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How Psychology Helps
Design Better Games
A Journey from the Player
to the Features & Game Mechanics
Who I Am
• H.O.D. Game Design

• G.D. Freelance & Consultant

• Producer
Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

2
About Psychology
• Scientific study of mental functions and
behaviors
• Understanding individuals and groups
• Perception,...
Caillois’ Theory

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

4
About Game
“A game is a system in which players a

are engaged in an artificial conflict,
defined by rules,
that results in a...
Avatar, Character and Puppet

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

6
Emphasis and Empathy

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

7
Campbell’s Hero's Journey

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

8
Story Arc

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

9
Pacing

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

10
Csikszentmihalyi’s Theory of Flow

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

11
Csikszentmihalyi’s Theory of Flow

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

12
Csikszentmihalyi’s Theory of Flow

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

13
Csikszentmihalyi’s Theory of Flow

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

14
Challenge

My Theory of Flow
Chosen Constraint

Undergone Constraint

Skill
Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

15
Bartle’s 4 types of players

Achiever

Socializer

Explorer

People

Killer

Environment

Action

Interaction
Guillaume BE...
Bartle’s 4 types of players

Achiever

Socializer

Explorer

People

Killer

Environment

Action

Interaction
Guillaume BE...
Bartle’s 4 types of players

Achiever

Socializer

Explorer

People

Killer

Environment

Action

Interaction
Guillaume BE...
Bartle’s 4 types of players

Achiever

Socializer

Explorer

People

Killer

Environment

Action

Interaction
Guillaume BE...
Bartle and Game Genres
Game Genre
FPS
RPG
FPS-RPG
Open-world RPG

References
Halo, Call of Duty, Half-Life, Crysis
Darklan...
Bartle’s Players Expectations

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

21
4 funny types of players

People

Killer

Hard

People

Socializer

Achiever
Easy

Serious

Explorer

Environment

Action
...
Lazzaro’s 4 types of fun

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

23
Bartle’s 8 types of Motivation

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

24
Marczwski’s User’s Types

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

25
Myers and Briggs’ Type Indicator

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

26
Myers and Briggs’ States of Mind

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

27
Demographic Game Design 1

Conqueror
(TJ)

Participant
(FJ)

Manager
(TP)

Wanderer
(FP)

Feeling

Thinking

Judging

Perc...
Demographic Game Design 1

Conqueror
(TJ)

Participant
(FJ)

Manager
(TP)

Wanderer
(FP)

Feeling

Thinking

Judging

Perc...
Demographic Game Design 1

Conqueror
(TJ)

Participant
(FJ)

Manager
(TP)

Wanderer
(FP)

Feeling

Thinking

Judging

Perc...
Demographic Game Design 1

Conqueror
(TJ)

Participant
(FJ)

Manager
(TP)

Wanderer
(FP)

Feeling

Thinking

Judging

Perc...
Demographic Game Design 1
Introversion

Casual

Casual

Sensing

Casual

Intuition

Hardcore

Extraversion
Guillaume BENOI...
Demographic Game Design 1
Conqueror
(TJ)

Participant
(FJ)

Hardcore – Hx (IN)

Manager
(TP)

Wanderer
(FP)

Casual – Cx (...
Demographic Game Design 1

Idealist
(NF)

Artisan
(SP)

Rational
(NT)

Guardian
(SJ)

Externals

Internals

Change

Struct...
Demographic Game Design 1

Idealist
(NF)

Artisan
(SP)

Rational
(NT)

Guardian
(SJ)

Externals

Internals

Change

Struct...
Demographic Game Design 1

Idealist
(NF)

Artisan
(SP)

Rational
(NT)

Guardian
(SJ)

Externals

Internals

Change

Struct...
Demographic Game Design 1

Idealist
(NF)

Artisan
(SP)

Rational
(NT)

Guardian
(SJ)

Externals

Internals

Change

Struct...
Demographic Game Design 1
Idealist
(NF)

Artisan
(SP)

Rational
(NT)

Guardian
(SJ)

Diplomatic

Tactical

Strategic

Logi...
CASE STUDY
Theories

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

New toys, Characters, Emotions,
Interaction through talks

Cx (ES)

