Earth and History
Par Pandit
August 24, 2013
(in progress)
Based on BBC Documentary “How
Earth Changed History”
Ages
• Copper Age
– Discovered 6500 years ago
• Bronze Age
– Copper + Tin = Bronze
– Discovered 5000 years ago
• Iron Age
...
Faultlines
• Plate tectonics
– In motion
Faultlines
Civilizations
• Major ancient civilization were primarily next
to fault lines
• Fault lines provide access to minerals, me...
Crete and Minoan civilization
• 4000 years ago
• Advanced civilization
– Running water, sewage system, storage systems
– F...
Crete and Minoan civilization
• First maritime power
• Used ideal location for trading
• Santorini
– Plate boundary, volca...
Civilizations
• History is filled with civilizations near fault
lines that were destroyed by volcanos,
earthquakes
• All p...
Civilizations
• Fault lines help in the case of California
– Agriculture
– Find oil
– Find gold
– Tourism
• Istanbul
– Exp...
Episode 4
Fire = Progress
• Fire
– Requires 13% oxygen to burn
– Until 400 million years ago, there was little to no
oxyge...
Carbon
• Carbon
– Found in trees. When trees in short supply, there
was an energy crisis around 1500 AD
– Discover trees s...
Coal, Britain, China, and Industrial
Revolution
• England had lots of coal
– Use innovations to extract coal
– Metals, ste...
Coal, Britain, China, and Industrial
Revolution
• China (continued)
– Modernizing starts in mid-20th century
– Now China i...
Transition to Oil
• How oil is formed
– Shallow seas hold plentiful life
– When sea is dried up, salt is there
– Dead anim...
Oil
• Benefits of oil
– Easier to transport than coal
– Natural gas is formed along with oil (need to
confirm)
• Oil is fo...
Oil
• Extracting oil
– Middle East oil is deep in earth
– Salt glaciers are signs of long lost seas
– The salt lubricates ...
Review
• Fire needs oxygen and carbon
• Trees provides oxygen and carbon
• Underwater trees turns into coal
• Not many cou...
Conclusion about Fire
• Fossil fuel is limited. We will need to break
bond between human progress and the
burning of carbon
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Earth and history

  1. 1. Earth and History Par Pandit August 24, 2013 (in progress) Based on BBC Documentary “How Earth Changed History”
  2. 2. Ages • Copper Age – Discovered 6500 years ago • Bronze Age – Copper + Tin = Bronze – Discovered 5000 years ago • Iron Age – Discovered 3000 years ago
  3. 3. Faultlines • Plate tectonics – In motion
  4. 4. Faultlines
  5. 5. Civilizations • Major ancient civilization were primarily next to fault lines • Fault lines provide access to minerals, metals, and water • Examples – Petra built along Dead Sea fault line – Jericho – Hierapolis (Roman City in SW Turkey)
  6. 6. Crete and Minoan civilization • 4000 years ago • Advanced civilization – Running water, sewage system, storage systems – First sports stadium (“day off”) – Wealth came from copper and tin – Tin hard to find. Had to travel to Britain, Spain, Central Europe, Iran – Great maritime fleet and heavy trading
  7. 7. Crete and Minoan civilization • First maritime power • Used ideal location for trading • Santorini – Plate boundary, volcanos – Greatest explosion in last 10,000 years – Water + lava = dangerous gases – Volcano fell into the sea causing a tsumai – Tsumai destroyed Minoan civilization within 100 years
  8. 8. Civilizations • History is filled with civilizations near fault lines that were destroyed by volcanos, earthquakes • All plates are continually – Crashes = mountain ranges – Separate = filled with oceans – Minerals are able to rise to surface • 10 of the largest 20 cities today are next to fault lines
  9. 9. Civilizations • Fault lines help in the case of California – Agriculture – Find oil – Find gold – Tourism • Istanbul – Expect major earthquake within our lifetime
  10. 10. Episode 4 Fire = Progress • Fire – Requires 13% oxygen to burn – Until 400 million years ago, there was little to no oxygen on the surface of the earth – Key element is carbon – Fire can melt materials into bronze, iron, steel – Metals helps create tools, coins, weapons
  11. 11. Carbon • Carbon – Found in trees. When trees in short supply, there was an energy crisis around 1500 AD – Discover trees submerged under water = coal – Desire for coal leads to mining – Need to remove water during mining • Steam engine invented to do the job • Leads to railroad using steam engines • Railroads use steels and require more coal
  12. 12. Coal, Britain, China, and Industrial Revolution • England had lots of coal – Use innovations to extract coal – Metals, steam engine lead to industrial revolution • China has a lot of coal – Coal is located in western China while cities are along eastern coast – Transport coal by Yellow River (rapid, manual carry) – No innovations to transport coal
  13. 13. Coal, Britain, China, and Industrial Revolution • China (continued) – Modernizing starts in mid-20th century – Now China is BIGGEST user and producer of coal
  14. 14. Transition to Oil • How oil is formed – Shallow seas hold plentiful life – When sea is dried up, salt is there – Dead animals = carbon buried under salt and seas for millions of years – Oil comes from long ago life forms
  15. 15. Oil • Benefits of oil – Easier to transport than coal – Natural gas is formed along with oil (need to confirm) • Oil is found in – 19th century in Azerbaijan (lots of surface oil) – 20th century in Middle East
  16. 16. Oil • Extracting oil – Middle East oil is deep in earth – Salt glaciers are signs of long lost seas – The salt lubricates the hard rocks – When plates collide to put land up, salt allows a break and oil to move up to empty cavity closer to surface – When you find to find oil, you look for salt – Extreme example: platforms in Caspian Sea
  17. 17. Review • Fire needs oxygen and carbon • Trees provides oxygen and carbon • Underwater trees turns into coal • Not many countries have coal so look for alternative – find oil and natural gas • Carbon is now a problem: greenhouse gases • Earth needed 3 millions years to produce one year of oil consumption today
  18. 18. Conclusion about Fire • Fossil fuel is limited. We will need to break bond between human progress and the burning of carbon

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