Communication between cultures                                                           8TH EDITION         Chapter 7   C...
Key Ideas•   Role of Identity•   Defining Identity•   Types of social identities•   Developing and acquiring identities•  ...
The role of identity• Identity development plays a critical role in  the individual’s psychological well-being• Our techno...
Identity Defined• The reflective self-conception or self-image that we  each derive from our family, gender, cultural,  et...
Identity Defined• Identify is an abstract idea• Identity is dynamic• A person can have multiple identities  © Cengage 2012...
Identity Defined• Identify is an abstract idea• Identity is dynamic• A person can have multiple identities  © Cengage 2012...
Types of social identities• Social identity sets you apart from other in-  group members and marks you as special or  uniq...
Types of social identities – National identity – Regional identity – Personal identity – Organizational identity – Cyber a...
Developing and acquiring identities• Largely a product of group membership   – Family influences   – Socialization   – Per...
Developing and acquiring identities:              Phinney• Unexamined ethnic identity - characterized by  the lack of expl...
Developing and acquiring identities:       Martin and Nakayama• Unexamined identity - individuals are unconcerned  with id...
Developing and acquiring identities: Martin and Nakayama (5 step model)• Unexamined identity - individuals are unconcerned...
Developing and acquiring identities: Martin and Nakayama’s biracial identity• Phase 1 - become conscious of differences in...
Establishing and enacting cultural                identity• Established through rights of passage• Enacted on in many ways...
Identity in intercultural                         interactions• To communicate effectively in an intercultural  situation ...
Identity in a globalized society• Globalization has increased cultural diversity and  has revived local cultural identitie...
The dark side of identity• Stereotyping - complex form of  categorization that mentally organizes your  experiences with, ...
The dark side of identity• Stereotypes hinder intercultural  communication   – stereotypes are a kind of filter   – Assump...
The dark side of identity• Stereotypes hinder intercultural communication   – stereotypes are a kind of filter   – Assumpt...
The dark side of identity• Prejudice   – Functions of prejudice          • Ego-defensive function allows individuals to ho...
The dark side of identity• Prejudice   – Functions of prejudice          • Value-expressive function occurs when people ma...
The dark side of identity• Prejudice   – Expressions of prejudice          • Antilocution, - talking about a member of the...
The dark side of identity• Prejudice   – Expressions of prejudice          • Physical attacks - escalate in hostility and ...
The dark side of identity• Prejudice   – Causes of prejudice          • Social sources          • Maintaining social ident...
The dark side of identity• Racism  – Racism defined: Racism is the belief in the inherent    superiority of a particular r...
The dark side of identity• Racism  – Racism defined  – Expressions of racism         • Personal         • Institutional  –...
The dark side of identity• Ethnocentrism   – Levels of ethnocentrism – positive, negative,     extremely negative   – Ethn...
Communication between cultures                                                          8TH EDITION         Chapter 7   Cu...
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Ch.7 PowerPoint

  1. 1. Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Individual© Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Individual 1
  2. 2. Key Ideas• Role of Identity• Defining Identity• Types of social identities• Developing and acquiring identities• Establishing and enacting identities• Dark side of identity © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 2
  3. 3. The role of identity• Identity development plays a critical role in the individual’s psychological well-being• Our technology driven world is influenced by perceptions of identity• Identity is becoming an important factor in how they live their lives and with whom they associate © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 3
  4. 4. Identity Defined• The reflective self-conception or self-image that we each derive from our family, gender, cultural, ethnic, and individual socialization process. Identity basically refers to our reflective views of ourselves and other perceptions of our self-images. (Ting-Toomey 2005, p. 212)• The concept of who we are. (Martin and Nakayama 2010, p. 162) © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 4
  5. 5. Identity Defined• Identify is an abstract idea• Identity is dynamic• A person can have multiple identities © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 5
  6. 6. Identity Defined• Identify is an abstract idea• Identity is dynamic• A person can have multiple identities © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 6
  7. 7. Types of social identities• Social identity sets you apart from other in- group members and marks you as special or unique and include the following – Racial identity – Ethnic identity – Gender identity © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 7
  8. 8. Types of social identities – National identity – Regional identity – Personal identity – Organizational identity – Cyber and fantasy identity© Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 8
  9. 9. Developing and acquiring identities• Largely a product of group membership – Family influences – Socialization – Personal experiences• Begins at a young age – Family members teach children specific behaviors for girls and boys – Extended family teaches age-appropriate behaviors – Family instill concept of an individual or group-based identity © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 9
  10. 10. Developing and acquiring identities: Phinney• Unexamined ethnic identity - characterized by the lack of exploration of ethnicity• Ethnic identity search - individuals become interested in learning about and understanding their own ethnicity• Ethnic achievement - individuals have a clear and confident understanding of their own cultural identity © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 10
  11. 11. Developing and acquiring identities: Martin and Nakayama• Unexamined identity - individuals are unconcerned with identity issues• Conformity, minority members endeavor to fit in with the dominant culture and may even possess negative self-images• Resistance and separatism - cultural awakening that stimulates a greater interest in and adherence to one’s own culture• Integration - individuals have a sense of pride in, and identify with, their own cultural group, and demonstrate an acceptance of other groups © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 11
