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phulkari of panjab kulture and its daily life impacts

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  • Great post on the Phulkari heritage of punjab supplemented with great visuals . One of the great places to buy phulkari dupattas is . Besides dupattas, Amazing collection of unique indian products like phulkari kurtas, polka kundan and meenakari jewellery, potli bags and embroidered silk bags besides beautiful chanderi and maheshwari sarees
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  • Now Get Phulkari of Punjabi Heritage direct from Patiala to Your doorstep.
    Phulkari Kurti, Phulkari Bedcovers, Phulkari Bagh, Phulkari Suits, Phulkari Suits, Phulkari Stroll, Phulkari Duppatta, All Handwork Phulkari & Machine work also available. Special Order also Accepted.
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  1. 1. •Phulkari is a rural tradition art of crafting embroidered odhni(head drape or shawl) used by women in Punjab, literally meaning" flower work ", linked integrally with events considered to bemilestones in a womans life.• “PHUL” means “flower “and “KARI” means work. Also known as“Gulkari” a very intricate needle work, along with bright colouredthreads mainly red, orange, blue, green, etc.•The Phulkari is more than just an item of clothing; it’s a part of anethos steeped in social and ritualistic traditions.
  2. 2. ORIGIN•Phulkari is brought to the Indian Subcontinent by the migrant Jatpeople of Central Asia in ancient times.•Techniques and patterns of phulkari were not documented buttransmitted by word of mouth. Hence, each regional group wasidentifiable by its unique embroidery work.•The tradition of phulkari was often associated with the Sikh heritagebut as it was also shared with Hindus and Muslims, it happens to bemore geographically specific than religiously specific.
  4. 4. •Phulkari has been mentioned in the famous, Punjabi folklore ofHeer Ranjha (a love tale) by Waris Shah whose ancestors migratedto India from Iran.• Its present form and popularity goes back to 15th century, duringMaharaja Ranjit Singhs Reign.•The embroideries were a mere reflection of their life. Things thatthey see, observe, vegetables that they eat, animals that theyowned, were embroidered. Every woman had her way ofembroidery, her way of representing.HISTORY
  5. 5. PHOTOGRAPHS FROM HISTORYGroup of Punjabi Ladies, Circa 1905(Clifton and Co., Bombay)
  6. 6. •Embroidery work was invariably made on a plain cotton fabric(khaddar) whose thread was manually spinned, loomed and dyedwith natural pigments.•The actual embroidery was done with a Pat, the Punjabi word foruntwisted floss silk yarn. This yarn was sourced from China orAfghanistan, and then dyed in Jammu and Amritsar.MATERIALS
  7. 7. •Phulkari plays a very important role in a girl’s life. Birth of a girl marksthe beginning of the child’s grandmother of the task in creating thefuture bride’s trousseau, which is worn by the bride when she walksaround the sacred fire during her wedding ceremony.•When a woman gives birth to a boy she is given a Phulkari which isworn by her when she goes out for the first time after delivery, andduring any religious festivals. Likewise when a lady dies her body iscovered with Phulkari.•Phulkari was never fabricated for sale; it was embroidered by a familyfor its own use.IMPORTANCE OF PHULKARI
  8. 8. Khaddar could be of four colours,White is given to mature women or widowsRed is associated with youth and is most widespread toneBlack and blue colours were kept for everyday worn shawls as theyprevented from revealing stains and dirt.Importance of color threads,Red symbolize passion,White symbolize purity,Golden or yellow symbolize desire and abundance,Green symbolize nature and fertility,Blue symbolize serenity,Purple symbolize a symbiosis between reds energy and blues calm,Orange symbolize a mix of desire and divine energy.IMPORTANCE OF COLOR
  9. 9. •Phulkari drapes had small amount of embroidery on them with floraland geometrical motifs being predominant.•The motifs in simple phulkari drapes as well as in elaborate baghpieces comprise of compositions that include not only flowers andgeometrical designs but also other symbols and items that are part ofthe everyday life of the women who embroider these pieces.•A name was given to a particular kind of embroidered bagh.MOTIFS
  10. 10. MirchiGulkerianVelanianTeen PattiEXAMPLES OF MOTIFS
  11. 11. The motia- jasmine flowerThe surajmukhi- sunflowerThe genda- marigoldLotus plant- kamalKarela- bitter gourdGobhi- cauliflowerDhania- corianderKanki- wheatMirchi- chilliLehriya bagh –waveMor -PeacockRecently new motifs have been developed known as Parantha(originally with eight colours), Kanchan Design, Butti Design etc.POPULAR MOTIFS
