Types of Conflict• Affective conflict: people become aware that their feelings and emotions are incompatible• Conflict of interest: people have incompatible preferences for a course of action or plan to pursue• Value conflict: occur when people have different ideologies• Cognitive conflict: two or more people become aware that their perceptions are in conflict• Goal conflict: people have different outcomes (Martin & Nakayama 2008)
Cultural Influences on Conflict Management • Family influences • Gender, Ethnicity and Conflict • Religion and Conflict • Value Differences • Differences of Conflict Styles between individualists and collectivists:(Rahim 1986)
Cultural Influences on Conflict Management (cont.) • Direct and Indirect Conflict Approaches Direct Indirect- Conflicts are fundamentally good for - Conflicts are destructive forrelationships deal with it directly relationships avoid or deal with it indirectly- Concentrate on using precise language - Concentrate on the meaning that- Objective: to select the best solution apart from verbal message - Objective: maintaining the relationships during disagreement
Cultural Influences on Conflict Management (cont.)• Emotional expressiveness/ Restrain Conflict Style Emotionally expressive style Restrain style- It is better to show emotion during - Disagreements are best discussed indisagreement an emotionally calm manner- Show emotion through expressive - Avoid nonverbal emotionnonverbal behavior- Credibility is based on the ability to - Credibility is demonstrated bybe expressive maintaining tight control over one’s emotions
Managing Intercultural Conflict• Productive vs. Destructive Conflict Productive Conflict Destructive Conflict- Identify the specific problem - Make sweeping generalizations- Focus on the original issue - Escalate the issues- Cooperative problem solving - Seize power- Value leadership that stresses - Value leaders who polarizemutually satisfactory outcomes
Managing Intercultural Conflict (cont.)• Competitive vs. Cooperative conflict - competitive atmosphere poor communication - cooperative atmosphere open communication Once conflicts started to escalate, it is more difficult to turn a competitive into a cooperative relationship
References• ‘BF’ 2012, The Abbys World, image, 20 January, viewed 24 April 2012, <http://www.theabbysworld.com/2012/01/open-discussion-readers- question-is-my.html>.• ‘Conflict’ 2012, The medical student, image, 8 February, viewed 25 April 2012, <http://medic-student.blogspot.com/2012/02/conflict.html >.• ‘Forever alone’ 2012, Forever Alone comics, image, viewed 24 April 2012, <http://foreveralonecomic.com/post/1584120396/forever-alone-comic- poker-face>.• ‘Jennifer Lopez’ 2011, bluemelody, image, viewed 24 April 2012, <http://www.bluemelodyvn.com/phuongthaongocle/begin.php?mode=tintu c_id&id=3660&id_chinh=71>.• ‘Male dominated culture’ 2012, Nedmartin, image, viewed 24 April 2012, < http://nedmartin.org/v3/amused/male-dominated-culture>.• Martin J & Nakayama T 2008, ‘Culture, communication & conflict’ in Experiencing intercultural communication: An introduction, 3rd Edn, McGraw-Hill, USA, pp. 209- 234.
References (cont.)• Martin J & Nakayama T 2010, Intercultural Communication in Contexts, 8th edn, McGraw Hill, NY.• Medin, D L 2006, ‘Culture and Resource Conflict: Why Meanings Matter’, Amazon, viewed 25 April 2012, <http://www.amazon.com/Culture- Resource-Conflict-Meanings-Matter/dp/0871545705>.• Rahim, A 1986, ‘A measure of styles of handling interpersonal conflict’, Academy of management journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp.368-376.• Samovar, L, Porter, R & McDaniel, E 2009, Intercultural Communication: A reader, Wadsworth, MA.• Samovar, L, Porter, R & McDaniel, E 2010, Communication between cultures, Wadsworth, MA.• ‘SNSD’ 2010, 24h, image, viewed 24 April 2012, <http://hn.24h.com.vn/ca-nhac- mtv/snsd-khoe-chan-dai-mien-man-c73a299543.html>.• ‘Ugly truth’ 2009, Impawards, image, viewed 24 April 2012, <http://www.impawards.com/2009/ugly_truth.html>.