Sense of...
MDA

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

40
ADM

Behavior

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

Feelings

41
Player’s Journey

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

42
Uncanny Valley

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

43
Uncanny Valley - Graphic

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

44
Uncanny Valley - Mechanic

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

45
Persona

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

46
Game Design Gameloop
Player
&
Persona
Features

Flow

&

&

Game
Mechanics

Pacing

DGD1
&

&

MDA

Guillaume BENOIT - 201...
Conclusion
• Framework

• Heuristic Methodology

• Reduce Risks
Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

48
Conclusion
• Not a Miracle Solution

• Game Designers Needed

• Innovate
Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

49
Open to others fields

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

50
Thanks

Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

51
Questions ?
• Pourlejeu
• Guil_benoit
• Guillaume BENOIT
Guillaume BENOIT - 2013

52
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How psychology helps design better games (nasscom gdc 2013)

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Understand the various game theories (bartle, lazzaro, dgd1, etc.) about players and how it could be used in the process of creating a game

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  • Thanks Guillaume It was a great session with lot of insights for any game developer
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  • Game Analysis
  • Campbell / Vogler / Ian Evans
  • Multiple « story arc » for a singlelevel …Mental and behaviors
  • Csikszentmihalyi  // Jesse Schell (the art of gd)
  • Csikszentmihalyi  // Jesse Schell (the art of gd)
  • Csikszentmihalyi  // Jesse Schell (the art of gd)
  • Ami Jo Kim
  • 4 dichotomiesExtraverted / IntravertedIntuition / SensingFeeling / ThinkingPerceiving / Judging
  • 4 Play typesHx & CxStyles of PlayKersey’ Temperament & Beren’s Skill sets
  • 4 Play typesHx & CxStyles of PlayKersey’ Temperament & Beren’s Skill sets
  • Salman Khan
  • Robin Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc, Robert Zubek
  • HR : Jung Test / EnneagramPM: Agile & WaterfallPG:Extreme Programming
  • Transcript of "How psychology helps design better games (nasscom gdc 2013)"

