectations of you as a candidate forpotential hire. You must know general information about theposition for which you are interviewing. You must also be able toarticulate your qualifications and interest. In addition, the 10
  • 12. employer expects for you to have researched his/her organizationand understands the nature of the organization. Interview skills: Analyze the position for which you intend to work:Before you are able to convince an employer that you want to bean employee, it is important that you understand what the jobprofile to gather this important information is, you may start withresearch. This basic research will prove valuable as you prepare todemonstrate a match between your credentials and the position forwhich you are interviewing. Research the Organization:To begin, you must research the company or agency to determinethe nature of the organization. The more that you know about theemployer, the more comfortable you will feel in the interview. Ademonstrated knowledge of the organization will also help convincethe interviewer of your interest. Sources of Information: There are a variety of resources that can be used to research organizations. Today all the good companies have their web site, which provide all the relevant information. You must visit the site of one of the competitors as well. Also, consider articles from trade publications, generally available through various sites of newspapers. 11
  • 13.  Market Your Skills:After you have analyzed the position and researched theorganization, you are now in a position to review your qualificationsfor the position. Knowing what you have to offer is crucial.Expressing yourself clearly and concisely is a key element ofeffective interviewing. Self-assessment of your skills, interests,and work values will help you organize your thoughts in order toproject a positive impression. First Impression is the Effective Impression:You will not get a second chance to make a first impression when itcomes to interviews. Your nonverbal skills and the manner in whichyou present yourself will be evaluated in addition to your verbalresponses to interview questions. Dressing:The way in which you dress for your interview will tell the employerabout your professional savvy and, in some cases, will be one ofthe factors an employer will take into account in evaluating you asa candidate. Also, by dressing professionally, you will appear moremature and seasoned; this will aid you as you may be competingwith older individuals with more experience. Understand that youwill probably dress more professionally for an interview than maybe required once you begin working in that environment.Appropriate interview attire will vary by field. Women: 12
  • 14. White, off-white, or neutral-colored blouse with a conservative neckline Suit i.e. salawar kameez or saree is the right fit No ill fitting (short, tight, clingy, or slit) skirts Avoid open-toe strappy high heels, sandals, or shoes with decorations. Conservative nail polish, avoid unusual colors, e.g., blue or green Men: Long-sleeved shirt in white or light blue Conservative necktie in terms of color and pattern. Avoid cartoon characters, less-than-serious graphics, or theme ties High-fitting dark socks. Avoid light colored socks with a dark suit Tips of interviews: Shake hands firmly. Look the employer in the eye when you are talking. Speak clearly, dont mumble. If you need time to think before answering, take time. Stick to the subject at hand, which are the job and your skills related to it. Use the employers name, pronounce it correctly. Dont fidget in your seat and otherwise show nervousness with your body Dont take notes during the interview 13
  • 15. Dont complain about a former boss or co-worker. Bycomplaining in this way, youre likely to make the employerthink that you are hard to get along with.Dont ask about salaries, sick leaves, pensions, vacations, orbenefits on the first interview.If you have specific qualifications for a job, be sure theemployer knows about them. No one knows what you can dounless you tell him or her.Talk about school subjects and hobbies that you have done wellin and which are related to the job for which you are applying.An employer may be interested in everything you can do, butwill be most interested in your skills that relate to the job forwhich you are applying.Ask questions when you dont understand what the employer istalking about. You‟ll want to know as much about the job as youcan and asking questions is the best way to find out. 14
