Chapter12

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Chapter12

  1. 1. Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 12 How Can We Become Ethical Intercultural Communicators? Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESSPowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
  2. 2. TODAY‟S MENUI. Intercultural Communication Ethics: Contemporary IssuesII. Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing Pros and ConsIII. Becoming Ethical and Flexible Intercultural Communicators
  3. 3. I. Intercultural CommunicationEthics: Contemporary IssuesEthics: set of principles of conduct that governs behavior of individuals and groups; a set of standards that uphold the community‟s expectations concerning “right” and “wrong” conduct.
  4. 4. I. Intercultural CommunicationEthics: Contemporary IssuesDiscussion Questions:• From where did you learn your ethical position?• Does it differ from that of the larger culture to which you belong? How?
  5. 5. I. Intercultural CommunicationEthics: Contemporary IssuesGlobal Standard Procedure and Local Justice Issues:Five-phase ethical decision-making model: 1. Problem recognition 2. Information search 3. Construction of alternatives 4. Decision making choice 5. Implementation
  6. 6. I. Intercultural CommunicationEthics: Contemporary IssuesMedia Activity: Click here to view the Kenyan tradition of „beading‟Discussion Questions: • Can you apply the five-phase ethical decision-making model to this ethical dilemma? • Can you brainstorm some creative alternative solutions for this dilemma? • How would you go about approaching traditional Kenyans to explain your views
  7. 7. I. Intercultural CommunicationEthics: Contemporary IssuesB. Corporate Responsibility and Local Customary Practice Ethical algorithm formula for local cultural hiring practices. • Two conflict types: moral reasoning (a) related to and (b) not related to economic development in country. • Two questions: o (1) Is it possible to conduct business successfully without undertaking the practice? and o (2) Is practice a violation of fundamental international human rights?
  8. 8. I. Intercultural Communication Ethics: Contemporary IssuesC. Cultural Value Clash & Communication Preference• “Universalistic” or “impartial” value orientation: believe a set of consistent rules should apply to all individuals, regardless of relationship types or circumstances.• “Particularistic” value orientation: nature of relationship or situation guides
  9. 9. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and ConsThree ethical positions used to assess ethical violations in diverse cultures:A. Ethical Absolutism PositionB. Ethical Relativism PositionC. Ethical Universalism Position
  10. 10. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and ConsA. Ethical Absolutism Position• Emphasizes principles of right and wrong (good and bad behavior) in accordance with a set of assumed universally fixed standards regardless of cultural differences.• Universality: one set of consistent standards guides behavior on a global level, and cultural context is minimized. The standards, however, are often reflective of dominant or power-holder
  11. 11. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and ConsB. Ethical Relativism Position• Emphasizes the importance of understanding cultural context and its underlying traditions, beliefs, and value patterns in judging conduct.• Relativists emphasize that ethical/unethical practices should be understood from cultural insiders‟ viewpoint.
  12. 12. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and ConsC. Ethical Universalism Position• Emphasizes importance of deriving inclusive universal ethical standards and then placing ethical judgments against these derived, all-encompassing standards.• Judgments require knowledge about underlying similarities across cultures and about the unique features of a culture and involve collaborative dialog, open attitudes, and hard work from all
  13. 13. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and Cons Ethical Ethical Ethical Absolutism Relativism UniversalismPros
  14. 14. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and Cons Ethical Ethical Ethical Absolutism Relativism UniversalismPros Fixed standards for all practices
  15. 15. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and Cons Ethical Ethical Ethical Absolutism Relativism UniversalismPros Fixed Takes role of standards for culture all practices seriously
  16. 16. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and Cons Ethical Ethical Ethical Absolutism Relativism UniversalismPros Fixed Takes role of Involves standards for culture collaborative all practices seriously dialog, open attitudes
  17. 17. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and Cons Ethical Ethical Ethical Absolutism Relativism UniversalismPros Fixed Takes role of Involves standards for culture collaborative all practices seriously dialog, open attitudesCons
  18. 18. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and Cons Ethical Ethical Ethical Absolutism Relativism UniversalismPros Fixed Takes role of Involves standards for culture collaborative all practices seriously dialog, open attitudesCons Culturally imposed perspective by dominant culture, and nondominant cultures are marginalized.
  19. 19. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and Cons Ethical Ethical Ethical Absolutism Relativism UniversalismPros Fixed Takes role of Involves standards for culture collaborative all practices seriously dialog, open attitudesCons Culturally Encourages imposed too much perspective cultural by dominant flexibility, culture, and may nondominant perpetuate cultures are intolerable marginalized cultural practices by being too
  20. 20. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and Cons Ethical Ethical Ethical Absolutism Relativism UniversalismPros Fixed Takes role of Involves standards for culture collaborative all practices seriously dialog, open attitudesCons Culturally Encourages Requires hard imposed too much work from all; perspective cultural most using by dominant flexibility, this position culture, and may are “imposed nondominant perpetuate ethics,” cultures are intolerable relying heavily marginalized. cultural on practices by Eurocentric being too moral
  21. 21. II. Multiple Ethical Positions:Assessing Pros and ConsD. Meta-Ethics Contextualism Position: An Alternative 4th Position: Meta-ethics: ethical way of thinking that transcends particular ideologies; the application of ethics is understood only through systematic analysis of the multiple layers of the ethical dilemma • Strength: emphasizes fact-finding and layered interpretations, takes into serious consideration importance of culture, context, persons, etc. • Problem: time-consuming approach
  22. 22. III. Becoming Ethical and Flexible Intercultural CommunicatorsA meta-ethical decision is a discovery process—into our own values, inconsistencies—and prompts us to gather multiple-level information. • Can you think of creative solutions other than the ones investigated? • Is there a way to prevent similar ethical dilemmas or pressures from arising in the future in this culture?
  23. 23. III. Becoming Ethical and Flexible Intercultural CommunicatorsB. Becoming Flexible: Final Passport Do-Ables• Practice parallel thinking.• Responsibility for peace lies with each of us—starts with inner peace.• Dynamic flexibility: integrating knowledge, open-minded attitude, culture-sensitive skills, and communicating ethically with culturally dissimilar others.
  24. 24. Final Parting Thoughts…An intercultural life is a creative life that demands both playfulness and mindfulness in transformingone’s intercultural journey into a discovery process. ~ Stella Ting-Toomey & LeevaChung
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