Industrial Revolution World History: Patterns of Interaction
Industrial Revolution Refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the 18th century. It begins after the Agricultural Revolution.
Why in England? Large population of workers Extensive natural resources Water power and coal Iron ore Rivers Harbors Expanding economy that supports industries
Business people invested in the manufacture of new inventions. Highly-developed banking system People were encouraged by the availability of bank loans to invest in new machinery and expand their operations. Parliament also passed laws that protected business and helped expansion.
TEXTILE INDUSTRIES James Hargreaves – spinning jenny Richard Arkwright – water frame Samuel Crompton- spinning mule Edmund Cartwright- power loom Eli Whitney- cotton gin
TRANSPORTATION Steam Engine (James Watt) Faster and more efficient steam engine that burned less fuel.
WATER TRANSPORTATION Robert Fulton – Steamboat In England, water transportation improved with the creation of a network of canals.
ROAD TRANSPORTATION John McAdam- macadam roads Heavy wagons could travel over the new “macadam roads” without sinking in mud. Railways were also introduced.
EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Size of cities growth of factories Urban areas increasing in number Specialization in certain industries Living conditions No sanitary codes Lack of adequate housing, education, police protection Lack of running water and indoor plumbing Widespread epidemic
EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Working conditions New jobs for workers Dirty and unsanitary factories Workers trying to keep pace with machines Harsh and severe factory discipline Emerging social classes Growing middle class of factory owners, shippers, and merchants Workers overworked and underpaid Existence of two middle classes: rich and lower
IF YOU WERE TO BUILD UP AN INDUSTRY, WHAT INDUSTRY WOULD THAT BE AND WHY?