  • 16.  Group discussion: Introduction: Group discussion is an articulation and views over aparticular topic that has been given to a group of around 5-12people, within a set time limit. The word „discuss‟ has been derived from the Latin word„discutere‟ that means „to shake‟ or „strike‟. From the same root,the word „discussion‟ stands for an activity in which atheme/subject matter is thoroughly shaken, inquired or examinationso as to reach a conclusion or decide upon a course of action. It isdifferent from conversation and debate. While a conversationusually becomes informal exchange of views or sentiments, a debatecan be an acrimonious expression of arguments for or against amotion or a given line of thinking. It is discussion that lies at thecore of all purposeful meetings or the decision making process. Types of GD: GDs can be topic-based or case-based. Topic based Gds can be classified into three types:- Factual Topics Controversial Topics Abstract Topics Factual Topics: - Factual topics are about practical things, which an ordinary 15
  • 17. person is aware of in his day-to-day life. Typically these are about socio-economic topics. These can be current, i.e. they may have been in the news lately, or could be unbound by time. A factual topic for discussion gives a candidate a chance to prove that he is aware of and sensitive to his environment. E.g. The education policy of India, Tourism in India, State of the aged in the nation Controversial Topics: - Controversial topics are the ones that are argumentative in nature. They are meant to generate controversy. In GDs where these topics are given for discussion, the noise level is usually high, there may be tempers flying. The idea behind giving a topic like this is to see how much maturity the candidate is displaying by keeping his temper in check, by rationally and logically arguing his point of view without getting personal and emotional.Eg. Reservations should be removed, Women make better managers Abstract Topics: - Abstract topics are about intangible things. These topics are not given often for discussion, but their possibility cannot be ruled out. These topics test your lateral thinking and creativity. E.g. A is an alphabet, Twinkle twinkle little star, The number 10 Case-based Gd: - Another variation is the use of a case instead of a topic. The case study tries to simulate a real-life situation. Information about the situation will be given to you and you would be asked as a group to resolve the situation. In the case study there are no incorrect answers or perfect solutions. The 16
  • 18. objective in the case study is to get you to think about the situation from various angles. IIM A, IIM Indore and IIT SOM Mumbai have a case-based discussion rather than topic-based discussion in their selection procedures. Four important components of Gd assessments are : Personality appeal Communication skills Knowledge Leadership Personality appeal: Smartness – dress –smile on the face. Cheerfulness – free from nervousness. Enthusiasm - attitude of taking a step extra. Communication skills. Fluency –not speed but poise and right words at the right place Clarity –effectiveness of the message Logic- the presentation skills Leadership:- Leadership has been described as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". Other in- depth definitions of leadership have also emerged. 17
  • 19.  Knowledge: Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include information, facts, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience oreducation. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic  Why do we have GD?Reasons for having a GD It helps you to understand a subject more deeply. It improves your ability to think critically. It helps in solving a particular problem. It helps the group to make a particular decision. It gives you the chance to hear other students ideas. It improves your listening skills. It increases your confidence in speaking. It can change your attitudes. WHY INSTITUTES CONDUCT A GD:How often have you called a friend in office to be told that he isin meeting? Institutes conduct a GD because, as amanager, you willbe required to attend and conduct innumerable meeting. A GD is astimulation of what you can expect in a meeting at your workplace.Depending on the kind of profile you have and the company you 18
  • 20. work for, you will be part of meeting ranging from brand launchesand employee performance appraisals to company financials, etc.for instance, if you have a meeting where senior employees areworking out a strategy to launch a new soap in the market, this iswhat is expected of you before and during the meeting.The reason why institutes put you through a Group discussion andan interview, after testing your technical and conceptual skills in anexam, is to get to know you as a person and gauge how well you willfit in their institute. The Group discussion tests how you functionas a part of a team. As a manager, you will always be working inteams, as a member or as a leader. Therefore how you interact ina team becomes an important criterion for your selection.Managers have to work in a team and get best results out ofteamwork. That is the reason why management institutes includeGD as a component of the selection procedure.  10 simple rules to easily crack the GD: 1) Keep eye contact while speaking: Do not look at the evaluators only. Keep eye contact with every team member while speaking. 2) Initiate the GD: Initiating the GD is a big plus. But keep in mind – Initiate the group discussion only when you understood the GD topic clearly and have some topic knowledge. Speaking without proper subject knowledge is bad impression. 3) Allow others to speak: Do not interrupt anyone in-between while speaking. Even if you 19
