ON CRAFTING A FRAMEWORK...
The steps listed in this framework make a
useful structure for development of many
Not all elements belong in every
lesson although they will occur in a typical
unit plan composed of several lessons.
THE TEACHER ESTABLISHES THE
PURPOSE OF THE LESSON BY
CAPTURING THE STUDENTS’
INTEREST AND ATTENTION.
ACTIVATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
IS PRIMARILY A FUNCTION
OF TWO THINGS:
WHAT WE TEACH
HOW WE TEACH
ACTIVATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
Anticipatory set (aka “hook”)
Actions and statements by the teacher to relate the experiences of
the students to the objectives of the lesson.
to put students into a receptive frame of mind.
to focus student attention on the lesson.
to create an organizing framework for the ideas, principles, or
information that is to follow (c.f., the teaching strategy called
to extend the understanding and the application of abstract
ideas through the use of example or analogy...used any time a
different activity or new concept is to be introduced.
ACTIVITIES WHICH FOCUS ON
LEARNING NEW CONCEPTS OR
SKILLS ARE PRESENTED DURING
THIS PORTION OF THE LESSON.
The teacher provides the information needed for students to
gain the knowledge or skill.
Once the material has been presented, the teacher uses it to
show students examples of what is expected as an end
product of their work.
CHECKING FOR UNDERSTANDING
It is essential that students practice doing right so the teacher
must know that students understand before proceeding to
DIRECT INSTRUCTION IS NOT THE ENEMY
BEGIN WITH THE END IN MIND
KNOW WHEN TO HOLD THEM AND
KNOW WHEN TO FOLD THEM
WAYS OF PRESENTING NEW CONTENT
STUDENTS PRACTICE NEWLY
LEARNED CONCEPTS OR SKILLS
IN SETTINGS WHERE THE
TEACHER CAN EASILY MONITOR
The teacher models/demonstrates the correct sequence of behaviors
required for successful completion of the academic task
The teacher should assess informally student attainment
of new knowledge and skills.
Many of the practice opportunities provided to students involve
questions that require either choral (probes)
or individual answers (checks).
The Teacher will circulate the classroom and provide assistance on the given
The Teacher will observe each student’s level of mastery of the material in
order to inform future teaching.
The Teacher will provide focused support for individuals needing extra help to
reach the learning goals.
The Teacher will correct any mistakes they observe.
Praise, Prompt and Leave
Types of Guided Practice:
Guided Practice Reinforces Learning Through:
INDEPENDENTLY OR IN SMALL
GROUPS TO PRACTICE NEWLY
LEARNED CONCEPTS AND
ENCOURAGES INDEPENDENT USE OF STRATEGY
ALLOWS FOR STUDENTS TO APPLY STRATEGY OR
SKILL TO SIMILAR, UNFAMILIAR, OR INNOVATIVE
PROVIDES OPPORTUNITY FOR STUDENTS TO
PROVIDES OPPORTUNITY FOR TEACHER TO
DIFFERENTIATE LEARNING ACTIVITIES TO MEET
DIVERSE NEEDS IN THE CLASSROOM
In order to be LEARNING CENTERS
effective in this
MIXED ABILITY GROUPING
instruction, the CLUSTER GROUPING
must be clearly CONTRACTS
managed for the
students. TASK CARDS
THE TEACHER ENGAGES
STUDENTS IN ACTIVITIES THAT
“WRAP UP” THE LESSON AND
EMPHASIZE WHAT WAS
CLOSURE IS USED
to cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an
important point in the lesson or the end of a lesson,
to help organize student learning,
to help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate
confusion and frustration, etc.,
to reinforce the major points to be learned.
PAPER AND PENCIL ASSESSMENTS