2. By the 1830s, the world of thenative Kanza and Osage tribes changed. Their land was no longer theirown. Native groups all aroundthe East and Midwest had beendefeated and pushed from their land by incoming Europeansettlers. The question was what to do with these eastern Indians. An idea was to create a Permanent Indian Frontier in what is now eastern Kansas and Oklahoma. It was hopedthat Indians located here would be undisturbed by white settlers and the alcohol trade. But that didn’t happen.
3. Large and small bands of Indians from the Great Lakes to Florida wereremoved to this Indian Territory. TheCherokees called their brutal removal journey “The Trail of Tears” and thePottawatomies called theirs “The Trail of Death.”
4. Several native groups were relocated to the area now known as Franklin County: Ottawas, Chippewas, Munsees, Sac and Fox,Pottawatomies, Shawnees, Peorias,Piankeshaws, Kaskaskias and Weas.
5. The Chippewas of Black River and Swan Creek (Michigan)Ash-E-Taa-Na-Quet or Clear Sky (Francis McCoonse)
6. Ka-pah-us-ke,(Robert McCoonse) Grandson of theOld Chippewa Chief In his youth, he was sent to school in Nazareth, PA by the Moravian missionaries. He’s wearing his uniform above.
7. Mary Alice McCoonse,Chippewa, right, dressed to go to school at Haskell Institute in Lawrence, KS. Her little sister, Matilda Maria, is left.
8. The Sac and Fox of the Mississippi
9. Sac Chief Keokuk, or the Watchful Fox
10. Keokuk’s son, Wa-som-e-saw called the Reverend Moses Keokuk in later life.Sac and Fox
11. Op-po-noos or Appanoose or Appan-oze-o-ke-mar(The Hereditary Chief, or He Who Was a Chief When a Child)
12. Appanoose Sac and FoxRight is a printof a painting of Appanoose made by George Bird King
13. Twounidentified Sac and Fox men photographedby A.W. Barker.
14. Two examples of Sac and Fox barkhouses—one in Franklin County and one in Oklahoma.
15. The MunseesWilliam Henry Kilbuck
16. Munsee John Henry Kilbuck, Moravian missionary to Alaska
17. In 1900, the Chippewas and Munseeswere given their land individually, and the tribes were dissolved. The two groups posed for a final photograph.
18. The Illinois and Wabash Bands The Peoria, Kaskaskia, Piankeshaw and Wea Chief Baptiste Peoria
19. The Ottawas of Blanchard’s Fork, Roche de Boeuf,and Ocquanoxcey’s Village
20. Ottawa Chief Pah-Tee (John Wilson) 1813-April 9, 1870Died on the journey to Oklahoma at Osage Mission
21. Che-quah, OttawaMedicine Woman(Aunt Jane Phelps) 1766-1886