Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 6 What is the Connection between Verbal Communication & Culture? Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESSPowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENUI. Human Language: DistinctiveFeatures and Rule PatternsII. Appreciating Diverse Language FunctionsIII. Verbal CommunicationStyles: A General FrameworkIV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
Do you know…• The Top-3 Countries with the Most Native English-Language Speakers?• The Top-3 Countries with the Most Native Spanish-Language Speakers?• The Top-3 Most Widely-Spoken Languages Worldwide? (Ethnologue Database, 2010-11)
I. Human Language: DistinctiveFeatures and Rule PatternsLanguage: An arbitrary, symbolic system that labels and categorizes objects, events, groups, people, ideas, feelings, experiences, and many other phenomena.Can you guess how many languages exist worldwide?
I. Human Language: DistinctiveFeatures and Rule Patterns A. Distinctive Language Features • Arbitrariness: sounds and symbols Ω A € ∞ • Abstractness: concrete to abstract levels • Meaning-Centeredness: denotative and connotative levels of meaning • Creativity: productivity, displacement, eta-communicative
I. Human Language: DistinctiveFeatures and Rule PatternsB. Multiple Rule Patterns • Phonological Rules: Smallest unit of a word • Morphological Rules: Multiple sounds • Syntactic Rules: Grammar • Semantic Rules: Meaning • Pragmatic Rules: Contextual rules
II. Appreciating DiverseLanguage FunctionsClick here to find out the “Meaning of Love” From 7 Billion Others from YouTube
II. Appreciating Diverse LanguageFunctions A. Cultural Worldview Function • Linear worldview vs. Relational worldview B. Everyday Social Reality Function C. Cognitive Shaping Function • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: “the shaper of ideas” • Strong Form vs. Weak Form D. Group Membership Function • Code switching (Click to view related video) E. Social Change Function
II. Appreciating Diverse LanguageFunctions: Cultural WorldviewFunctionLinear Worldview Relational WorldviewRational thinking Connected thinkingObjective reasoning Context-based reasoningFacts and evidence Context and relationshipPolarized interpretation Continuum interpretationAnalytical dissecting Holistic big-picture modemode Long-term relationalTangible outcome outcome
II. Verbal Communication Styles: A General FrameworkLCC Patterns HCC PatternsIndividualistic values Collectivistic valuesLinear logic Spiral logicDirect verbal style Indirect verbal styleMatter of fact tone Understated or animated toneInformal verbal style Formal verbal styleVerbal assertiveness or talkativeness Verbal reticence or silenceVerbal self- Self-humbling styleenhancement style
II. Verbal Communication Styles: A General Framework LCC – HCC Application Analysis: • The Joy Luck Club: Film Clip • Roommates Video DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: • Compare and contrast the different verbal styles of the people in the videos. • What did the low-context communicator say/do? What did the high-context communicator say/do? • What recommendations do you have for these communicators to make this conversation go better?
II. Verbal Communication Styles: A GeneralFrameworkBeliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence • Silence is interpreted and evaluated differently across cultures and between persons. • How do you interpret silence?Take a look at how the Japanese people use silence to mean different things…
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables When using your native language with a nonnative speaker, to be flexible verbal communicators, try to practice the following guidelines: – Practice intercultural empathy – Learn to paraphrase and perception check – Use multiple modes of presentation – Practice language variation usage – Pay attention to nonverbal tone of voice – Understand basic differences of LCC and HCC patterns – Use nonverbal gestures to complement
Parting Thoughts… If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart. ~ Nelson Mandela Learn a new language and get a new soul. ~ Czech Proverb