    1. 1. How Psychology Helps Design Better Games A Journey from the Player to the Features & Game Mechanics
    2. 2. Who I Am • H.O.D. Game Design • G.D. Freelance & Consultant • Producer Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 2
    3. 3. About Psychology • Scientific study of mental functions and behaviors • Understanding individuals and groups • Perception, cognition, emotion, motivation, p ersonality, relationship, etc. Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 3
    4. 4. Caillois’ Theory Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 4
    5. 5. About Game “A game is a system in which players a are engaged in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.” Salen & Zimmerman Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 5
    6. 6. Avatar, Character and Puppet Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 6
    7. 7. Emphasis and Empathy Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 7
    8. 8. Campbell’s Hero's Journey Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 8
    9. 9. Story Arc Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 9
    10. 10. Pacing Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 10
    11. 11. Csikszentmihalyi’s Theory of Flow Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 11
    12. 12. Csikszentmihalyi’s Theory of Flow Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 12
    13. 13. Csikszentmihalyi’s Theory of Flow Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 13
    14. 14. Csikszentmihalyi’s Theory of Flow Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 14
    15. 15. Challenge My Theory of Flow Chosen Constraint Undergone Constraint Skill Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 15
    16. 16. Bartle’s 4 types of players Achiever Socializer Explorer People Killer Environment Action Interaction Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 16
    17. 17. Bartle’s 4 types of players Achiever Socializer Explorer People Killer Environment Action Interaction Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 17
    18. 18. Bartle’s 4 types of players Achiever Socializer Explorer People Killer Environment Action Interaction Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 18
    19. 19. Bartle’s 4 types of players Achiever Socializer Explorer People Killer Environment Action Interaction Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 19
    20. 20. Bartle and Game Genres Game Genre FPS RPG FPS-RPG Open-world RPG References Halo, Call of Duty, Half-Life, Crysis Darklands, Fallout 1/2, Baldur's Gate Deus Ex, BioShock, Mass Effect The Elder Scrolls, Fallout 3, Two Worlds Bartle Types Killer, Achiever Achiever, Explorer Achiever, Explorer, Killer Achiever, Explorer MMORPG World of Warcraft, EVE Online, Guild Wars Achiever, Explorer, Socializer MMOG Unreal Tournament, Team Fortress, any FPS multiplayer mode Killer, Achiever Adventure Action Survival-Horror King's Quest, Myst, The Longest Journey Tomb Raider, Uncharted, Angry Birds Resident Evil, Dead Space, Amnesia Socializer, Explorer Killer, Achiever Killer, Achiever Turn-based Strategy Civilization, Master of Orion, Galactic Civilizations Explorer Physics Puzzler Real-time Strategy Flight Simulator Space Shooter Music Simulation Social Online Gambling Half-Life 2, Portal, World of Goo Age of Empires, StarCraft, Supreme Commander Falcon 4.0, Microsoft Flight Simulator X Wing Commander, Freelancer Rock Band, Guitar Hero, Audiosurf SimCity, Balance of Power, Railroad Tycoon FarmVille, Mafia Wars Blackjack, Texas Hold-Em Poker Killer, Explorer Achiever, Killer Killer, Explorer Achiever, Killer Killer, Socializer Explorer Socializer, Achiever Killer, Achiever Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 20
    21. 21. Bartle’s Players Expectations Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 21
    22. 22. 4 funny types of players People Killer Hard People Socializer Achiever Easy Serious Explorer Environment Action Interaction Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 22
    23. 23. Lazzaro’s 4 types of fun Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 23
    24. 24. Bartle’s 8 types of Motivation Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 24
    25. 25. Marczwski’s User’s Types Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 25
    26. 26. Myers and Briggs’ Type Indicator Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 26
    27. 27. Myers and Briggs’ States of Mind Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 27
    28. 28. Demographic Game Design 1 Conqueror (TJ) Participant (FJ) Manager (TP) Wanderer (FP) Feeling Thinking Judging Perceiving Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 28
    29. 29. Demographic Game Design 1 Conqueror (TJ) Participant (FJ) Manager (TP) Wanderer (FP) Feeling Thinking Judging Perceiving Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 29
    30. 30. Demographic Game Design 1 Conqueror (TJ) Participant (FJ) Manager (TP) Wanderer (FP) Feeling Thinking Judging Perceiving Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 30
    31. 31. Demographic Game Design 1 Conqueror (TJ) Participant (FJ) Manager (TP) Wanderer (FP) Feeling Thinking Judging Perceiving Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 31
    32. 32. Demographic Game Design 1 Introversion Casual Casual Sensing Casual Intuition Hardcore Extraversion Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 32
    33. 33. Demographic Game Design 1 Conqueror (TJ) Participant (FJ) Hardcore – Hx (IN) Manager (TP) Wanderer (FP) Casual – Cx (IS/ES) Fun | Progress | Story | Social Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 33
    34. 34. Demographic Game Design 1 Idealist (NF) Artisan (SP) Rational (NT) Guardian (SJ) Externals Internals Change Structure Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 34
    35. 35. Demographic Game Design 1 Idealist (NF) Artisan (SP) Rational (NT) Guardian (SJ) Externals Internals Change Structure Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 35
    36. 36. Demographic Game Design 1 Idealist (NF) Artisan (SP) Rational (NT) Guardian (SJ) Externals Internals Change Structure Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 36
    37. 37. Demographic Game Design 1 Idealist (NF) Artisan (SP) Rational (NT) Guardian (SJ) Externals Internals Change Structure Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 37
    38. 38. Demographic Game Design 1 Idealist (NF) Artisan (SP) Rational (NT) Guardian (SJ) Diplomatic Tactical Strategic Logistic Flow | Challenge Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 38
    39. 39. CASE STUDY Theories Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 New toys, Characters, Emotions, Interaction through talks Cx (ES) Sense of Progression Temperament Simple Attractive Curious Communication Emotional Wanderer (FP) Type of player - Features Playstyle ESFP Type Artisan (SP) Tactical, Fun-loving, Realistic, Unconventional, Spontaneous, Seek stimulation, Prize freedom Lazzaro Easy Fun Imagination, Discovery, Exploration, Creativity, Uncertainty Achiever Accumulating treasure, Points-gathering, Rising in levels, Status, Hierarchy, Competition Mimicry – Ilinx Imaginary universe; Elaborate, Complex and surprising; Simulation; Invention Movement, Dizziness, Disorder, Physical Activities, High speed, Visceral Bartle Caillois 39
    40. 40. MDA Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 40
    41. 41. ADM Behavior Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 Feelings 41
    42. 42. Player’s Journey Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 42
    43. 43. Uncanny Valley Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 43
    44. 44. Uncanny Valley - Graphic Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 44
    45. 45. Uncanny Valley - Mechanic Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 45
    46. 46. Persona Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 46
    47. 47. Game Design Gameloop Player & Persona Features Flow & & Game Mechanics Pacing DGD1 & & MDA Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 Types Fun 47
    48. 48. Conclusion • Framework • Heuristic Methodology • Reduce Risks Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 48
    49. 49. Conclusion • Not a Miracle Solution • Game Designers Needed • Innovate Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 49
    50. 50. Open to others fields Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 50
    51. 51. Thanks Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 51
    52. 52. Questions ? • Pourlejeu • Guil_benoit • Guillaume BENOIT Guillaume BENOIT - 2013 52
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