Page 6e Wittgenstein would call this kind of analysis interpretation, or the primary expression of experience. The “experience” being interpreted here is one of seeing one’s own teaching.
What is a case was a topic of a previous symposium.
The Transana interface. The methodology: Video corpus loaded into Transana. Teacher uses Transana to view video, select clips of important experience, develop personal keywords to describe experience, annotate clips. System summarizes qualitative data, computes descriptive statistics.
Wittgensten (the ultimate point of view theorist) also thought point of view was a form of understanding. (p. 102e)
Wittgenstein’s theory suggests an interesting way to study the conceptual lenses that teachers use
Possibly delete this slide in short presentation
Teacher clips, keywords in yellow. Three instances of point of view (based on teacher annotations and clip selections) Video 1: In lecture, introducing point of view of male African American scholar opposed to teaching Huck Finn, reads argument and quotes. Video 2 (below): In informal whole-class discussion, introduces point of view of female African American scholar in favor of teaching, invites class to respond to one of her arguments. Video 3 (upper right): White male athletes explore issues of race and culture, perhaps for first time.
Importance of this finding: Ties data on teacher reflection to other empirical findings in event perception literature, that an important type of “unit” of perception is the causal/structural event. The implication for teacher education is to teach concepts that provide a language of action. Concepts should be tied to ideas about what a teacher can do. The possible generalizability of this finding needs to be investigated.
Correlates of POV: Further analyses to be completed
Cognitive Art, Cognitive Science: A Video Case of Teacher Cognition Click to Play Time: 1:10
Research Agenda <ul><li>Comparative and developmental case studies of conceptual languages that teachers use to think about and describe videotapes of their teaching. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The question whether what is involved is a seeing or an act of interpreting arises because an interpretation becomes an expression of experience. And the interpretation is not an indirect description; no, it is the primary expression of the experience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ludwig Wittgenstein, Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology </li></ul></ul>
Philosophy of Case Development <ul><li>Good video cases for teacher education can be products of legitimate research into teacher and student thinking and development. </li></ul><ul><li>The video cases achieved through research can be interesting artistic expressions that creatively emphasize the message in research findings. </li></ul>
Research/Case—Development Method <ul><li>Video a significant instructional unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher conducts Transana analysis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selects clips of important experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annotates clips with personal keywords and comments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis of teacher’s Transana data inter-woven with discussions, video production. </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation/interviews with teacher as story and video progress. </li></ul>
Desirable Additional Steps <ul><li>Incorporation of contrasting/comparative or elaborated analyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: How African American scholar or peer teacher or learning scientist or conversational analyst or school administrator sees video </li></ul></ul>
Example Case: Huck Finn at West High <ul><li>John Howe: 5th Year Teacher, White </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching controversial, racially sensitive text in a predominately white 10th grade honors English class. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional goals include both literary analysis and increased sensitivity to racial issues. </li></ul>
Point of View (POV) Theories in Education <ul><li>Cognitive Flexibility (Spiro). </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectivity (Goldman-Segall). </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy & Perspective as Forms of Understanding (Wiggins & McTighe). </li></ul>
Wittgenstein on POV <ul><li>[I]f I say to someone “Hear it like this”, he must now be able to say: “Yes, now I understand it; now it really makes sense!” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology </li></ul></ul>
The Teacher’s POV Concept (A Wittgensteinian Analysis) <ul><li>Study instances of language in use </li></ul><ul><li>“ Criss-cross” (Spiro et al.) the landscape of practice for instances </li></ul><ul><li>Look for family resemblance among concepts over multiple instances of word use </li></ul><ul><li>Note how concepts are differently “clothed” in contexts </li></ul><ul><li>See words as tools, defined by their use </li></ul>
Wittgensteinian Vs. Other Approaches <ul><li>Contrast with traditional cognitive approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video analysis not retrospective recall task, but language of reflection (Tochon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family resemblance means there is no immutable rule set for coding/defining concepts (Wittgenstein: You will always find a concept that is an exception) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrast with non-dualist TPD approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schon’s, Tremmel’s views of reflective practice do not require consideration of teachers’ concepts </li></ul></ul>
POV Across Contexts: Note Actions and Keyword Combinings Click to Play 4-17 Time: 1:10 Click to Play 1-11 Time: 1:01 Click to Play 1-15 Time: 1:10
POV Across Contexts: Note Actions and Keyword Combinings Click to Play 19 Time: 4:25
Clip Annotations Reveal Language of Teacher Action, Cause and Effect <ul><li>Video 1: “[Teacher’s] introduction of Wallace’s quote on the novel’s effect on students’ low self-esteem, etc. Introduces both sides of the argument.” </li></ul><ul><li>Video 2: “strong reactions brought about by initial discussion questions. Also, shows students’ interest in discussing their own opinions, views, and examples. Power of personal experience.” </li></ul><ul><li>Video 3: “teacher’s introduction of scholar’s opinion “pain is a part of life” into discussion. Creates good student responses . . . </li></ul>
Conclusions: Variants and Uses of the Keyword, POV <ul><li>POV as a tool: POV is an instructional goal and result of various teacher actions </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings of POV vary in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the actions and semantic context of clip itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the teacher’s conceptual context: what and how many keywords combine with POV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POV refers to many voices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class as a whole, African Americans in favor, African Americans opposed, White male athletes, White male teacher authority, individual students . . . </li></ul></ul>