By the 1830s, the world of thenative Kanza and Osage tribes changed. Their land was no longer theirown. Native groups all aroundthe East and Midwest had beendefeated and pushed from their land by incoming Europeansettlers. The question was what to do with these eastern Indians. An idea was to create a Permanent Indian Frontier in what is now eastern Kansas and Oklahoma. It was hopedthat Indians located here would be undisturbed by white settlers and the alcohol trade. But that didn’t happen.
Large and small bands of Indians from the Great Lakes to Florida wereremoved to this Indian Territory. TheCherokees called their brutal removal journey “The Trail of Tears” and thePottawatomies called theirs “The Trail of Death.”
Several native groups were relocated to the area now known as Franklin County: Ottawas, Chippewas, Munsees, Sac and Fox,Pottawatomies, Shawnees, Peorias,Piankeshaws, Kaskaskias and Weas.
The Chippewas of Black River and Swan Creek (Michigan)Ash-E-Taa-Na-Quet or Clear Sky (Francis McCoonse)
Ka-pah-us-ke,(Robert McCoonse) Grandson of theOld Chippewa Chief In his youth, he was sent to school in Nazareth, PA by the Moravian missionaries. He’s wearing his uniform above.
Mary Alice McCoonse,Chippewa, right, dressed to go to school at Haskell Institute in Lawrence, KS. Her little sister, Matilda Maria, is left.