The Indian Mutiny
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The Indian Mutiny

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A research on The Great Uprising viewed in different aspects...

A research on The Great Uprising viewed in different aspects...

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The Indian Mutiny The Indian Mutiny Presentation Transcript

  • The Indian Mutiny By Tanya Aneja
  • Index S. no. Title 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Introduction Sources for Studying Modern Indian History Sources for Studying the Revolt Institutions of the Mutiny in Delhi History Oral History My Understanding... Historians The Development into a Movie Importance of Multiple Resources Synopsis Acknowledgement Bibliography Page
  • Sources for Studying Modern Indian History Literary Sources Biography Autobiography Newspapers Letters Charters/Farmers Poems Documents Reports Notings Memos Archaeological Sources Victory Towers Memorials Utensils Monuments Tools Weapons Paintings Coins and Notes Tombs Ornaments
  • Sources for studying the Revolt Archaeological Sources: Kashmere Gate Badle ki Serai Literary Sources The Last Mughal by William Dalrymple* Northern Ridge 1857 edited by Mrinal Pande Lucknow Residency History Textbooks Red Fort, Delhi The Defence of Lucknow Khooni Darwaza Rani of Jhansi(ACK)* *Includes secondary Archaeological Sources
  • Institutions of the Mutiny in Delhi... Archaeological Sources Literary Sources 1) Red Fort 2) Northern Ridge 3)Mutiny Memorial 1) Mutiny Papers Press List
  • Red Fort • • Fort served as the palace for the Mughals until 1857, when Bahadur Shah Zafar was caught revolting against the British and was exiled to Rangoon, Burma(known as Myanmar today). Despite being the seat of Mughal power and its defensive capabilities, Red Fort was not defended during the rebellion. It also has a museum which shows the people who had taken an important place in the uprising. It also has some of the beautiful poems by Bahadur Shah Zafar.
  • Khooni Darwaza • • • Kabuli or Khooni Darwaza also held significance in the Revolt of 1857. It was here where Bahadur Shah Zafar’s three sons, his only heirs, were shot down to death. I believe, they were shot as to satisfy the Britishers that they had no threat from the Mughal Dynasty, one of the greatest Dynasties in history. Also, Bahadur Shah by that time was very old(some say he was 82!) which made him no threat to the British Empire.
  • Northern Ridge • Northern Ridge is one of the main points in Delhi where most of the battle took place. It has a place called ‘Flag Staff’ where many British women and their children hid to avoid getting killed from the revolutionaries who only saw them as Britishers who had come to rule their land and not as people who had nothing but their husbands and their fathers. However, it is said that they were found and killed by the mutineers. It also had a lake known as ‘Khooni Khan Jheel’. This lake is said to be bloody because it might have got blood red during a fight between the mutineers and their opposition. The Northern Ridge had hunter lodges which were made and used by Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
  • Mutiny Memorial • • The Mutiny Memorial is a structure initially made as a memorial of the people who died while fighting the revolutionaries. Now, this gothic structure symbolises ALL the people, whether revolutionaries or their oppositions. It says, “In memory of the officers and soldiers, british and native of the Delhi Field Force who were killed in action or died of wounds or disease between the 30th May and 20th September 1857. This monument had been erected by the comrades lament their loss and by the contonement they served so well.
  • Abstract N.C. Officers and Soldiers Officers Killed 46 Native Killed British British 543 426 Wounde d 1426 1180 Missing 13 17 Total 1982 1623 Native 14 Wounde d 140 49 Total 186 63
  • List of actions fought at or near Delhi by Delhi Field Force from 30 May-20 September 1857 Battle of Hindu and Badle ki Serai May 30 Attack on Flag Staff June 12 Attack on British Camp b/w June 12 and Sep. 14 The Siege b/w June 12 and Sep. 14 Storming of Delhi September 14 City finally evacuated by the enemy September 20 Capture of the Palace September 20
  • • One of the writings on the structure also showed that the people who fought this revolt weren’t just peasants and soldiers but were from contrary occupations, from richest to the poorest and from engineers to the blacksmiths, everyone had contributed and were affected in this revolt.
  • History S. no. Topics in History 1) Causes 2) Important Leaders 3) Course 4) Suppression 5) Weaknesses 6) Result
  • Causes Political Causes: Resentment at the Westernising Policies such as Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse which led to annexation of the states Economic Causes: Created Unemployment Ruined Indian Handcrafts Affected Trade and Agriculture
  • Socio-religious Causes: Social Discrimination against the Indians in all types of jobs Social Reforms such as Ban of Sati, granting right to inherit property even after turning Christian and legalizing widow remarriage weren’t acceptable to Hindus Could not travel in first-class compartments with the Britishers Fear for Indian Religions because they were condemned by the British Poor people offered jobs, marriage, money and other temptations to embrace Christianity.
  • Military Cause: The Indian Soldiers were in a melancholic condition. They were paid salaries lower than the britishers and would be promoted till ‘Havaldar only. Immediate Cause: The Indian Sepoys were given rifles with cartridges smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. To reload the rifles, the cartridges were to be bitten off. This infuriated the sepoys as Hindus accept the cow as ‘holy symbol’ while the Muslims consider the pig as ‘impure’.
  • Other Causes: Sympathy for 1000’s of landlords deprived of the land to which they could not legally prove ownership of Dislike of the superior attitudes of the British in India Hatred for the recent annexation during Lord Dalhousie’s Government General-ship
  • Important Leaders
  • Mangal Pandey • • This man was once a sepoy in the Barrack-pore regiment of the Britishers. He was totally against the use of greased cartridges in the rifles. He was the first martyr of this mighty revolt.
  • Rani Lakshmibai • • The Queen of Jhansi was fairly against the British Policy of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ as her adopted son was not recognized as the rightful heir to the throne and the British had annexed her territory.
  • Bahadur Shah Zafar • • The Last Emperor of the Mughal dynasty, also known as Bahadur Shah II, was given the role of leading the Rebellion in Delhi. He was a beautiful poet. His poetry mostly dealt with love and mysticism. He even write of the pain and sorrow he suufered by the Britishers.
  • Bahadur shah zafar the poet • लगता नहीं है जी मेरा उजड़े दयार मे • िकिस किी बनी है आलम-ए-नापायेदार मे • किह दो इन हसरतों से किहीं और जा बसे • इतनी जगह किहाँ है िदल-ए-दाग़दार मे • उम-ए-दराज़ माँग किर लाये थे चार िदन • दो आरज़ू मे किट गये दो इन्तज़ार मे • िकितना है बदनसीब "ज़फ़र" दफ़्न किे िलये • दो गज़ ज़मीन भी न िमली किू -ए-यार मे • Lagta Nahin hai jee mera
  • Begum Hazrat Mahal • • The wife of Wajid Ali Shah and the Queen of Awadh (Oudh) though charming and affable in nature, was a strong leader and an adroit strategist. She bravely led her army in one of the central places of the revolt, Lucknow. Even after being a gallant woman she is lost in the pages of history.
  • Nana Sahib • • He was another victim of the British Policy, Doctrine of Lapse. For being the ‘adopted’ son of Peshwa Baji Rao II, he was not accepted as the heir of the throne. He fought hard against the Britishers in Kanpur.
  • Tatya Tope • • He was a strong adherent of Nana Saheb and a close acquaintance of Rani Lakshmibai. He fought bravely for the Marathas. He was a martyr of this revolt.
  • Course • • • The revolt began on 10 May 1857 soon after the incident where Mangal Pandey had refused to use the greased cartridges. He then shot his regiment officer. He was then caught, prosecuted and hanged. Some of his companions too refused, and were sentenced 10 years imprisonment at Meerut cantonment. The revolt broke out at Meerut as the public were furious to see the cruelty towards the officers. British officers were killed and their houses were set on fire. The mutineers killed anyone related to the whites, even the woman and children. The revolutionaries marched to Delhi and with the leadership of Bahadur Shah II, captured Delhi. The news spread to other parts of the country and some of them slowly joined them. In Lucknow, Ahamadullah Shah and Begum Hazrat Mahal with Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur revolted in Bihar. In Kanpur, Nana Sahib and Azimullah Khan commanded the troops while Rani Lakshmibai in Jhansi and Khan Bahadur Khan in Ruhelkhand led the revolt. Many other states, mostly from North-East India followed...
  • Suppression • The revolt was relentlessly suppressed. Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was captivated and exiled to Rangoon, Burma(Myanmar) while his three sons were shot dead at Khooni Darwaza, near Delhi Gate. Lucknow, Jhansi, Gwalior and Delhi were recaptured by the British. Begum Hazrat Mahal and Nana Sahib had to flee of to Nepal. Rani Lakshmibai was killed in action whereas, Tatya Tope was caught and hanged in the gallows.
  • “Mutineers were given, at best, short military trials. Mostly they were shot down, bayonetted or hanged, sometimes in pig’s skins to defile Muslims, or in cow’s skin to mortify hindus. In many cases, mutinous sepoys were tied to the mouths of cannons and blown into fragments of flesh and intestine.” Jhansi was ruthlessly sacked by the victorious Britishers: “Fires were blazing everywhere, and although it was night I could see far enough. In the lanes and streets people were crying pitifully, hugging the corpses of their dears ones. Others were wondering, searching for food while the cattle were running mad with thirst...How cruel and ruthless were these white soldiers, I thought; they were killing people for the crimes they had not committed...” ~The British Raj by Denis Judd
  • Weaknesses There was no unified command. Many states either remained neutral or fought for the British. Inspite of great courage, gallantry and readiness to sacrifice for the noble cause, the Indians lacked modern and advance weapons, experience commanders, organization and disciplined. The revolt had not started on a fixed date, rather, it spread from one place to another, which made it possible for the British to suppress it one by one.
