Chapter 2PR’s Origins and Evolution       This is PR 11th Edition      Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
Objectives• To appreciate that public relations in some form has been a  part of societies throughout the history of human...
Origin of PR Term• Thomas Jefferson combined the words  “public” and “relations” in 1807• Yale graduation speaker used the...
Influence of Bernays• First to call himself public relations counsel• Wrote first PR book, “Crystallizing Public  Opinion”...
PR’s Multiple “Founders”• Bernays• George Creel and the Committee on Public  Information• Ivy Lee                This is P...
PR’s Common Thread:               persuasion•   Monuments and art of ancient world•   Christian and Islamic religious writ...
PR’s Uses Throughout History•   Promote wars•   Lobby for political causes•   Support political parties•   Promote religio...
PR Tactics Throughout History•   Use of rhetoric•   Use of symbols•   Use of mass media•   Use of technology    – Internet...
Five Stages of PR in the USA• Preliminary  – Development of channels of    communication  – Development of PR tactics such...
Five Stages of PR in the USA              (cont.)• Communicating/initiating  – Publicists  – Press agents  – Promoters  – ...
Five Stages of PR in the USA              (cont.)• Reacting/responding  – Writers as spokespeople  – PR on behalf of speci...
Five Stages of PR in the USA              (cont.)• Planning/preventing  – Maturing of public relations  – Incorporating of...
Five Stages of PR in the USA              (cont.)• Professionalism  – Control over use and practice of public    relations...
PR Historical Highlights in              USA• 1600 – 1799: colonization and American  Revolution   – Federalist papers (Al...
PR Historical Highlights in USA              (cont.)• 1800 – 1899: Civil War, Western Expansion,  Industrial Revolution   ...
PR Historical Highlights in USA            (cont.)– PR/press agentry in entertainment: P.T.  Barnum, book publishing– Use ...
PR Historical Highlights in USA             (cont.)• 1900 – 1939: Progressive Era, Muckrakers,  WW I, Depression   – Ivy L...
PR Historical Highlights in USA            (cont.)– Development of publicity agencies and in-  house publicity bureaus– Fi...
PR Historical Highlights in USA             (cont.)• 1940 – 1979: planning, preventing and  growth of PR as management fun...
PR Historical Highlights in USA            (cont.)– Beginnings of corporate social  responsibility– PR used in causes such...
PR Historical Highlights in USA             (cont.)• 1980 – Present: professionalism, global  communication   – Reagan pre...
PR Historical Highlights in USA            (cont.)– Development of “full-service” agencies  that offer both PR and adverti...
PR Historical Highlights in USA              (cont.)• Political, cultural developments around the world  open new markets,...
PR Outlook for the Future• Employment of PR specialists expected to increase  faster than the average for all occupations ...
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Chapter2

  1. 1. Chapter 2PR’s Origins and Evolution This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  2. 2. Objectives• To appreciate that public relations in some form has been a part of societies throughout the history of humankind• To recognize how public relations practice has influenced how society has evolved throughout history• To understand the critical importance of public relations in a free and democratic society• To develop a sensitivity about why public relations evolved, not just in business, but also in government and in a wide range of nongovernmental organizations• To create a heightened awareness of how public relations has matured as a professional occupation• To understand how communications technology is changing contemporary practice of public relations This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  3. 3. Origin of PR Term• Thomas Jefferson combined the words “public” and “relations” in 1807• Yale graduation speaker used the words in 1882• Words appeared in print in 1897• Edward Bernays called himself a “public relations counsel” in 1921 This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  4. 4. Influence of Bernays• First to call himself public relations counsel• Wrote first PR book, “Crystallizing Public Opinion”• Taught first PR college course at NYU• Specialized in mass psychology: how opinions of large numbers of people can be influenced effectively This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  5. 5. PR’s Multiple “Founders”• Bernays• George Creel and the Committee on Public Information• Ivy Lee This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  6. 6. PR’s Common Thread: persuasion• Monuments and art of ancient world• Christian and Islamic religious writings• Roman emperors• Shakespeare’s historical plays This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  7. 7. PR’s Uses Throughout History• Promote wars• Lobby for political causes• Support political parties• Promote religion• Sell products• Raise money• Publicize events and people This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  8. 8. PR Tactics Throughout History• Use of rhetoric• Use of symbols• Use of mass media• Use of technology – Internet and intranets This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  9. 9. Five Stages of PR in the USA• Preliminary – Development of channels of communication – Development of PR tactics such as publicity, promotion, press agentry This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  10. 10. Five Stages of PR in the USA (cont.)• Communicating/initiating – Publicists – Press agents – Promoters – Propagandists This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  11. 11. Five Stages of PR in the USA (cont.)• Reacting/responding – Writers as spokespeople – PR on behalf of special interests This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  12. 12. Five Stages of PR in the USA (cont.)• Planning/preventing – Maturing of public relations – Incorporating of PR as management function This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  13. 13. Five Stages of PR in the USA (cont.)• Professionalism – Control over use and practice of public relations on an international level – Development of a Body of Knowledge, code of ethics, PR education This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  14. 14. PR Historical Highlights in USA• 1600 – 1799: colonization and American Revolution – Federalist papers (Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay) – Bill of Rights This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  15. 15. PR Historical Highlights in USA (cont.)• 1800 – 1899: Civil War, Western Expansion, Industrial Revolution – Amos Kendall, first presidential press secretary – PR used in political campaigns, elections – Partisan press to promote antislavery views – PR used to raise funds for war effort – Creations of legends, heroes of movement to US West This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  16. 16. PR Historical Highlights in USA (cont.)– PR/press agentry in entertainment: P.T. Barnum, book publishing– Use of PR by educational institutions (Yale, Harvard)– Steam power, linotype, technology advanced PR tactics and techniques– Shift from “public be damned” to acknowledging obligation to society– PR used in retailing, industry, service industries This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  17. 17. PR Historical Highlights in USA (cont.)• 1900 – 1939: Progressive Era, Muckrakers, WW I, Depression – Ivy Lee’s “Declaration of Principles” – Publicists become spokespersons for organizations and corporations – Businesses under fire from muckrakers, government – Media relations as PR specialty This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  18. 18. PR Historical Highlights in USA (cont.)– Development of publicity agencies and in- house publicity bureaus– First press bureau in federal government– George Creel and the Committee on Public Information– Social science interest in public opinion and opinion research– Arthur W. Page Principles– Wider use of PR by presidents This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  19. 19. PR Historical Highlights in USA (cont.)• 1940 – 1979: planning, preventing and growth of PR as management function – WW II turned PR into full-fledged profession – First full School of Public Relations established at BU – Booming post-War economy strengthened role of PR in business This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  20. 20. PR Historical Highlights in USA (cont.)– Beginnings of corporate social responsibility– PR used in causes such as civil rights, space program, peace movement– Growth of consumer movement creates niche for PR and highlights disconnect between business and consumers– New court and SEC rulings have impact on financial, investor PR This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  21. 21. PR Historical Highlights in USA (cont.)• 1980 – Present: professionalism, global communication – Reagan presidency illustrates new, more controlled uses of PR – Large PR firms acquired by advertising agencies – Mergers occur among large PR and advertising firms This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  22. 22. PR Historical Highlights in USA (cont.)– Development of “full-service” agencies that offer both PR and advertising– Development of “integrated communication” or “integrated marketing communications” puts greater emphasis on strategic planning in PR– Globalization of news turned PR global as well This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  23. 23. PR Historical Highlights in USA (cont.)• Political, cultural developments around the world open new markets, audiences to PR messages• Technology completes the globalization of communication and PR• Global markets = global branding = global PR strategies and tactics• Communication technology, multiculturalism and globalization continue as major influences This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  24. 24. PR Outlook for the Future• Employment of PR specialists expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through 2012• New challenges balancing openness and positive relationships with concerns about safety and security• Increasingly diverse nation – Growth of minorities – “ Baby Boomers” – Natural disasters• Increasing use of technology This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg

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