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Enlightenment and the American Revolution
 

Enlightenment and the American Revolution

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8th grade U.S. History.

8th grade U.S. History.
Par Pandit

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  • Ask them the definition of implementation and ideals

Enlightenment and the American Revolution Enlightenment and the American Revolution Presentation Transcript

  • Par PanditStudent Teacher from University of San Francisco8th grade U.S. HistoryMiller Middle School2012
  • Who is this?
  • Who is this?
  • Who is this?
  • Who is this?
  • Who is this?James MadisonFather of the Constitution
  • Enlightenmentand theAmericanRevolutionThe Implementation of Ideals
  • Definition• Implementation: the act of accomplishing someaim or executing some order• Ideals: A standard of perfection; a principle to beaimed at
  • Times BeforeEnlightenment
  • Times BeforeEnlightenment• You were born into a class and had to stay there
  • Times BeforeEnlightenment• Catholic Church interpreted the Bible for non-clergypeople
  • Times BeforeEnlightenment• Justice was often arbitrary or based on superstition• Punishment was cruel and not fit the crime
  • Times BeforeEnlightenment• Lack of understanding about health – Black Death
  • Times BeforeEnlightenment• Certain countries had absolute monarchy – Royaltysets all rules based on the “Divine Right of Kings”• The theory of divine right was abandoned inEngland during the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89
  • Times BeforeEnlightenment• People thought that human nature was notchangeable• People did not think about how the environmentcan affect people
  • InfluencesRenaissance ReformationScientificRevolutionEnlightenment
  • Renaissancemid 1300’s to early 1600’s• Start questioning old ideas (fromMiddle Ages)• Interest in human society andnatural world and the potentialof all human beings• Don’t believe that one shouldremain in his class based onbirth. Reward individualachievement over class orfamily nameThe Heritage of World Civilizations,pg 491
  • Protestant Reformation1517-1600sThe Heritage of World Civilizations,pg 491• Martin Luther• Bible is the ultimate sourceof religious authority forChristians, not the Church• Printing press and languagetranslations made the Biblereadable for the public andimproves literacy
  • Scientific Revolution1500s-1700sThe Heritage of World Civilizations,pg 491• Development in sciencetransformed views of societyand nature• Mathematics• Physics• Astronomy• Biology• Chemistry• Scientific Method
  • Scientific Revolution1500s-1700sThe Heritage of World Civilizations,pg 491• Development in sciencetransformed views of societyand nature• Mathematics• Physics• Astronomy• Biology• Chemistry• Scientific Method
  • InfluencesRenaissance ReformationScientificRevolutionEnlightenment
  • Influences• RenaissanceQuestion accepted beliefsCelebrate the Individual• Scientific RevolutionTrust in reason and observation leading toprogress• ReformationIndividuals think for themselvesNot accept blind authority (i.e. Church)
  • EnlightenmentJohn Locke (1632-1704)• Rejects “Divine Rights of Kings”concept• Government is to protect naturalrights of life, liberty, and property• Government Authority comes fromconsent of the governed• People have the right to overthrowthe government• Popular SovereigntyThe Heritage of World Civilizations,pg 491
  • EnlightenmentThe Heritage of World Civilizations,pg 491Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)• French political thinker• Admires England’s form of governmentbased on English Common Law• Concerned with personal liberty• Separation of Powers• Executive• Legislature• Judicial
  • EnlightenmentVoltaire (1694-1778)• French writer, historian, andphilosopher• Freedom of Speech• Freedom of ReligionThe Heritage of World Civilizations,pg 491
  • EnlightenmentCasare Beccaria (1738-1794)• Italian jurist, philosopher, and politican• Rights of “accused” to fair treatment• Fair and speedy trial• Against cruel and unusual punishmentThe Heritage of World Civilizations,pg 491
  • ImplementationEnlightenmentDeclaration ofIndependenceConstitution
  • QuizWhat Enlightened Thinker influenced the followingfrom the Declaration of Independence:“…All men are created equal, that they areendowed by their Creator with certainunalienable Rights, among these are Life,Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness…”
  • QuizWhat Enlightened Thinker influenced the followingfrom the Constitution:“Article I: Legislative Power…Article II: Nature and Scope of ExecutivePower…Article III: Judicial Power, Courts, Judges…”
  • QuizWhat Enlightened Thinker may have influenced thefollowing from the Constitution:“Amendment 1: Congress shall make no lawrespecting an establishment of religion, orprohibiting the free exercise thereof; orabridging the freedom of speech, or of thepress …”
  • QuizWhat Enlightened Thinker may have influenced thefollowing from the Constitution:“Amendment 8: Excessive bail shall not be required,nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusualpunishments inflicted.”
  • Implementation• Like John Locke, colonists shared foundations of Magna Cartaand English Bill of Rights• Declaration of Independence echoed Locke’s ideas onnatural rights and the purpose of government• Constitution Montesquieu’s idea of separation of powers Bill of Rights protects Voltaire’s freedom of speech andreligion ideas Bill of Rights protects Becarria’s belief that an accusedperson has a right to a fair trial and to not suffer cruel andunusual punishment
  • Related Links• http://suite101.com/article/differences-between-medieval-world-and-renaissance-philosophy-a285123