Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chapter3
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter3

218
views

Published on


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
218
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 3Research: Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 2. Objectives• To understand the role of research in public relations practice• To appreciate the need for ongoing research and the cyclical pattern of PR research• To realize when it is best to go outside to an individual or firm for research needs• To evaluate secondary research and determine its use in a PR situation• To know how to do primary research for PR fact finding This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 3. Research is Fundamental• Every PR activity begins with analyzing some facts, gathered through research• Initial research is often secondary: making use of facts and data already collected• Primary research, gathering new information, often follows This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 4. Formal vs. Informal Research• Informal: less rigorous and perhaps less pre-testing, but still structured with research designs and protocols• Formal: more rigorous, more structured – May be qualitative or quantitative This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 5. Research Basics• Record keeping: files, archives• Records needed for organization itself, for personnel, for organizational activities and publications• For ease of retrieval, records must be kept in a logical, well-organized and easily retrievable form This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 6. Research Sources• Scholarly – Done by academic institutions (students, faculty) – Sometimes funded by government, foundations or professional associations – Often published in scholarly or professional journals and made public This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 7. Research Sources (cont.)• Government – Widely available, often free in print or on Web – Local, state and federal This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 8. Research Sources (cont.)• Commercial – Done by research, advertising and PR firms, marketing companies – Usually proprietary, so not published, although some may be given limited access to data – Commercial organization may release data if it reflects favorably on the organization This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 9. Research Sources (cont.)• The Web – Organizational sites most dependable – Search engines help fine-tune finding the information you are seeking – Diligence in determining validity, reliability of Web information is critical This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 10. Research Sources (cont.)• Mass media and professional publications – Often applied research – Much scholarly research published here This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 11. Research Sources (cont.)• Telephone interviews – Landlines give inadequate results – Mobile phone interviews are costly – Electronic surveys are easier to manage This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 12. Research on Trends, Issues• Useful for both planning and monitoring PR activities, programs• Helpful to know the environment into which your message will be moving• Environmental scanning helps determine strategy and plan• Evaluation once program is implemented determines if environment has changed This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 13. Research on Publics• Use of demographics• Use of psychographics• Use of geodemographics• Use of ongoing research because publics not static and priorities change This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 14. Research on Media• Learn where your publics get their information• Learn which media have content and readership compatible with your message• In addition to mass, trade media also important sources of information• Shift to social and digital media for information• Personalization of media choices This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 15. Research on Media Audiences• Subscriber information• Circulation figures• Ratings of TV programs• Radio and on-line video monitoring This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 16. Cycle of PR Research• Preliminary research in planning stage• Research for pretesting messages, surveys• Research for fine-tuning• Research for final evaluation This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 17. Informal Research• Generally conducted without rules, procedures that would permit someone to replicate• Unobtrusive measures, e.g., color-coded tickets to an event• Communication or opinion audits (evaluate response to all of an organization’s communication efforts)• Analysis of clippings, transcripts of media coverage (quantity, quality of coverage) This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 18. Informal Research Risks• Validity of sources• Inability to replicate• Difficulty of upholding ethical standards• Depending too heavily on intuition or experience for making critical decisions This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 19. Formal Research• Qualitative – Measures by describing – Conducted either in lab or “in the field” – Honesty, confidentiality and objectivity are also important values• Quantitative – Measures by counting – Conducted either in lab or “in the field” – Honesty, confidentiality and objectivity are also important values This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 20. Steps in Formal Research• State the problem• Select a manageable and measurable portion of the problem to address• Establish definitions to be used• Conduct a search in published literature for relevant information• Develop a hypothesis This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 21. Steps in Formal Research (cont.)• Design the experiment or study. This involves defining the population you wish to study and then choosing a sampling method• Obtain the data• Analyze the data• Interpret the data to make inferences, generalizations• Communicate the results This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 22. Types of Qualitative Research• Historiography, case studies and diaries• In-depth interviews• Focus groups This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 23. Types of Quantitative Research• Textual analysis• Content analysis• Survey research• Sampling (probability, nonprobability) – Accidental – Purposive – Quota/stratified This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 24. Stages of Research Questions• Preliminary, exploratory: “I wonder”• Prediction: “I think”• Hypothesis testing This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 25. Testing Hypotheses• State your hypothesis• State the opposite of your hypothesis (the null hypothesis)• Determine the probability that null hypothesis could be true• Reject null if that probability is slight• If probability is significantly larger, don’t reject the null – but neither can you “prove” the hypothesis This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 26. Sampling Audiences• Cross-section surveys – Probability sample (random) – Quota sample (by known characteristics) – Area sample (by geography)• Survey panels – Consumer panels to test products, ads – Usually selected on cross-sectional basis, but quota – May not physically meet but instead participate through teleconferencing, mail This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 27. Questionnaires• Most familiar data-gathering device for surveying audiences• Face-to-face• By computer• By social networks• By direct mail• By list• Respondent’s interest in subject influences rate of return This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 28. Questionnaire Tips• Best way to get a good response rate is to write a good questionnaire• Closed-ended questions easier to code and tabulate than open-ended, but may yield less insightful data• Questions should be logically ordered and separate: not several questions imbedded in one giant question This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 29. Questionnaire Tips (cont.)• Provide clear instructions so the respondent knows what to do to respond• Always pretest• Cultural, governmental differences abound across borders: some types of questions are inappropriate in certain situations and locations, and some governments prohibit the asking of certain kinds of questions This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 30. Questionnaire Formats• Semantic differential scales: measure variations in intensity, often using adjectives that are the opposite of each other – Pleasant – unpleasant – Fair – unfair – Exciting – dull – Accurate - inaccurate This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 31. Questionnaire Formats (cont.)• Summated ratings – Strongly approve – strongly disapprove – Strongly agree – strongly disagree• Scale analysis – Dichotomous questions – Multiple choice questions This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 32. Delphi Studies• Respondent-generated questionnaire• Begins with open-ended questionnaire• Verbatim responses tabulated and reported, and circulated among all respondents who are asked to rate or rank the responses• Responses placed into categories based on their ratings or rankings• Categories are then rank-ordered by all respondents• An interactive, repetitive process This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 33. Research Applications• Identify problems• Analyze problems• Develop programs and guide their implementation• Measure results of programs This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 34. Research is a Cycle• Begins to assist in planning• Moves on to testing and revising hypotheses• Leads to further fact finding and assessment• Shifts to monitoring ongoing programs• Concludes with final evaluation that provides input to help in the planning cycle of the next program This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg