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  • 1. Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language© Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 1
  • 2. Key Ideas• Functions of language• Language and meaning• Language and culture• Using language• Interpreting and translating• Communication technology and language• Language and intercultural competence © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 2
  • 3. Functions of language• Social interaction• Social cohesion• Expressions of identity © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 3
  • 4. Language and meaning• Language is a set of symbols that a cultural group has agreed to use to create meaning.• The symbols and their meanings are often arbitrary• Language variations – Accent – Dialect – Argot – Slang © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 4
  • 5. Language and meaning• Conversational taboos – Cultural restrictions related to the discussion of certain topics or use of certain words – Generally related to topics of sex, the supernatural, excretion and death © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 5
  • 6. Language and culture• Synergy between language and culture – Language is dominant in shaping worldview and perception of reality – A culture’s language vocabulary emphasizes what is important © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 6
  • 7. Using Language• Using Language – how language to influence perceptions• Spanish – Male orientation in Mexican society evident in gendered nouns and pronouns – Separate verb conjunctions help Mexicans express formality which is important in the culture © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 7
  • 8. Using Language• Northeast Asian cultures (e.g. China, Korea, Japan) – High context cultures – Employ language in an indirect manner to promote harmony – Politeness takes precedence over truth – Importance of formality and hierarchy – Opposite of western culture’s view of communication as a way to increase self-esteem © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 8
  • 9. Using Language• Arabic – Language unites and defines greater Arab community – Language is a function of history – Language posses emotional content – Indirectness is used to ensure smooth relations – Repetition and exaggeration is used to appeal to emotions – Focus on the present and uncertainty about the future © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 9
  • 10. Using Language• English – “I”” is used frequently in conversation – Language is used to protect your own face rather than the faces of others – Communication is used to promote individuality – Americans prefer to be on a first name basis quickly with titles rarely used © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 10
  • 11. Interpreting and translating• Interpretation - changing oral or signed messages from one language into another• Translation – changing written or signed messages from one language to another• Translation requires an extensive awareness of cultural factors © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 11
  • 12. Interpreting and translating• Working with interpreters and translators – Language knowledge – Dialect knowledge – Specialized technology – Cultural knowledge © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 12
  • 13. Communication technology and language• The digital age has greatly enhanced the ability of people around to world to easily and quickly “connect” with others through a variety of media• Interacting through the Internet requires the use of a common language• English continues to be the most common language among Internet users• Language can also play a role in the selection of which social media outlet a culture favors © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 13
  • 14. Language and intercultural competence• Improving intercultural interactions – Being mindful – Speech rate – Vocabulary – Attend to nonverbal behaviors – Checking• Second language benefits – Communicate with people – Shows people you’re interested in them – Provides insight into the emotions and values of a culture © Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 14
  • 15. Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language© Cengage 2012 Chapter 8 Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language 15