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  1. 1. Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 9 How Can We Manage Intercultural Conflict Flexibly? Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESSPowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
  2. 2. TODAY’S MENUI. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsII. Intercultural Conflict Process FactorsIII. Flexible Intercultural Conflict SkillsIV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do- Ables
  3. 3. I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsIntercultural conflict: The implicit or explicit emotional struggle or frustration between persons of different cultures over perceived incompatible values, norms, face orientations, goals, scarce resources, processes, and/or outcomes in a communication situation.
  4. 4. I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background Factors A. Culture-Based Conflict LensesIndependent-self conflict Interdependent-self lens conflict lens Content conflict goal lens Relational process lens Win-lose conflict Win-win relational approach approach “Doing” angle “Being” angle Outcome-driven mode Long-term compromising negotiation mode
  5. 5. I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsB. Intercultural Workplace Conflict Grid• Uses two value dimensions (individualism-collectivism and power distance) to form grid with four approaches.• Complete 9.1 on page 183 to find out your conflict lens… then think of the pros & cons of each conflict style.
  6. 6. I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsB. Intercultural Workplace Conflict Grid
  7. 7. I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsView this video on intercultural conflict in the workplace.Discussion Questions: • Compare and contrast the different verbal styles of the people in this video. • Use the workplace conflict grid to assess the different conflict styles. • What would be your specific intercultural teaching or coaching strategies?
  8. 8. I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsC. Intercultural Conflict Perceptions: Three primary perception features of intercultural conflict: 1. Conflict involves intercultural perceptions, filtered through lenses of ethnocentrism and stereotypes. 2. Ethnocentric perceptions add biases and prejudice to conflict attribution process. 3. Attribution process further compounded by different culture-based verbal and
  9. 9. I. Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background FactorsD. Intercultural Conflict Goal Issues 1. Content goals 2. Relational conflict goals 3. Identity-based goalsE. Perceived Scarce Resources 1. Conflict resources 2. Tangible resources 3. Intangible resources
  10. 10. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessFactorsA. Defining Conflict Styles: Three approaches to studying conflict styles: • Dispositional approach • Situational approach • Systems approach
  11. 11. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessFactorsFive-style conflict grid
  12. 12. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessFactorsActivity:Draw an animal that depicts your prototypical conflict styleNow assess your specific conflict style – complete 9.3 on page 193 • Discuss your style with a partner. • Think of the pros & cons of each conflict style
  13. 13. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessFactorsB. Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles• Face: Socially approved self-image and other-image consideration issues.• Facework: Verbal and nonverbal strategies used to maintain, defend, or upgrade our social self-image and attack or defend (“save”) social images of others.
  14. 14. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessFactorsB. Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles Face-negotiation theory helps explain how individualism-collectivism value patterns influence use of diverse conflict styles in different situations.C. Cross-Ethnic Conflict Styles and FaceworkCan you guess the different kinds of conflict styles used by African Americans, Asian Americans, European Americans, Latino/a
  15. 15. II. Intercultural Conflict ProcessFactors• Media Activity: Spanglish film clipDiscussion Questions: • What did you notice about the conflict scene between John and Flor? • Can you identify all the verbal and nonverbal clashes? • What conflict goals were involved in the incident? Cite some specific examples.
  16. 16. III. Flexible Intercultural ConflictSkillsA. Facework Management • Self-oriented face-saving behaviors: Attempts to regain or defend one’s image after threats to face or face loss. • Other-oriented face-giving behaviors: Attempts to support others’ face claims and work with them to prevent further face loss or help them restore face constructively. Giving face means not humiliating others in public.
  17. 17. III. Flexible Intercultural ConflictSkillsB. Mindful Listening• A face-validation and power-sharing skill; listening with focused attentiveness to cultural and personal assumptions expressed.• Involves learning to listen responsively, or ting (Chinese: “attending mindfully with our ears, eyes, and a focused heart”).
  18. 18. III. Flexible Intercultural ConflictSkillsB. Mindful Listening
  19. 19. III. Flexible Intercultural ConflictSkillsMindless Listening Mindful Listening Ethnocentric lens Ethnorelative lens Reactive approach Proactive/choice Selective hearing approach Defensive posture Attentive listening “Struggle against” Supportive posture Judgmental attitude “Struggle with” Emotional outbursts Mindful reframing Coercive power Vulnerability shared Positional differences Shared power Fixed objectives Common interests Win-lose/lose-lose Creative options outcome Win-win synergy
  20. 20. III. Flexible Intercultural ConflictSkillsC. Cultural Empathy Perspective-take accurately the self- experiences of others and convey your understanding responsively.D. Mindful Reframing How you “frame” conflict via neutrally-toned language may soften conflict defensiveness.E. Adaptive Code-Switching Purposefully modifying one’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors in conflict interaction.
  21. 21. III. Flexible Intercultural ConflictSkillsReframing Skills Activity How did these conflicts go? How helpful do you think the reframing statements were to the conflict? Did any partners end up with win–win solutions? Coaches: how did it feel to try to reframe “in the moment?“ Conflict parties: Do you believe you reacted differently to your partner’s reframed statement rather than how you would have reacted to the original statement? How?
  22. 22. IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables To deal with conflict in a collectivistic culture, individualists need to do the following:1. Be mindful of mutual face-saving premises, especially delicate balance of humiliation and pride, respect and disrespect, and shame and honor issues.2. Practice patient, mindful observation and limit “why?” questions.3. Practice mindful listening skills, attend to others’ identity and relational expectation issues. Remember listen can become silent
  23. 23. IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-AblesIn conflict situations in an individualistic culture, collectivists need to do the following:1. Use assertive conflict behavior and state a clear thesis, then systematically develop key points.2. Use “I” statements and more “why?” questions.3. Engage in active listening skills (rephrasing and perception checking); do not rely solely on nonverbal signals or count on other people to gauge personal reactions.
  24. 24. Parting Thoughts…Conflict = Chaos = Danger + Opportunity Learn to listen to the identity stories, yearnings,and nuances behind the fighting words. ~ Stella Ting-Toomey