2. Psychology’s Rorschach test records subjects’ perceptions of inkblots and analyzed
them using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both. Some
psychologists use this test to examine a person’s personality characteristics and
3. Gartner’s branded Magic Quadrant (MQ) is a visual representation of the U.S. based
research and advisory firms research. It summarizes their qualitative analysis into a
market and its direction, maturity and participants, typically of information technology
firms, products and services.
Gartner’s Magic Quadrant
4. The Hype Cycle is a branded graphical tool developed and used by IT research and
advisory firm, Gartner for representing the maturity, adoption and social application
of specific technologies .
Gartner’s Hype Cycle
5. Osterwalder’s Business Model Canvas is a strategic management template for
developing new or documenting existing business models. It describes a firm’s value
proposition, infrastructure, customers, and finances. It assists firms in aligning their
activities by illustrating potential trade-offs.
Osterwalder’s Business Model Canvas
6. In economics, the Laffer curve is a representation of the relationship between possible
rates of taxation and resulting levels of government revenue. It illustrates the concept
of taxable income elasticity—i.e., taxable income will change in response to changes in
the rate of taxation.
The Laffer Curve
7. According to Anderson’s Long Tail, our culture and economy is increasingly shifting
away from a focus on a relatively small number of "hits" (mainstream products and
markets) at the head of the demand curve and toward a huge number of niches in the
Anderson’s Long Tail
8. Sinek’s Golden Circle
Sinek’s Golden Circle explains how great leaders and brands inspire. They do the
opposite of what most people and companies do, they start with why. Communicating
why they do what they do, how, they do it, and what they do.
9. The USDA’s Food Pyramid
The USDA created the food pyramid in 1992 to guide consumer nutrition and eating
10. Technology Adoption Curve
Popularized by Everett Rogers in the book Diffusion of Innovations, people tend to
adopt new technologies at varying rates. Their relative speed of adoption follows a
bell curve, with the primary difference being individuals’ psychological disposition to
Risk takers who
have the resources
and desire to try
new things, even if
Are selective about
which technologies they
start using. They are
considered, “one to
check in with” for new
information and reduce
about new technology
by adopting it.
Take their time
before adopting a
new idea. They are
willing to embrace a
new technology as
long as they
understand how it fits
with their lives.
Adopt in reaction to
emerging norms or
Most of the
uncertainty around an
idea must be resolved
before they adopt.
Are traditional and
make decisions based
on past experience.
They are often
to take risks on new
11. Ishikawa or Fishbone Diagram
Causal Diagrams popularized by Kaoru Ishikawa in the 1960’s, commonly used in
product design and quality processes. Fishbone diagrams organize potential causes
into a graphical format that facilitates an organized approach to problem solving.
12. Rich Picture
Part of the Soft systems methodology, Rich Pictures provide a mechanism for learning
about complex or ill-defined problems by drawing detailed representations of them.
They typically consist of symbols, sketches or "doodles". Rich Pictures are a way of
relating your own experiences and perceptions to a given problem /situation.
13. Mind Map
Popularized by Tony Buzan, Mind Maps are a tool to record knowledge and model
systems around a central theme. Composed of radiating words and pictures linked
14. BCG Growth Share Matrix
In the 1970’s Boston Consulting Group developed the concept of dividing a company’s
product lines in to cash cows, dogs, stars and question marks. Based on a standard 2x2
matrix, the comparison of Market Growth and Market Share it is used as an analytical
tool in product management, brand marketing, strategy and portfolio analysis.
15. Kim and Mauborgne’s Strategy Canvas
The strategy canvas is a diagnostic and action framework for building a compelling
blue ocean strategy. The horizontal axis captures the range of factors that the industry
competes on and invests in, while the vertical axis captures the offering level that
buyers receive across all these key competing factors.
The Short Haul Airline Industry
16. Lovelock’s Flower of Service
Lovelock’s flower of service examines the service elements that surround a core
product. It is used to display two types of supplementary services that surround the
core product; facilitating supplementary services and enhancing supplementary