Autistic Children Parental Problems and Types of Effective Intervention Portia Stevens PSY492 Capstone Argosy University 8/17/2011
Parenting a Child with Autistic Disorder is Challenging Communication is limited Parental frustration is increased Medical/treatment bills pile up Parents experience anxiety, stress and depression
What is Autism Formally called Autistic Disorder One part of a group of developmental disorders Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (Bloch, Giarelli, Pinto-Martin, Levy and Souders, 2005). People with ASD have limited communication and social skills.
Symptoms of Autism Less eye contact when conversing Inability to comprehend the rules of social interaction Temper tantrums brought on by a change in routine or schedule Literal interpretation of jargon such as chitchat Abnormal body movements Inability to read facial expressions
Cases are Increasing In 2003, the California Department of Developmental Services reported a 634% increase in autism cases from 1987-2002 (Connolly, Novak, & Twoy, 2007).
Problems Caused by Autism Physical Conditions Gastrointestinal difficulties Loose stools Constipation Food selectivity Difficulty with initiation and maintenance of sleep Seizure disorders (Bloch, Giarelli, Pinto-Martin, Levy and Souders, 2005).
Problems Caused by Autism Initial diagnosis causes a disruption in the family dynamic and “poses a great threat to the psychosocial well-being of parents” (Bloch, Giarelli, Pinto-Martin, Levy and Souders, 2005). Mothers’ anxiety, stress and depression was found to be specifically related to their child’s behavior problems. Fathers’ depression found to be related to the stress level of the mother (Brown et al., 2005)
Four Phases of Grieving Phase 1: Shock and Disbelief Parents have an idea something is wrong but do not want to believe it. Both parents seek various opinions because they are in such disbelief. Phase 2: Expression of Grief Sadness and anger Realization that certain hopes and dreams may not happen (Elder & D’Alessandro, 2009).
Four Phases of Grieving Phase 3: Disorganization and Despair Parents feel “out of control” Some parents seek additional employment Marital and familial stress increase
Four Phases of Grieving Phase 4: Reorganization Families come to terms with their situation. Parents gain a deeper level of spiritual faith (Elder & D’Alessandro, 2009).
Parents Need to Learn to Cope with: Ritualistic behaviors Getting more involved in therapy and educational decision making Increased contact with professionals Trying to find resources Utilizing technical and therapeutic support (Connolly, Novak & Twoy, 2007).
Not All Know how to Cope Some parents choose to simply deny or avoid certain stressful situations associated with Autistic Disorder (Carlson, Daire, Kimemia, Mitcham, & Munyon, 2011). They could benefit from family counseling.
Types of Interventions Parent-coached language Pharmacological Nurse practitioner Transdisciplinary
Parent-Coached Language Intervention Parents utilized speech generating devices (SGDs). SGD intervention Helped children communicate May have a positive affect on parental perception of their child’s language development Child’s newfound capacity to communicate may alleviate pressure parents feel about lack of successful communication with their child (Romski et al., 2011).
Pharmacological Intervention Medication is used to manage: disruptive behaviors self injury aggression compulsions hyperactivity mood swings anxiety sleep disturbances (Elder & D’Alessandro, 2009).
Nurse Practitioner Intervention Effective in relieving parental stress Parental stress decreased. Parents felt more confident in their ability to care for their child. Both child and parents benefit nurse practitioner has the knowledge and skills to educate parents about the special needs and treatment options for their children (Bloch, Giarelli, Pinto-Martin, Levy and Souders, 2005).
Transdisciplinary Intervention Parents and professionals from different disciplines meet and work together in assessing and planning treatment for the child. Implications of treating the child in one location are that parents will have more time to focus on other personal and family needs (Carlson, Daire, Kimemia, Mitcham & Munyon, 2011).
Future Research Suggestions Larger sample sizes More representation of subjects of different ethnicities, cultures and socio-economic status in studies Less reliance on self reporting methods and more focus on empirical studies and trials
References Abbey, D. (2009). Helping Families Find the Best Evidence: CAM Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Asperger's Disorder. . Retrieved August 2, 2011, from ebscohost.com:http://libproxy.edmc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/lo gin.aspx?direct=true&db=afh&AN=43017181&site=ehost-live Barker, E., Floyd, F., Greenberg, J., Hartley, S., Orsmond, G., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Trajectories of emotional well-being in mothers of adolescents and adults with autism. Retrieved July 8, 2011, from proquest.com: http://www.wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search Bloch, J., Giarelli, E., Levy, S., Pinto-Martin, J., & Souders, M. (2005). Intervention pilot for parents of children with autistic spectrum disroder. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from proquest.com: http://search.proquest.com/docview/199400483?accountid=34899
References Brown, T., Francesca, D., Hastings, R., Kovshoff, H., Remington, B., & Ward, N. (2005). Systems analysis of stress and positive perceptions in mothers and fathers of pre-school children with autism. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from proquest.com:http://www.wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search Carlson, R., Daire, ,. A., Kimemia, M., Mitcham, M., & Munyon, M. (2011). Examining distress of parents of children with and without special needs. Retrieved July 8, 2011, from proquest.com: http://search.proquest.com/docview/864591247?accountid=34899
References Connolly, P., Novak, J., & Twoy, R. (2007). Coping strategies used by parents of children with autism. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from proquest.com: http://search.proquest.com/docview/212810828?accountid=34899
Davis, N., & Carter, A. (2008). Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: associations with child characteristics. Retrieved July 7, 2011, from proquest.com: http://search.proquest.com/docview/205284911 Elder, J. H., & D'Alessandro, T. (2009). Supporting families of children with autism spectrum disorders: Questions parents ask and what nurses need to know. Retrieved August 2, 2011, from proquest.com:http://search.proquest.com/docview/199496692?accountid=34899
References Kolb, M. J. (2009). An online training program for parents of children with autism. Retrieved August 1, 2011, from proquest.com: http://search.proquest.com/docview/62045699?accountid=34899 Romski, M., Sevcik, ,. R., Adamson, L. B., Smith, A., Cheslock, M., & Bakeman, R. (2011). Parent perceptions of the language development of toddlers with developmental delays before and after participation in parent-coached language interventions. . Retrieved August 2, 2011, from proquest.com: http://search.proquest.com/docview/868261335?accountid=34899