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  1. 1. Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 8 What Causes us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups? Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESSPowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
  2. 2. TODAY’S MENUI. Human Perception Tendencies: Some General PrinciplesII. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesIII. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership BoundariesIV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and RacismV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-
  3. 3. I. Human Perception Tendencies:Some General PrinciplesHuman perception: • Process of selecting cues quickly from the environment, organizing them into a coherent pattern and labeling that pattern, and interpreting that pattern in accordance with our expectation.Quick three-step process: • Selective attention • Selective organization and labeling • Selective interpretation.
  4. 4. Perception TestYouTube Perception TestHow many times does the team wearing white pass the basketball?
  5. 5. II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesA. Ethnocentrism and Communication Ethnocentrism: derived from two Greek words: Ethno: ―one’s own ethnic or cultural group‖ Centrism: ―One’s own group should be looked upon as the center of the world‖ Degrees of ethnocentrism: • Distance of disparagement (high ethnocentrism) • Distance of avoidance (moderate ethnocentrism)
  6. 6. II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesDevelopmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) Developed by Janet Bennett & Milton BennettA Popular Intercultural Training Model: • Three states of ethnocentrism • Three states in development of ethnorelativism
  7. 7. II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesDevelopmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity
  8. 8. II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesStereotype content model (SCM):Formed along two dimensions: • Perception of warmth dimension • Perception of competence dimension
  9. 9. II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesA Two-Dimensional Stereotype Content Model
  10. 10. II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesStereotyping is inevitable; key is to distinguish between inflexible and flexible stereotyping. • Inflexible stereotyping: holds onto negative stereotypes by operating on automatic pilot. • Flexible stereotyping: ―mindfully minding our mind.‖
  11. 11. II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesTable 8.1Inflexible Stereotyping Flexible StereotypingAutomatic pilot Mindful ofreaction categorizationRigid categories Open-ended categoriesPremature closure First best-guessesPolarized evaluations Loose interpretationsInformation distortion Information opennessUnwilling to change Willingness to change categories categories
  12. 12. II. Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and StereotypesClick here to view UCLA student Alexandra Wallace’s rant on Asian students in the library • What are your interpretations? • Apology accepted? Forgive & forget? Forgive but not forget?Click here to view Jimmy Wong’s reaction to Alexandra Wallace • What did you think of Wong’s response to Alex?
  13. 13. II. Biased Intergroup Filters:Ethnocentrism and StereotypesB. Stereotypes and Communication Stereotypes: • Exaggerated pictures about a group of people on the basis of inflexible beliefs and expectations about the characteristics or behaviors of the group.• What are some factors that shape stereotypes?Click here to view a clip from The Color of Friendship
  14. 14. III. Marking Ingroup-Outgroup Membership Boundaries Ingroup and Outgroup Attribution Differences
  15. 15. III. Marking Ingroup-Outgroup Membership BoundariesA. Us versus Them Social identity theory: Study of ingroup, outgroup membership, how emotional attachment to social group plays key role in forming social/personal identity. Ingroup: feel connected to. Outgroup: feel emotionally and psychologically detached.
  16. 16. III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership BoundariesB. Group Membership StruggleC. Intergroup Attribution Biases Attributions: the explanations—the meanings of why people behave as they do. • Fundamental attribution error • Principle of negativity • Favorable self-bias and other-derogation principle • Self-effacement bias
  17. 17. III. Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership BoundariesMedia Analysis: Crash film clipReflection Questions:• Where did the wife acquire her fear and biases?• Do you think stereotypes—both negative and positive—have their place? How so?• Where do we learn our stereotypes?
  18. 18. IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and RacismPrejudice: Describes an individual’s feelings and predispositions toward outgroup members in a pejorative or negative direction, but can also mean the opposite: One can be indiscriminately for or against members of a particular group.Four explanations for development of prejudice: • Exploitation theory • Scapegoating theory
  19. 19. IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and RacismB. Prejudiced Remarks . . .or Innocent Jokes?Click here to watch a clip on how some ingroup members treat their own members like outgroup members.Where to draw the line question is difficult to answer. . .Click here to move toward the conscious competence stage with respect to stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination.
  20. 20. IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and RacismC. Four Discriminatory Practices Discrimination: Verbal and nonverbal actions that carry out prejudiced attitudes. Four practices: • Isolate discrimination: • Small-group discrimination • Direct institutional discrimination • Indirect institutional discrimination
  21. 21. IV. Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and RacismD. Different Types of Racism Racism involves three principles: • Feelings of superiority based on biological or racial differences; • Strong ingroup preferences and the rejection of outgroups, different in customs or beliefs; and • Doctrine that conveys special advantage to those in power. Three basic examples of racism: • Racial profiling • Perpetuating stereotypic images • Hate crimes
  22. 22. V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables• Be honest about your own biases.• Understand where you learn your stereotypes.• Seek accurate identity membership knowledge.• Get involved in diverse identity communities.• Cultivate constructive, intergroup contacts.• Work on positive, interdependent task
  23. 23. Parting Thoughts…In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart.I simply cant build up my hopes on a foundation consisting of confusion, misery and death. ~ Anne Frank