Catholic Reformation<br />World History: Patterns of Interaction<br />
St. Ignatius de Loyola<br />Grew up in Loyola, Spain<br />1521, during his recovery from a war injury, he thought about his past sins and about the life of Jesus.<br />According to him, it was his daily devotions that cleansed his sould.<br />
Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius de Loyola<br />It is a day-by-day plan of meditation, prayer, and study.<br />It compares spiritual and physical exercise.<br />Bodily Exercises<br />Spiritual Exercises<br />Walking, preparing the soul to remove ill-ordered affections, traveling, seeking and finding the will of God with respect to the ordering of one’s own life,running, and salvation of one’s soul.<br />
In 1540, the Pope (Paul III) made Ignatius’s followers a religious order. The order would be known as the Society of Jesus. <br />Members of this order is known as the Jesuits.<br />
Three Missions of the Society of Jesus<br />FIRST: Founded superb schools throughout Europe.<br />With teachers rigorously trained in both classical studies and theology.<br />
SECOND: Converted non-Christians to Catholicism<br />That is by sending out missionaries like Francis Xavier (India) and Matteo Ricci (China)<br />
THIRD: Stopped Protestantism from spreading.<br />
Two Reforming Popes<br />Paul III Paul IV<br />
Paul III<br />He was born Alessandro Farnese<br />Directed a council of cardinals to investigate indulgence selling and other abuses within the church.<br />He approved the Jesuit order<br />He used the Inquisition to seek out and punish heresy in papal territory.<br />Decided to call a great council of church leaders to meet in Trent. (Northern Italy)<br />
Paul IV<br />Born Giovanni PietroCarafa.<br />Carried out the Council’s decrees<br />In 1559, there existed a list of books considered dangerous to the Catholic faith. The Index of Forbidden Books<br />
Council of Trent<br />The Doctrines:<br />The Church’s interpretation of the Bible was FINAL.<br />Christians need faith and good works for salvation.<br />The Bible and church traditions were equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life.<br />Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. (But the false selling of indulgences were banned)<br />
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