  14. 14. •The embroidery is done for most part upon khaddar of irregularthickness, generally with between 10-12 wrap threads per cm.•Khaddar was woven in narrow strips and sewn together for therequired width.•Designs and symmetries are created by embroidering from the backface of the cloth. Hence, it was easier to embroider the fabric first andthen dye the base fabric(with such a preparation that the silk threaddoes not get colored) so that the warps and wefts on the lighter colorare clearly visible.TECHNIQUES
  15. 15. •Some times pattern to be embroidered were drawn on the fabric beforephulkari is done on khaddar.•Most of the time, patterns to be embroidered were not drawn on the fabricbeforehand, the embroiderer had to count each thread of the khaddar withmeticulous care to build the designs.•When a section of embroidery was completed, the fabric was rolled in aclean white cloth to keep it from soiling while work continued on anunembroidered part.•As it was easier to count the threads of a light coloured khaddar than of adark one, it happened sometimes that the fabric was dyed only after theembroidery work was achieved, by such techniques cotton is coloured butnot silkTECHNIQUES
  18. 18. DYING AFTER EMBROIDERYA "chope" phulkari on beige khaddar,probably before the embroidered piece gotdyedA "chope" phulkari on red khaddar,probably after the embroidered piece gotdyed
  19. 19. •Darning stitch was the most commonly used technique to makephulkari and the quality of a piece could be measured according tothe width of this stitch. The narrowest was the stitch, the finest wasthe piece.•In order to create an unusual design or to border the khaddar, someother stitches like the herringbone stitch, running stitch, Holbeinstitch or button hole stitch were occasionally used.•To fill in the motif either satin stitch or a variation known as stopstitch was preferred.STITCHES
  21. 21. •There are mainly two types of phulkariBagh- Bagh literally means “garden of flowers”, and the termdistinguishes the flowered Phulkari is that the embroidery is soprofuse that the ground colour is no longer visible thus theembroidery becomes the fabric itself.Chope- Chope is usually embroidered on the borders. It is giftedto the bride by her grandmother during some ceremony beforewedding.•The “Chope” is embroidered straight with two sided line stitch whichappears same on both the side. Unlike Phulkari and Bagh where a varietyof colours are used, Chope is generally embroidered with one colour(Golden or yellowish golden mostly).TYPES OF PHULKARI
  22. 22. BAGH
  23. 23. CHOPE
  24. 24. •Shalimar and chaurasia baghs recall famous Mughal gardens.•Ikka bagh- playing cards (diamond).•Dhoop chhaon (sunlight and shade),•Laharya (wave, patang (kite),•Saru (Cypress),•Suraj mukkhi (sunflower),•Panchranga (five colours),•Satranga (seven colours).•The danga (river) bagh aptly depicts a row of blue wavy stripes on awhite ground.TYPES OF BAGH
  25. 25. •Chand bagh recalls the play of moonlight with small white or beigelozenges on a dark red field.•The sheeshedar (mirror) phulkari is decorated with small circularmirrors on a white ground.•On many phulkaris, the form of a bird is embroidered over the wholefield, and the phulkaris are named accordingly, the most commonbeing the peacock (mor) and parrot (tota).TYPES OF BAGH
  28. 28. VARI DA BAGH
  29. 29. •In west Punjab, following the birth of a boy, it was customary, tobegin a vari da bagh.•The newborns grandmother would place the first stitch on theembroidery.•This bagh would later be handed to the boys bride on their weddingday.•Worked in yellow/gold yarn on a red ground, the colours symboliseluck and fertility. The whole surface is covered with diamonds, eachenclosing a smaller diamond.•In good pieces three sizes of concentric diamond are found, thesmallest again divided into quarters.VARI DA BAGH
  30. 30. VARI DA BAGH
  31. 31. VARI DA BAGH
  32. 32. •The bawan bagh is very rare as only a few women were able tofashion this type.•Bawan means the number 52; in these pieces we usually find 52different patterns.•The field is subdivided into 42 or 48 rectangles, each containing adifferent multicoloured motif. The remaining four or ten motifs areplaced in the side or end borders.BAWAN BAGH
  33. 33. BAWAN BAGH
  34. 34. •Another more typical bagh is the darshan dwar bagh, meaning “the Gatefrom which one sees the God”.•From the eastern Punjab, this type always has a red ground; a series oflarge peaked gates are drawn, from four to seven on either sidedepending on their size and the dimensions of the cloth.•The gates adjoin and open inwards; between them are images ofpeople, animals, flowers and plants, or even a railway.•The roofs of the gates are worked in multicolored patterns of trianglesand diamonds. Often smaller gates are embroidered in the triangularspace between the selvedge and the gate roofs. but without figures.• The gate motif was probably derived from the covered veranda whichsurrounded the temple. These particular baghs were dedicated to thetemple after fulfillment of a wish.DARSHAN DWAR BAGH
  36. 36. •Among their patterns, these bagh include chains of small whitesquares representing stylized cowries.•From another point of view, the shape of these shells can remind offemale genitals and make them become symbols of fertility.•Kaudi phulkari were often worn by women wanting to increase theirchance to become pregnant.KAUDI BAGH