  12. 12. Developing and acquiring identities: Martin and Nakayama (5 step model)• Unexamined identity - individuals are unconcerned with identity issues• Acceptance - acquiescence to existing social inequities, even though such acceptance may be at a subconscious level• Resistance - members of the dominant culture become more aware of existing social inequities, begin to question their own culture, and increase association with minority culture members• Redefinition and Reintegration - increased understanding of one’s dominant culture identity and an appreciation of minority cultures © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 12
  13. 13. Developing and acquiring identities: Martin and Nakayama’s biracial identity• Phase 1 - become conscious of differences in general and the potential for discord• Phase 2 - gain an awareness of their personal differences from other children• Phase 3 - begin to sense they are not part of the norm © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 13
  14. 14. Establishing and enacting cultural identity• Established through rights of passage• Enacted on in many ways – Cultural ways of displaying religious or spiritual identity – Clothing worn – Involvement in commemorative events – Language – Accents © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 14
  15. 15. Identity in intercultural interactions• To communicate effectively in an intercultural situation an individual’s cultural identity and communication style should match the identity and style ascribed to him or her by the other party• Communication styles are likely to be different• Participants will have to search for a middle ground, and this search will require flexibility and adaptation © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 15
  16. 16. Identity in a globalized society• Globalization has increased cultural diversity and has revived local cultural identities in different parts of the world• Multiple cultural identities are becoming more commonplace – Globalized economy, immigration, ease of foreign travel, communication technologies, and intercultural marriage are bringing about an increased mixing of cultures – Mixing is producing people who possess multiple cultural identities © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 16
  17. 17. The dark side of identity• Stereotyping - complex form of categorization that mentally organizes your experiences with, and guides your behavior toward, a particular group of people – Stereotypes are learned – Stereotypes are the result of limited, lazy, and misguided perceptions © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 17
  18. 18. The dark side of identity• Stereotypes hinder intercultural communication – stereotypes are a kind of filter – Assumption that culture-specific information applies to every member of a particular cultural group – Stereotypes are oversimplified, exaggerated, and overgeneralized © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 18
  19. 19. The dark side of identity• Stereotypes hinder intercultural communication – stereotypes are a kind of filter – Assumption that culture-specific information applies to every member of a particular cultural group – Stereotypes are oversimplified, exaggerated, and overgeneralized – Try to engage in “flexible” stereotyping • be open to new information and evidence • beaware of your own zone of discomfort. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 19
  20. 20. The dark side of identity• Prejudice – Functions of prejudice • Ego-defensive function allows individuals to hold a prejudice while denying to themselves that they possess negative beliefs about a group • Utilitarian function permits people to believe that their prejudicial beliefs produce a positive outcome © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 20
  21. 21. The dark side of identity• Prejudice – Functions of prejudice • Value-expressive function occurs when people maintain their prejudice in the belief that their attitudes represent the highest and most moral values of the culture • Knowledge function enables people to categorize, organize, and construct their perceptions of other people in a manner they see as rational—even if that perception is woefully inaccurate © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 21
  22. 22. The dark side of identity• Prejudice – Expressions of prejudice • Antilocution, - talking about a member of the target group in negative and stereotypical terms • Avoidance - people avoid and/or withdraw from contact with the disliked group • Discrimination - exclude all members of the group in question from access to certain types of employment, residential housing, political rights, educational and recreational opportunities, churches, hospitals, or other social institutions © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 22
  23. 23. The dark side of identity• Prejudice – Expressions of prejudice • Physical attacks - escalate in hostility and intensity if left unchecked • Extermination - acts of physical violence with the objective of removing or eliminating all or major segments of the target group community © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 23
  24. 24. The dark side of identity• Prejudice – Causes of prejudice • Social sources • Maintaining social identity • Scapegoating – Avoiding prejudice • Personal contact • Education © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 24
  25. 25. The dark side of identity• Racism – Racism defined: Racism is the belief in the inherent superiority of a particular race. It denies the basic equality of humankind and correlates ability with physical composition. Thus, it assumes that success or failure in any societal endeavor will depend upon genetic endowment rather than environment and access to opportunity. (Leone 1978, p. 1) © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 25
  26. 26. The dark side of identity• Racism – Racism defined – Expressions of racism • Personal • Institutional – Avoiding Racism • Try to be honest with yourself • Avoid racists jokes and insults • Respect freedom • Examine historical roots of racism © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 26
  27. 27. The dark side of identity• Ethnocentrism – Levels of ethnocentrism – positive, negative, extremely negative – Ethnocentrism is universal – Ethnocentrism contributes to cultural identity – Avoiding ethnocentrism • Try to avoid dogmatism • Learn to be open to new views © Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 27
  28. 28. Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Individual© Cengage 2012 Chapter 7 Culture and Identity: Situating the Indvidual 28
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