Genetics - 02 The structure of DNA

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A closer look at the structure of DNA for Year 10 Science students at Saint Ignatius College Geelong

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  • Pyrimidine – C & T (& U)Purine – A & G
  • Pyrimidine – C & T (& U)Purine – A & G
  • Pyrimidine – C & T (& U)Purine – A & G
  • Genetics - 02 The structure of DNA

    1. 1. GENETICS. 02. The structure of DNA. Ian Anderson Saint Ignatius College Geelong
    2. 2. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA.  Nucleic acids.  Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).  Ribonucleic acid (RNA). Organisms use DNA as their genetic material to:  Store information that determines the characteristics of cells and organisms.  Direct the synthesis of proteins essential to the operation of the cell or organism.  Replicate prior to reproduction by directing the manufacture of copies of itself.
    3. 3. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA.  A polymer made up of monomer units called nucleotides.  Each nucleotide made up of three parts.  Sugar (Deoxyribose).  Phosphate group.  Nitrogen containing base. - adenine (A) - thymine (T) - cytosine (C) - guanine (G)
    4. 4. NUCLEOTIDES. Source: Enger et al. (2012) 1’ 3’ 5’ 4’ 2’
    5. 5. NUCLEOTIDES.  Nitrogenous bases grouped into one of two families based on their structure.  Pyrimidines.  Cytosine, Thymine (& Uracil).  Purines.  Adenine & Guanine. Source: Reece et al. (2011)
    6. 6. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA.  Double helix shape.  Sugar-phosphate backbone.  The two DNA strands are antiparallel to each other.  DNA molecule coiled in a right handed spiral.  Base pairing rule.  Complementary bases.  Adenine (A)  Thymine (T)  Cytosine (C)  Guanine (G).  Weak hydrogen bonds between base pairs.
    7. 7. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA. Source: Enger et al. (2012)
    8. 8. THE STRUCTURE OF RNA.  Single-sided polynucleotide.  Each nucleotide made up of three parts.  Sugar (Ribose)  Phosphate group  Nitrogen containing base - adenine (A) - Uracil (U) - cytosine (C) - guanine (G)  Sugar-phosphate backbone. Source: Enger et al. (2012)
    9. 9. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA.  DNA molecules are very long.  Made up of thousands to millions of base pairs.  Each human cell contains ~2m of DNA!  One long DNA molecule includes many genes.  Gene = A segment of DNA that codes for the synthesis of a particular protein.  In humans ~20-25 000 genes.  DNA is wrapped around histone proteins to form chromosomes.  Genome – the full DNA sequence of an organism.  In humans >3 billion base pairs.
    10. 10. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA. Source: Source: Enger et al. (2012)
    11. 11. REFERENCES.  Enger, E.D., Ross, F.C. and Bailey, D.B. (2012). Concepts in Biology (14th ed). Melb: McGraw Hill.  Reece, J.B., Urry, L.A., Cain, M.L., Wasserman, S.A., Minorsky, P.V. and Jackson, R.B. (2011). Campbell Biology (9th ed). Sydney: Pearson Education.
    12. 12. http://SICkScience10.wikispaces.com/

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