  37. 37. KAUDI BAGH
  38. 38. Meaning "Five colors", this bagh is decorated with chevrons of fivedifferent colors. In The same way, similar pieces like satranga ("Sevencolors") bagh are also available.PANCHRANGA BAGH
  40. 40. This bagh, often made of gold and white coloured pat, is decoratedwith small multicoloured lozenges referring to enamel work(meenakari) or to "diamond" playing cards suit.MEENAKARI BAGH OR IKKA BAGH
  42. 42. Surajmujkhi, the sunflower, refers to the main pattern of thisphulkari.From a technical point of view this type of phulkari is unique as itis the only one that mixes in comparable proportions Holbeinstitch (used to make chope phulkari) and the regular darningstitch.SURAJMUKHI
  43. 43. SURAJMUKHI
  44. 44. •A rarer type of phulkari is the thirma, the name signifying a whiteground.•Exclusively made by Hindus, they formed an important part of thedowry of a woman from north-western Punjab.•The floral patterns were embroidered in red, violet and green -often so thickly that they give a velvety surface.•The ends have characteristic diagonal rows in red satin stitch.•The patterns of this type differ markedly from all other baghs andphulkaris.THIRMA
  45. 45. THIRMA
  46. 46. •Produced in east and southeast Punjab, sainchi phulkaris depict scenes ofeveryday life in the motifs.•The motifs were often marked on the cloth with ink and the sketch thenfilled with darning stitch.•Wool or cotton threads were often used instead of silk.•Sainchis can be divided into two groups.•The first have coloured representations on a red ground of human figures,beasts, village scenes and so on, without symmetry and end borders.•The second group, with black, dark brown or, very rarely, blue grounds, aresymmetrically drawn. Here we often see a pattern of five lotus flowers - alarge, vibrant blossom in the centre, the other four in the corners.•Abstract peacocks often appear in the end borders, contributing to thesymmetry, while in between are yet more animals and objects, randomlycompleting the design.SANCHI
  47. 47. •Scenes of everyday life on sainchi include personal effects, such asjewellery and combs, domestic animals, ox-carts and householdobjects.•We also see men playing dice games, spinning wheels, cooking orother routine activities.• Railway imagery is also used - a locomotive spewing thick smoke,passengers looking out of carriage windows.•Circus images with animals and acrobats are common. Especiallygraphic are scenes featuring figures such as a begging yogi, or aBritish official visiting a village.SANCHI
  48. 48. SANCHI
  49. 49. SANCHI
  50. 50. SANCHI
  51. 51. There existed regional variations between phulkaris embroidered invarious areas of Punjab. These differences were visible in patterns,motifs and colors as well as in the quality of the base cloth.REGIONAL VARIATIONS
  52. 52. •The hindus and sikhs who practiced this art in western Punjab(part of present day Pakistan) were organized and affluent. Thus,the quality of the base cloth and of the floss silk yarn was finer(and hence more expensive).•The motifs drew there inspiration from Islam.•The base cloth was either red or white and the silken floss wasusually in soft colors such as white, yellow, or pale orange.•The designs were geometrical, never figurative, and the quality ofembroidery was exceptionally sophisticated.WESTERN PUNJAB
  53. 53. •The khadi base and the floss were more vibrant and bold in terms ofcolours and tones.•Shades of red, and other colors of the pat were rich.•The pallus of borders were heavily embroidered and the motifswere dominantly inspired by the everyday life of the women:jasmine flowers, gentle waves, household items and so on.EASTERN PUNJAB
  55. 55. •Today this vibrant folk art of Punjab is now embroidered not only onshawls or dupattas but also on stolls, saris, bed covers, homefurnishings, etc in bright and vivid colours.•Many people have started getting Phulkari personalised, wheresome are using it as decorative piece, others are using them asaccessories like juttis (punjabi chappal), bags etc.PRODUCTS
  57. 57. •To obtain faster and cheaper production a coarser and looser style ofembroidery is being employed. With fast growing industries, schooling,lack of interest for manual work, profitability, etc. the textile industrytoday, is imitating this art with the help of machines.•Phulkari today is not as detailed or time consuming.•Today the woman does the embroidery from the top of the clothrather from the wrong side of the khaddar.• Khaddar is being replaced by cotton, chiffon, georgette, crepe andsynthetic.•Pat threads (self hand spun) by different range of fast colouredsynthetic threads and slowly people are being replaced by machines.•Phulkari is getting a label of contemporary context.PHULKARI TODAY
  59. 59. www.kunstpedia.comwww.craftrevival.comwww.dsource.inwww.indianheritage.bizBIBLIOGRAPHY