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Chapter12
 

Chapter12

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    Chapter12 Chapter12 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 12Crisis and Credibility This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Objectives• To create awareness of situations that could become crises• To plan strategies and implement policies that help an organization through a crisis• To recognize the triggering event that precipitates a crisis• To understand managements likely response to a crisis in order to plan a coping strategy for dealing with anticipated reactions• To be sensitive to the needs of all publics, including nimbus publics, when a crisis occurs This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Anticipating a Crisis• Issues management helps organizations anticipate crises – Challenge is deciding which issues are likely to engage publics or create an event that triggers a crisis – Role of PR is informing management about issues and situations that could escalate into crises – Corporate culture, management attitude determine management reaction This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Recurring Crises• Urban myths can be resurrected• New developments on old issues can bring old crises back• Continuing action on crisis issue can keep it at crisis point This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Characteristics of Crises• Always involve people• Always interrupt the normal chain of events or command This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Categories of Crises• Physically violent or nonviolent• Several causes – Acts of nature – Intentional acts – Unintentional acts This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Crisis Management• Key is anticipation – Begin by identifying kinds of crises organization is most likely to face – Then examine policies that might be put into place to prevent crises in each category of crisis• Risk assessment – Interpret data from research – Evaluate vulnerability of organization• Crisis management is aided by use of two-way symmetrical public relations – Warnings more likely when communication is open and two-way – Conflicts can be more easily resolved This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Crisis Publics• Some publics easily identified• Some often neglected in planning process because not immediately affected by but eventually feel the impact – Called nimbus publics This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Imagining a Crisis• Involve as many people in organization as possible• Take role of intelligent and resourceful adversary, asking. “What’s the best way to wreck this organization?”• Assume role of corporate management and ask “What is the best response?”• Start by asking how money, people, products/services, processes and locations of operation will be disrupted• Consider impact each event will have on each public individually This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Communications Climate and Crises• Organization’s communications climate has a great impact on how management handles crises• Shutting off the flow of information is worst way to handle a crisis• An open information flow quells rumors and makes it possible to create trust This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Anticipating a Crisis• Collect information on potential crises before they occur• Keep the information readily available to those most likely to need it• Keep it in a form that is usable in a crisis This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Anticipating a Crisis (cont.)• Types of information to gather: – addresses, contact information on all company offices, branches – floor plans, employee list for each location – bio information on all employees, in-depth on key executives – photos of facilities, key executives – statistics on facilities and organization – history of organization This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Anticipating a Crisis (cont.)• Types of information to gather: – emergency information such as nearest hospital, police, firefighters – plan for contacting every member of workforce – organizational documents such as vision, mission, positioning statements – position papers on key issues – information on key publics and how to contact them – digitalized video This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • A Crisis Plan• A crisis plan should be: – a guideline rather than an overly detailed process – easy to remember – flexible – thorough and comprehensive – communicated – reviewed regularly and updated This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Crisis Communication Essentials• Existence of a communications plan as part of crisis plan• Ability to assemble a crisis team when a crisis occurs• Use of a single spokesperson during a crisis This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Guidelines for Communications Plans• Must include strong internal as well as external communication• Must carefully choose right medium for each public• Must pretest message statements before they are disseminated• Should designate certain members of crisis team as fact finders• Legal counsel must be involved to avoid “no comment” response when openness needed This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Crisis Narrative• Story public hears must be truthful• Key publics must be able to relate to story• Narrative must demonstrate that the organization has control of the situation and will successfully resolve the crisis This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Crisis Spokesperson• Choosing the one spokesperson is the most important act dealing with a crisis• May or may not be CEO• Person sets tone for how crisis is managed• Must be perceived as knowledgeable and up to date on developments• Must have sole responsibility and authority to speak for the organization• May have one spokesperson for internal and for external audiences This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Employees’ Role in a Crisis• Are on the front line in dealing with a crisis – Organization’s most credible representatives to people outside the organization – People will develop perceptions from way employees behave• Employees should never learn about a crisis from the news media or other second- hand source This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Hindrances in Crisis Management• Extent of crisis may not be known immediately• Persons affected by crisis may be hard to identify• Cause of crisis may be hard to identify and may be never known• Crisis is always traumatic to audiences affected directly This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Hindrances in Crisis Management (cont.)