Catholic Reformation World History: Patterns of Interaction
St. Ignatius de Loyola Grew up in Loyola, Spain 1521, during his recovery from a war injury, he thought about his past sins and about the life of Jesus. According to him, it was his daily devotions that cleansed his sould.
Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius de Loyola It is a day-by-day plan of meditation, prayer, and study. It compares spiritual and physical exercise. Bodily Exercises Spiritual Exercises Walking, preparing the soul to remove ill-ordered affections, traveling, seeking and finding the will of God with respect to the ordering of one’s own life,running, and salvation of one’s soul.
In 1540, the Pope (Paul III) made Ignatius’s followers a religious order. The order would be known as the Society of Jesus. Members of this order is known as the Jesuits.
Three Missions of the Society of Jesus FIRST: Founded superb schools throughout Europe. With teachers rigorously trained in both classical studies and theology.
Jesuit Schools in America
Jesuit Schools in the Philippines
SECOND: Converted non-Christians to Catholicism That is by sending out missionaries like Francis Xavier (India) and Matteo Ricci (China)
THIRD: Stopped Protestantism from spreading.
Two Reforming Popes Paul III Paul IV
Paul III He was born Alessandro Farnese Directed a council of cardinals to investigate indulgence selling and other abuses within the church. He approved the Jesuit order He used the Inquisition to seek out and punish heresy in papal territory. Decided to call a great council of church leaders to meet in Trent. (Northern Italy)
Paul IV Born Giovanni PietroCarafa. Carried out the Council’s decrees In 1559, there existed a list of books considered dangerous to the Catholic faith. The Index of Forbidden Books
Council of Trent The Doctrines: The Church’s interpretation of the Bible was FINAL. Christians need faith and good works for salvation. The Bible and church traditions were equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. (But the false selling of indulgences were banned)