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  1. 1. Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 3 What are the Essential Cultural Value Patterns? Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESSPowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
  2. 2. TODAY’S MENUI. Functions of Cultural ValuesII. Analyzing Cultural Value DimensionsIII. Additional Value OrientationsIV. Individual Socialization DevelopmentV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
  3. 3. I. Functions of CulturalValues • • • • •
  4. 4. I. Functions of CulturalValues A. Analyzing Cultural Values B. Identity Meaning Function C. Explanatory Function D. Motivational Function E. Ingroup–Outgroup Evaluative FunctionClick here to watch how Best Buy demonstrates how ittakes its cultural values and uses them throughout thedifferent countries in which it operates.
  5. 5. II. Analyzing Cultural ValueDimensionsIDENTITY: Individualism CollectivismPOWER: Small Power Large Power Distance Distance Weak StrongUNCERTAINTY Uncertainty : Uncertainty Avoidance AvoidanceSEX ROLES: Feminine Masculine
  6. 6. II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions: Individualism–Collectivism Value PatternIndividualistic Collectivistic Cultures Cultures “We” Identity “I” Identity Extended family Nuclear family Relational harmony Privacy regulation Teamwork Individual competition Ingroup emphasis Personal competence Indirect comm. Direct comm. patterns patterns Independent self Interdependent self
  7. 7. II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions: Small–Large Power Distance Value PatternSmall Power Distance Large Power Distance Emphasize interpersonal Emphasize status based equality differenceChildren may contradict Children should obey parents parentsYounger people are smart Older people are wiseTeachers ask for feedback Teachers lectureSubordinates expect Subordinates expect consultation guidanceInformal comm. patterns Formal comm. patternsHorizontal self Vertical self
  8. 8. II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions: Weak-Strong Uncertainty Avoidance ValuePatternWeak Uncertainty Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Avoidance Uncertainty is valued Uncertainty is a threat Family is dynamic and Reinforce family rules changing Low mobility in High mobility in relationships relationships Challenges are welcome Routines are welcome Encourage risk-taking Encourage clear procedure Conflict can be positive Conflict is negative High tolerance for ambiguity
  9. 9. II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions: Feminine-Masculine Value PatternFeminine Cultures Masculine CulturesFlexible sex roles Complementary sex rolesEmphasize nurturance Emphasize achievementBoth genders take Males take initiativeinitiative Academic performance is criticalSocial adjustment iscritical Live in order to workWork in order to live “Masculine” toughness vs. “feminine” softnessFluid gender Clear masculine/femininecommunication gender roles
  10. 10. II. Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions: Media ActivitiesMy Big Fat Greek Wedding film clip: Connect with the different value dimensionsJapanese Snowboarder: Values During the 2008 Winter Olympics a Japanese snowboarder received a large backlash from his home country after wearing his country’s uniform “inappropriately.” Click here to watch video.The Last Samurai film clip: Click here to watch this clip about Feminine/ Masculine Cultures
  11. 11. II. Analyzing Cultural ValueDimensions: Self-Assessment DiscussionFour-Dimensional Values Inventory (DVI) What Factors Shape Your Values’ Development? Increase Your Self-Awareness of Value Dimensions on Multiple Levels: Cultural/Ethnic, Workplace, Family, and Personal Self. Dyadic Discussion: Increase Your Awareness of Differences and Similarities between SELF and OTHER. . .
  12. 12. III. Additional Value OrientationPatterns
  13. 13. IV. Individual SocializationDevelopmentA. Independent versus Interdependent Self-ConstrualB. Horizontal versus Vertical Self- ConstrualC. Internal versus External Locus of Control
  14. 14. V. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables Flexible intercultural communicators: Practice the O-D-I-S Method: O= Observe verbal and nonverbal signals attentively. D= Describe specific behaviors with a minimum of distortion. I= Generate multiple interpretations of the unfamiliar behaviors. S= Suspend ethnocentric evaluation, perform open-ended evaluation.
  15. 15. Values Exploration Exercise “PARABLE” Application Exercise  Individual Decision Ranking  Group Discussion  Group Decision Consensus Ranking  In-Class Writing Assignment
  16. 16. Parting Thoughts…Only if we understand can we care. Only if we care will we help.Only if we help shall they be saved. ~ Jane