• Accurate and appropriate information about the crisis is expected by the publics, sometimes at unreasonable levels• Information decisions are made under high stress• An organization’s credibility is suspect in a crisis• A crisis incites emotional behavior This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Crisis Constants• People learn about a crisis primarily from personal networks• People tend to interpret the seriousness of a crisis in terms of personal risk or risk to people important to them• Government sources are relied on as the most authoritative This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Crisis Constants (cont.)• Amount of mass media coverage indicates the significance of the crisis to global publics• Availability to information in an open- communication environment reduces rumor and increases the accuracy of assessments of the situation This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • PR’s Responsibility in a Crisis• Forewarn and prepare management• Continuously monitor publics• Convince management to act• Give managers insight and objective information they don’t have• Provide guidance to avoid arrogance and bad judgment• Identify appropriate ways to involve employees This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Dealing with the Media• Prepare a first response release immediately• Issue update bulletins as written briefs, taped actualities, updated on Web site• Crises generate contradictory information: hard to keep facts straight This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Role of PR Practitioner in a Crisis• Conduct the delicate negotiations between the source and media about what to use and what not to use• Provide enough opportunities for information to be given to the media• Educate as well as inform the media This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Media Tips in a Crisis• Speedy replies to all queries are important• Keep cool under pressure• If you don’t know the answer, say so and attempt to get it• Eliminate obstacles reporters might encounter• Never ask to see a reporter’s story• Use your name when providing information and allow yourself to be quoted by name• Never argue with a reporter about the value of a story This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Media Tips in a Crisis (cont.)• Any information that goes to one source should go to all• Never flatly refuse to provide information• Always know the names and employers of the reporters you are talking with and how to contact them• Never give an answer to a reporter’s question that might not stand up or might embarrass you later• Never falsify or slant your answers This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Media Tips in a Crisis (cont.)• Be especially alert about photographs• Pass information along to reporters as soon as you get it• Have employee and organization records available to refer to in the event of a reporter’s question• Point out positive aspects of the organization even as it deals with crisis• Confine damage estimated to general descriptions This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Media Coverage of Crisis• Instantaneous coverage creates problems of perception vs. reality• Time pressures may force media to release information without adequate checking or editing• Media coverage of military, terrorist events may use inflammatory words or descriptions and may use victims of terrorism as symbols This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Media Coverage of Crisis (cont.)• Difficulties arise due to a conflict of opinion about the function, role and responsibility of media in reporting global crises• Differences in government control of media and journalists’ own sense of responsibility lead to different global interpretations of the same news This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Rumors• Thrive in crisis situations of anxiety, emotion, uncertainty, distress• Are likely when: – Authentic information is lacking, incomplete – Situations are loaded with anxiety, fear – Doubts exist – People feel they can’t control the situation – Prolonged decision-making delays occur – Organizational conflict is present This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Combating Rumors• Analyze the scope, seriousness, impact of the rumor before trying to combat it• Analyze the causes, motives, sources and disseminators of rumors• Confer with persons affected or damaged and share your concern• Provide immediately complete and authentic information This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Combating Rumors (cont.)• Feed the grapevine yourself• Contact the formal and informal leaders, opinion leaders, influentials to clarify the situation• Avoid referring to the rumor in the process of combating it• Conduct meetings to dispel the rumor at the grassroots level This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Crisis Evaluation• Crises should be evaluated in terms of the damage done or the risk of future damage• Much of the evaluation is based on communication This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Crisis Evaluation Questions• What was the cause?• What strategies, policies could be developed that would prevent a similar or related crisis?• Did the crisis plan work? Are changes needed?• How did involved personnel perform? This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Successful Crisis Handling• Early detection• Incident containment• Business resumption• Lessons learned• Timely decisions made on facts• Improved reputation as a result of appropriate response This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
    • Points to Remember• Credibility always at stake in crisis situation• Public perception of honesty, openness is essential• Failure to be available or prepared damages credibility This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg