Chapter 4Stakeholders and Interactions         This is PR 11th Edition        Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
Objectives• To appreciate the similarities and distinctions among the public  relations terms; stakeholder, public and aud...
Stakeholders• Another term for “publics”• Like stockholders, they have a vested  interest in an organization• But they may...
Publics• More commonly used term than  “stakeholder”• Any group that has involvement with an  organization: neighbors, cus...
Audience• Not synonymous with “public”• Passive recipients of something: message,  performance, etc.                This i...
Public as an Active Audience• Each person is a member of many  definable, describable publics• Members of a public share a...
Target or Priority       Publics/Stakeholders• Any public singled out as the focal point for  a public relations effort• A...
Identifying Priority       Publics/Stakeholders• Public Vulnerability Impact Index• Key to proper prioritizing is research...
Describing Priority      Publics/Stakeholders• Nominatively: giving them a name  – Stockholders  – Neighborhood residents ...
Describing Priority    Publics/Stakeholders (cont.)• Demographically: statistical characteristics  – Age  – Gender  – Educ...
Describing Priority   Publics/Stakeholders (cont.)• Psychographically: defining emotional and  behavioral characteristics ...
Prioritizing       Publics/Stakeholders• Demographics may be easy, but not very  reliable• Psychographics look at core per...
VALS 2 Psychographic             Casting•   Actualizers•   Fulfillers•   Believers•   Achievers•   Strivers•   Experiencer...
Roper Starch Worldwide• Determined top 10 global values• Used these values to create six  psychographic categories        ...
Cross-Referencing Data• Best understanding of publics comes from  cross-referencing data• Demographics plus psychographics...
Employees as a Public• Are important as organization’s “front line”• Have great credibility with outsiders• Are expected t...
Women as a Public• Are majority of the world’s population, but a  minority in terms of economic, social and  political pow...
Minorities as a Public• Can be ethnic or religious groups• Can be physically present or represented  by a constituency abr...
Issues: identification• Identifying issues is the first step in the  process of monitoring an organizations  socio-economi...
Issues: management•   Sensing the problem: research•   Defining the problem: setting priorities•   Deriving solutions: sel...
Mahon’s Issues Strategies• Choose appropriate strategy depending on  life cycle of issue• Contain an emerging issue• Shape...
Convincing Management to        Address an Issue• State the issue or problem specifically and  describe specific effects• ...
Issues and the Role of the PR            Practitioner• PR plays biggest role beyond role played  by CEO• Expected to know ...
Image and Perception• A public’s perception of an organization is the  organization’s image in that public’s eyes• This pe...
Probing an Image• If the institution has an image, does it live up to it,  or does it say one thing and do another?• If th...
Image and Corporate Culture• Culture comes from the top down, but every employee  contributes• Culture is set by the organ...
Priority Publics and Planning• Require careful, specific identification of  each priority public and its characteristics• ...
Public Opinion• Public opinion is what most people in a  particular public think (collective opinion)• It is the preferenc...
Hennessey’s Five Basic Elements       of Public Opinion• Public opinion must be focused on an issue• The public must consi...
Public Opinion• Expresses beliefs not necessarily based on  facts but on perceptions or evaluations• Can be based on inacc...
Measuring Public Opinion• It changes so often it can be influenced easily,  making measurement of it big business   – Publ...
Public Opinion Research and PR• Public opinion researchers: function is to  know, measure, analyze, and weigh public  opin...
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Chapter4

  1. 1. Chapter 4Stakeholders and Interactions This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  2. 2. Objectives• To appreciate the similarities and distinctions among the public relations terms; stakeholder, public and audience• To recognize and be able to identify and prioritize organizational relationships• To understand how priority publics can be described nominatively, demographically and psychographically• To develop sensitivity toward minority publics based on gender, age, nationality, ethnicity, beliefs – value or faith-based• To be able to identify potential issues for the organization within and among different individuals, groups or other types of communities that may create problems• To understand the complexity of opinion formation and the fragility of public opinion This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  3. 3. Stakeholders• Another term for “publics”• Like stockholders, they have a vested interest in an organization• But they may or may not own stock• Employees, suppliers, customers, government, investors, local community, special interest groups• Have expectations of organization and the organization is accountable to them This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  4. 4. Publics• More commonly used term than “stakeholder”• Any group that has involvement with an organization: neighbors, customers, employees, competitors, government• Publics and organizations have consequences on each other This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  5. 5. Audience• Not synonymous with “public”• Passive recipients of something: message, performance, etc. This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  6. 6. Public as an Active Audience• Each person is a member of many definable, describable publics• Members of a public share a common interest and have shared consequences on an organization• External vs. internal publics This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  7. 7. Target or Priority Publics/Stakeholders• Any public singled out as the focal point for a public relations effort• A definable audience for whom information and advertising are specifically prepared• “General public” notion is a myth This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  8. 8. Identifying Priority Publics/Stakeholders• Public Vulnerability Impact Index• Key to proper prioritizing is research: Who are they? What do they think?• Priority publics may also be primary publics, depending on issue; a primary public can become a priority public This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  9. 9. Describing Priority Publics/Stakeholders• Nominatively: giving them a name – Stockholders – Neighborhood residents – Employees This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  10. 10. Describing Priority Publics/Stakeholders (cont.)• Demographically: statistical characteristics – Age – Gender – Education This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  11. 11. Describing Priority Publics/Stakeholders (cont.)• Psychographically: defining emotional and behavioral characteristics – Interests – Attitudes – Beliefs – Behavior This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  12. 12. Prioritizing Publics/Stakeholders• Demographics may be easy, but not very reliable• Psychographics look at core personality traits, values, attitudes, lifestyles, so capture essence of people This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  13. 13. VALS 2 Psychographic Casting• Actualizers• Fulfillers• Believers• Achievers• Strivers• Experiencers• Makers• Strugglers This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  14. 14. Roper Starch Worldwide• Determined top 10 global values• Used these values to create six psychographic categories This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  15. 15. Cross-Referencing Data• Best understanding of publics comes from cross-referencing data• Demographics plus psychographics plus media characteristics plus media use This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  16. 16. Employees as a Public• Are important as organization’s “front line”• Have great credibility with outsiders• Are expected to have information only an insider would have• Will respond with loyalty when made to feel valued This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  17. 17. Women as a Public• Are majority of the world’s population, but a minority in terms of economic, social and political power• An organization stands to lose a great deal if it is seen as abusing, ignoring women• An organization has a great deal to gain if it treats this public fairly This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  18. 18. Minorities as a Public• Can be ethnic or religious groups• Can be physically present or represented by a constituency abroad• While linked by religion or ethnicity, there is a lack of homogeneity among religious and ethnic groups This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  19. 19. Issues: identification• Identifying issues is the first step in the process of monitoring an organizations socio-economic and political climate for developments that could have impact• Helps foresee when opinion is likely to build around an incident• Emergence of issue creates opportunity to avoid a crisis and engage in beneficial communication This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  20. 20. Issues: management• Sensing the problem: research• Defining the problem: setting priorities• Deriving solutions: selecting strategies• Implementing solutions• Evaluating outcomes This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  21. 21. Mahon’s Issues Strategies• Choose appropriate strategy depending on life cycle of issue• Contain an emerging issue• Shape an issue that has media attention and is on the public agenda• Cope with issues that face legislative, regulatory or interest group action This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  22. 22. Convincing Management to Address an Issue• State the issue or problem specifically and describe specific effects• Identify adversaries and friends• Develop a strategy that includes deciding whether to take the initiative• Determine whether to involve coalitions or go it alone This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  23. 23. Issues and the Role of the PR Practitioner• PR plays biggest role beyond role played by CEO• Expected to know what is going on• Expected to bring facts and objectivity to decision making• Not just a communicator but an intervener and relationship builder This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  24. 24. Image and Perception• A public’s perception of an organization is the organization’s image in that public’s eyes• This perception/image is based on what the organization says and does• This perception/image is often not the same for one public as it is for another• Collective perceptions about an organization by its various publics, based on what it says and does, constitute its image• When external and internal publics share perceptions of what an institution is and should be, the institution’s image is likely to be cohesive because it is consistent This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  25. 25. Probing an Image• If the institution has an image, does it live up to it, or does it say one thing and do another?• If the organization has an image, can employees “deliver” on it?• When an image change is necessary, have employees been involved through participative management?• If the company has no recognizable image, does this result in confusion, limited identification and disparate values? This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  26. 26. Image and Corporate Culture• Culture comes from the top down, but every employee contributes• Culture is set by the organization’s traditional communication environment and new leaders are chosen who fit that mold• Culture determines or strongly influences an organizations willingness to embrace change, promote innovation, tolerate dissent, encourage criticism, etc.• Organizations with strong cultures may have a more cohesive image, but they tend to be less flexible or able to change• Corporate culture is also shaped by its environment, its business and the primary societal culture of its employees This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  27. 27. Priority Publics and Planning• Require careful, specific identification of each priority public and its characteristics• Require translation of this information into a sensitive understanding of needs• Require studying such a public for its other relationships This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  28. 28. Public Opinion• Public opinion is what most people in a particular public think (collective opinion)• It is the preferences expressed by a significant number of people on an issue of general importance This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  29. 29. Hennessey’s Five Basic Elements of Public Opinion• Public opinion must be focused on an issue• The public must consist of a recognizable group of persons concerned with the issue• The opinions and nuances of opinion of every member of the public are aggregated to form public opinion• The opinion may be expressed in a variety of ways: printed or spoken words, symbols, etc.• A group of persons is involved, large or small. The key is that their opinion must have a measurable effect. This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  30. 30. Public Opinion• Expresses beliefs not necessarily based on facts but on perceptions or evaluations• Can be based on inaccurate, or a lack of accurate, information• Is notably unstable, usually a “body temperature” at a particular moment in time This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  31. 31. Measuring Public Opinion• It changes so often it can be influenced easily, making measurement of it big business – Public opinion surveys: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research• Some studies available free or at minimal cost from academic or research institutions• Pollsters such as Harris, Gallup, etc. often release their data through the news media• It is hard to capture: influenced by way questions are asked, the very act of asking, the sensitivity of the subject, etc. This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  32. 32. Public Opinion Research and PR• Public opinion researchers: function is to know, measure, analyze, and weigh public opinion• Public relations practitioners: function is to help people and organizations deal constructively with the force of public opinion• PR practitioners must know the difference between information and opinion This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg

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