  • Result • The defeat of Indians wasn’t the only aftermath of this destruction, it had more consequences, some good as well as bad. Firstly, two of the most strong dynasties which had ever ruled India declined, the Marathas and the Mughals. Secondly, the rule of the English East India Company came to an end. However the administration of India had passed to greater hands, into the hands of the British Crown. It assured jobs without any distinction. Right of adoption for state princes restored. It united the Nation, to fight against the British as one.
  • Oral History • • • • Public: My research has shown that the public is not very familiar with the Revolt of 1857. They only know things like Rani Lakshmi Bai was a brave woman who fought this revolt. Students: They have their own sayings and they more or less believe that India did very well in replying the British with the revolt, Aurangzeb’s different action with respect to granting trading rights to British might not have led to this revolt. They too only know about Jhansi Ki Rani but not of other woman like Begum Hazrat Mahal who participated in his revolt. And they agree with the fact that Mangal Pandey was right in protesting against the greased cartridges.
  • My Understanding... After wandering and researching a lot I’ve found out that people had, have and would always have different mentallities in every society, even today. I think people might not have seen themselves as being ruled as the word ‘colonialism’ was not there in their dictionaries at that time. Others, might have thought it safe and secure for them to collaborate with the British side or to remain neutral.
  • Historians Vinayak Damodar Savarkar: • • He was a modern historian who named this revolt as ‘The First War of Independence’ in his book, The History of the War of the Indian Independence. He also struggled for freedom like the other freedom fighters, he has said, “We must stop complaining about this British officer or that officer, this law or that law. There would be no end to that. Our movement must not be limited to being against any particular law, but it must be for acquiring the authority to make laws itself. In other words, we want absolute independence.”
  • Amaresh Misra: He is a modern historian and a writer. He has written two books on 1857 called, War of Civilisations: India AD 1857. He argues their was an ‘untold holocaust’ which caused the deaths of almost 10 million people over 10 years beginning with 1857.
  • The Development into a Movie • Mangal Pandey: The Rising is a movie with Aamir Khan as the protagonist, Mangal Pandey who is a sepoy in the Barrackpore regiment who was first fairly treated by the British. However, as the days went, he and his country was treated poorly. British were unjust to the locals, all they wanted from India was wealth and money. And soon they tried to distraught people by asking them to change their religions. They started coming out with greased cartridges which were given to their soldiers which was just the start of the revolt.Mangal Pandey-The Rising tells the tale of friends, lovers and enemies, exploiters and exploited, and growth plus awareness of a man and a nation.
  • Importance of Multiple Resources ★ Multiple Resources are very important while making a project as they give different opinions and aspects for a single event or person. For example, Revolt of 1857 was an unacceptable mutiny by the British, whereas, the opposition believed it was right to protest and rebel against the East India Company’s rule. ★ Though, many aspects make it difficult as what aspect to trust and accept, it gives new reasons. ★ Also, different people having different occupations, mind sets and feelings and will act differently in the society.
  • Synopsis... • My Project is an initiative to understand more than what we learn in class, from our teachers. Revolt of 1857 is a huge topic which displays many a thing. • It shows Strength, Revolution. • People from many parts of India were troubled with this and had revolted against the British. • However, there were people who backed the side of the Britishers. • If only they had fought for their country, maybe, just maybe, the Britisher’s rule would not have lasted long and we probably would have got our freedom 90 years before... • And maybe the Mughal and the Maratha Dynasty would have lasted long than they really did... Braveness, Action, Betrayal and
  • Acknowledgement • I’m sincerely thankful to the following people, whose help and support made this project possible: My Teachers: Ms. Aparajita, Ms. Paridhi and Ms. Isha who were always there to answer my queries My friends: Kanav Gupta, Jacinda Kundal, Bani Narula, Shaurya Gupta, Vani Gogia, Raghav Bahry, Raunaq Singh Sur, Arnav Garg My parents and my sister, Sanya for their never-ending support
  • Bibliography... • World Wide Web: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook34.asp#India Under the British http://www.csas.ed.ac.uk/mutiny/texts.html http://www.mapsofindia.com/who-is-who/history/begum-hazratmahal.html www.delhimetrowalks.com
  • http://manaskriti.com/kaavyaalaya/jhansi.shtml http://ramprasadbismil.blogspot.in/2011/01/lagtanahin-hai-ji-mera-bahadur-shah.html http://www.williamdalrymple.uk.com/books/the_last_ mughal http://www.imdb.com/ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/24/india.r andeepramesh
  • • Books The British Raj by Denis Judd(Chapter-4) Textbook-We and our World Class-8(Pg 120-125) Textbook Class XII- Themes in Indian History: Part III(Theme 11)
  • Images www.123rf.com www.bsgp.org en.wikipedia.org www.trivia.serendip.in