3rd quarter hand outs (2)
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3rd quarter hand outs (2)






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  • Proptection, sensation, thermoregulation

3rd quarter hand outs (2) 3rd quarter hand outs (2) Presentation Transcript

  • 2 nd Quarter Notes
  • What is an athletic injury? A damage to the musculoskeletal structures brought about by forces (i.e. acute or repetitive) during athletic performance.
  • Compression Forces that act along the long axis of a structure which produces a crushing effect. View slide
  • Tension A pulling force that acts along the long axis of the structure which stretches the tissue. View slide
  • Shear Forces that act at opposite directions at different points causing one part of the structure to move away from another part of the structure.
    • Acute Injury
    • Injury with a sudden onset brought about by large forces
    • Overuse Injury
    • Injury that developed over time as a result of repetitive microtrauma
  • Fractures
    • Disruption in the continuity of a bone
    • Type of fracture depends on mechanical load and bone maturity
    • Several types of fractures include . . .
    • Simple
    • Compound
    • Greenstick
    • Comminuted
    • Spiral
  • Signs and Symptoms
    • Signs
    • Deformity
    • Weakness
    • Bruise
    • Swelling
    • Positive X-ray
    • Symptoms
    • Pain
    • Grating sensation
  • Evaluation Palpation – deformity, tenderness, indentation Percussion – pain during tapping Compression – distal to proximal Distraction – apply traction
  • Treatment Cast? Internal Fixation? External Fixation?
  • Dislocations Bone is pushed out of the joint capsule Signs and symptoms are similar to fracture Treat like fracture!!!
  • Immobilization Anatomical – fingers Rigid - wood Soft - bandage
  • Guidelines for Splinting
    • Support the injured area above and below the site of the injury, including the joints.
    • If possible, splint the injury in the position that you find it.
    • Don’t try to realign bones or joints unless . . .
    • Before and after splinting, check for proper circulation (warmth, feeling, and color).
    • Immobilize above and below the injury.
  • Triangle and Cravat Bandages
    • Cotton cloth that can be substituted if roller bandages not available
    • First aid device, due to ease and speed of application
    • Primarily used for arm slings
      • Cervical arm sling
      • Shoulder arm sling
      • Sling and swathe
  • SPRAINS vs. STRAINS NOT INTERCHANGEABLE!! Both injuries are caused by abnormally high tensile forces which tears the tissue but damaged tissues are different . . . Which is Which?!?
    • Shoulders
    • Elbow
    • Wrist
    • Knee
    • Ankle
    • Lower Back
    • Hamstrings
    • Gastrocnemius
  • SPRAINS vs. STRAINS 1 st Degree (Mild) No loss of function 2 nd Degree (Moderate) Unstable / Weak 3 rd Degree (Severe) Loss of function Dependent on the number of torn fibers . . .
  • Control Inflammation What is inflammation? Is it bad? P – protect R – rest I – ice C – compression E – elevation
  • Elastic Bandage Application
    • Hold bandage in preferred hand with loose end extending from bottom of roll
    • Back surface of loose end should lay on skin surface
    • Pressure and tension should be standardized
    • Anchor at the distal end
    • Body part should be wrapped in position of maximum circumference
    • More turns with moderate tension
    • Each turn should overlap by half to prevent separation
    • Circulation should be monitored when limbs are wrapped
    Elastic Bandage Application
  • The Skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis
  • Common Emergencies
    • Wounds
    • Break in the skin and underlying tissues
    • Open
    • Closed
    • Burns
    • Injury caused by heat, cold, chemical, electricity, etc.
  • Common Emergencies Bites Wound caused by teeth or mouth Stings Small puncture wounds with chemical injected
  • Wounds and Bleeding Types of Wounds
    • Incision Clean, sharp edge
    • Laceration Irregular, tearing
    • Abrasion Friction, scrape
    • Puncture Pointed object
    • Avulsion Partially ripped
  • !DANGER!
    • Hemorrhage
      • 1 glass (250cc) – normal
      • 2 to 3 glasses – casualty becomes anemic and predisposes to infection
      • 4 to 6 glasses – fatal
    • Infection – gangrene may develop, amputation may be necessary
    • Shock – circulation is compromised and may lead to death
  • Kinds of Bleeding
    • Capillary bleeding – oozing flow of blood
    • Venous bleeding – even flow of blood, dull color
    • Arterial bleeding – irregular spurting of blood, bright red color
  • Wounds and Bleeding
    • Proper Care
    • Protect self
    • Control bleeding
    • a. direct pressure**
    • b. elevation
    • c. pressure points
    • Use sterile dressing
    • Prevent shock
    • a. raise legs
    • b. prevent heat loss
    • Irrigate wound
    • Change dressing regularly
  • SUTURES are needed for deep cuts as well as cuts more than an inch long. Interrupted or Subcuticular ?