  • 21. don‟t agree with his/her thoughts do not snatch their chance tospeak. Instead make some notes and clear the points when it‟syour turn.4) Speak clearly:Speak politely and clearly. Use simple and understandable wordswhile speaking. Don‟t be too aggressive if you are disagreeingwith someone. Express your feelings calmly and politely.5) Make sure to bring the discussion on track:If by any means group is distracting from the topic or goal thensimply take initiative to bring the discussion on the track. Makeall group members aware that you all need to come to someconclusion at the end of the discussion. So stick to the topic.6) Positive attitude:Be confident. Do not try to dominate anyone. Keep positive bodylanguage. Show interest in discussion.7) Speak sensibly:Do not speak just to increase your speaking time. Don‟t worryeven if you speak less. Your thoughts should be sensible andrelevant instead of irrelevant speech.8) Listen carefully to others:Speak less and listen more! Pay attention while others arespeaking. This will make coherent discussion and you will getinvolved in the group positively. You will surely make people agreewith you.9) No need to go into much details:Some basic subject analysis is sufficient. No need to mention 20
  • 22. exact figures while giving any reference. You have limited time so be precise and convey your thoughts in short and simple language. 10) Formal dressing: Do not take it casually. No fancy and funny dressing. You should be comfortable while speaking in group. Positive gesture and body language will make your work easy Common mistakes made by the candidates: Every candidate must voice his opinion about the given topic, correctly and briefly. The candidate should not go on talking without giving others a chance to speak. One candidate should not speak than 3 times during a GD. It would appear that he/she wants to hog most of the limelight. The candidate should avoid trying to shout to be heard. Even if the topic is not known to the candidate, from other people‟s responses, he will be able to understand something and should then at least make a valid point. The candidate should also avoid being negative about everything, putting down even good ideas of others, just to prove that only he is right. Thus to succeed in a GD one must be moderately forceful but polite, articulate, knowledgeable and try to motivate others to speak so that everyone‟s opinion can lead to a fruitful discussion. 21
  • 23.  Factors of group discussion: The primary factor which determines the candidate‟s group- worthiness is his ability to fit into the group, to bind it together as a single entity and to influence the group towards the attainment of the group goals. The next important factor is the candidate‟s personal ability to do the bon in hand. We may even call it as one‟s professional efficiency and it includes his intelligence; physical fitness, problem solving faculty, dynamic qualities and the ability to communicate effectively. The third important factor concerns the candidate‟s ability to stand up to physical and mental stresses and difficulties. He should not wait and give way under stress or get upset. One the other hand, he should be able to remain balanced, calm and collected in the face of tremendous odds and stresses. There will be individual rivalries and differences of opinion, in the group. There will arise the conflict between the individual‟s self-interest and the group interest. In the face of such conflicts and difficulties, the candidate should not lose self-control. He should not get frustrated or give way to temper. Advantages Enhances learning in both the affective and cognitive domains Is both learner-centered and subject-centered. Stimulates learners to think about issues and problems. Encourages learners to exchanges their own experiences, Thereby making learning more active and less isolating. Provides the opportunity for sharing of ideas and concerns. Fosters positive peer support and feelings of belonging 22
  • 24. Reinforces previous learning.More simply put:• Ideas can be generated.• Ideas can be shared.• Ideas can be tried out.• Ideas can be responded to by others. Disadvantages : One member of the group can dominate the discussion. Easy to digress from the topic. Shy learners may refuse to become involved or may need a great deal of encouragement to participate. Requires skill to tactfully redirect learners who digress or dominate without losing their trust and that of other group members. Particularly challenging for the novice teacher when group members do not interact easily. More time consuming for the transmission of information than other methods such as lecture. Requires the teachers presence at all sessions to act as a facilitator and resource person 23