External migration NZ1946-1980: White NZ Policy.
Ethnic groupings in Auckland Region Total response Groups % of AKL population. European 698,622 56.5 Maori 137,133 11.1 Pacific Peoples 177,936 14.4 Asian 284,222 18.9 Middle Eastern/Latin American/African 18,555 1.5 New Zealander 99,258 8.0 Other ‘Other’ Ethnicity 648 0.1 Total people 1,237,239 -Note: total % adds up to over 100% when more than one ethnicity was identified
1946-1969 1947 assisted passage scheme: urban people with skills were desirable alongside British and European immigration (part of the ‘white NZ’ policy, idea was ease of assimilation) Assimilate: to conform with the customs of a group/nation 1952 – 1954: Dutch biggest European immigration group ~6,000 1956: 1,100 Hungarians post revolution Growth peaked in the 1960’s with 4.4% (current 0.88%) The womens liberation movement saw fertility rates decline from 1960’s (the pill, career, late marriage) 1961: Britain apply to join the EEC (Euro Economic Community), impacts trade
1970 – 1979 1971: 30% of NZ foreign population was born outside of UK. 1972: 50,000+ Pacific Islanders living in NZ 1973: Britain join EEC; changes to trade, look to Asia, new dairy products: cheeses, yoghurts, skim milk powders; horticultural industries: kiwifruit, avocado etc; livestock: deer, alpaca, goat. 1975: assisted passage scheme officially stopped ‘£10 pom’ 1976: Stricter immigration controls imposed still preferring Brits and Euros; Growth drops to 1.6% Occupation skills; family connections; refugees Racism was rampant in NZ, NZ wasn’t doing so well economically migrants became the target Refugees from Laos, Cambodia & Vietnam.
Pop quiz1. What was the name of the scheme that brought many brits to NZ and from which arose the nickname ‘£10 POM’?2. What does ‘to assimilate’ mean?3. In the early 1950’s from which country did most of the European migrants come from.4. What happened in 1973? Name two changes it made to our economy.5. Name a South East Asian country that NZ accepted a number of refugees from during the 1970’s, because of a collapse of power/end of war in their home country?
Answers1. What was the name of the scheme that brought many brits to NZ and from which arose the nickname ‘£10 POM’? The assisted passage scheme2. What does ‘to assimilate’ mean? to conform with the customs of a group/nation3. In the early 1950’s from which country did most of the European migrants come from? The Netherlands4. What happened in 1973? Name two changes it made to our economy. Europe joined the EEC; NZ lost our main trade partner/NZ was forced to diversify our exports/looked to Asia for new trading partners.5. Name a South East Asian country that NZ accepted a number of refugees from during the 1970’s, because of a collapse of power/end of war in their home country? Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
1980 – 1989 International migration creates a net loss of 8100 between 1981 – 1986 (main destination UK and AUS) 1985-1986 visa free period for Pacific Islanders 1986 Review of immigration, led to decrease despite deliberately trying to ‘open up’ NZ 1987 share market crash 1987 Immigration Act emphasised skills needed in the economy Business category introduced; reunite families; 800 refugees/yr; regulation of over-stayers. (discarded country criteria)
2010 exam question Chose one factor (Social, Economic, Environmental, Political) and comprehensively analyse how this caused changes to migration in NZ. For example…. Political Visa requirements were used to control immigration New Zealand up until 1976 followed a strictly ‘white NZ’ immigration policy restricting nationalities other than the British and Europeans entering New Zealand to work. This policy was changed slightly in 1976 because……
Oil crisis/Politics Post WWII NZ accepted ~ 5,000 refugees from Europe (Greek, Polish, Italian and the former Yugoslavia) The 1973 oil crisis: OAPEC (Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) used oil as a bargaining tool. 1978 NZ faced another crisis in oil supply (Iranian revolution) Gov’t introduces carless days; bans weekend sale of petrol; looks to other sources of fuel. 1980’s Think Big program introduced by muldoon. Gov’t ordered construction of a number of large scale industrial projects to help fuel NZ.
Annoted map. Draw annotated maps/diagrams that analyse how and why your cultural process has shown variation in the way it has operated between TWO different stages in time.
1990-1999 Reduction of British migration 1991 Points based immigration system introduced; led to increased and diverse immigration. Age; qualifications; work experience; special skills; sponsorship & offer of employment 1991 – 2006: Filipino population triples. 1991 population of Samoans reached 85,000 1994 Tokelau gained independence 1995 Points system changes $20,000 language bond introduced (dropped in 1998) 1996: Asian sources accounting for 60% of all immigrants (begins to decline). 1999 changed again Categories: general skills, investor, entrepreneur, business employee, family, humanitarian, Samoan quota, Refugee categories.
2000 - onwards 2001: increase in refugees from north Africa and middle east 2006: now 40,000+ South Africans; 11,000 Germans; 18,000 from the USA; 5,000 Russians, 2,500 French. Many seeking clean green refuge 85,000 immigrate from China and Hong Kong, education and lower populations pull factors; 40,000 from Korea and Japan. Indian population quadruples to 106,000
Waves of migration In the 1950’s one wave of migration to NZ occurred. This wave involved the movment of people from various pacific Islands, particularly Saoa the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau and Tonga. This flow increased during the 1960’s and 1970s when NZ was experiencing a labour shortage due to its rapidly expanding manufacturing industy. Many Pasifika people have also come to take advatage of the greater educational opportunities here. There has also been smaller waves from other European countries, and refugees from various countries such as Cambodia in the 1980’s and Somalia, Ethiopia and Afghanistan in the 1990’s and 2000’s. Numbers of people have been coming from Asia since the 1990’s, and most recently people have been coming from the UK and South Africa.