4. jilid 3 bil 1 jun 2011

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4. jilid 3 bil 1 jun 2011

  1. 1. LEMBAGA PENGARANG JURNAL PENDIDIKAN DAN LATIHANJilid 3 Bil.01 Jun 2011 ISSN : 1985-9597 PENAUNG Ibrahim bin Ahmad Ketua Pengarah Majlis Amanah Rakyat MARA PENASIHAT Abd Rahim bin Abd Ghani Timbalan Ketua Pengarah (Pendidikan) Majlis Amanah Rakyat MARA SIDANG EDITOR Dr. Nor Aini binti Aziz Puan Khairiah binti Hasbullah Puan Samsiah binti Yahaya Dr. Umi Kalthom binti Abd Manaf Pn. Farizah binti Mohamed Onn
  2. 2. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan LatihanJilid 3 Bil. 01, Jun 2011Diterbitkan oleh:Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA)No. 21, Jalan Raja Laut50609 Kuala Lumpur©Hak Cipta MARA 2011Hak cipta terpelihara. Tiada mana-mana bahagian daripada penerbitanini boleh diterbitkan semula atau disimpan dalam bentuk yang bolehdiperoleh semula atau disiar dalam bentuk dengan apa cara, sekalipun,sama ada secara elektronik fotokopi, mekanikal, rakaman atausebaliknya tanpa mendapat izin bertulis daripada MAJLIS AMANAHRAKYAT (MARA).Lembaga Pengarang Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Latihan Majlis AmanahRakyat MARA menjemput para pembaca untuk menyumbang artikeldalam bidang pendidikan dan teknikal . Sumbangan artikel yang dihantarmestilah ditaip menggunakan font Arial 11 dan langkau 1.5. Artikel yangdihantar mestilah mengandungi abstrak tidak melebih 150 perkataanserta mempunyai biodata penulis. Artikel hendaklah dihantar dalambentuk softcopy dan hardcopy kepada :Lembaga Pengarang Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Latihand/a Unit Naziran Dan Kualiti Pendidikan MARATingkat 8, Ibu Pejabat MARANo. 21, Jalan Raja Laut50609 Kuala LumpurTel : (03) 26985903Faks : (03) 26986140e-mail : infoUNQ@mara.gov.my ii
  3. 3. Kandungan MukasuratDari Meja Sidang Editor vKurikulum Sejarah Ke Arah Pembentukan Perpaduan 1Kaum di MalaysiaAhamad bin RahimAzwani bin IsmailDr Abdul Razaq bin AhmadProf Madya Dr Datin Zahara binti AzizDr Sharifah Nur PutehFactors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intentions among MARA 19Professional Colleges’ studentsDr Mumtaz Begam Bt Abdul Kadir,Munirah Bt Salim,Halimahton Bt KamarudinA Study of Relationship Between Leadership Practices and 41Learning Organization Practices in Cluster SecondarySchoolsFuziah Binti Mat YakopDr Mohd Izham Bin Mohd HamzahTahap Amalan Pengurusan Sumber Manusia dan 57Kepuasan Guru di Sekolah Rendah Agama NegeriSelangorOthman bin YahyaNor ‘Azlin binti SalamunAhmad Nawawi bin ShaariJamalullail bin Abdul WahabTransformasi Pemikiran : Satu Pandangan dari Sudut 73Fahaman KonstruktivisDr Nor Aini binti Aziz iii
  4. 4. iv
  5. 5. Dari Meja Sidang EditorJurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan merupakan satu usaha oleh MARA untukmemartabatkan budaya ilmu penyelidikan pendidikan dalam kalanganwarga kerja MARA khususnya, serta masyarakat pendidik umumnya. Disamping itu, penerbitan jurnal ini bertujuan untuk mengenengahkan hasilpenyelidikan yang telah dijalankan agar dapat membantu wargapengurus dan pemimpin pendidikan mengenalpasti inovasi yang bolehdiguna pakai dalam usaha untuk meningkatkan mutu pengurusan dankepimpinan dalam Pendidikan MARA.Penerbitan Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan Jilid 3, Biilangan 1 kali inimemuatkan sebanyak lima buah artikel yang disumbang oleh parapendidik MARA serta penyelidik dari institusi pengajian tinggi di Malaysia.Kurikulum Sejarah Ke Arah Pembentukan Perpaduan Kaum di Malaysiaoleh Ahamad bin Rahim dan rakan-rakan membincangkan perananpendidikan sejarah di sekolah menengah bagi membantu meningkatkanusaha ke arah mempertingkatkan tahap integrasi kaum di Malaysia selaridengan konsep 1 Malaysia. Kertas kerja ini meninjau dari aspekpermasalahan dalam pendidikan sejarah dan mencadangkan beberapalangkah yang sesuai bagi menjadikan mata pelajaran Sejarah mampumenerapkan nilai-nilai yang berkaitan dengan hubungan kaum dari aspekkandungan, penerapan nilai dan aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran.Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intentions Among MARA ProfessionalColleges’ students oleh Dr Mumtaz Begam Bt Abdul Kadir, Pn Munirah Bt v
  6. 6. Salim dan Pn Halimahton Bt Kamarudin mengupas mengenai persepsipelajar Kolej Profesional MARA terhadap niat atau hasrat untuk menjadiusahawan. Kajian ini dijalankan menggunakan model psikologi yangberasaskan teori sikap yang dirancang iaitu Teori Ajzen. Dapatan kajianmenunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara faktor sikap,tingkah laku dan bantuan pendidikan ke arah merealisasikan hasrat atauniat untuk menjadi seorang usahawan.A Study of Relationship Between Leadership Practices And LearningOrganization Practices In Cluster Secondary Schools yang ditulis olehFuziah Binti Mat Yakop dan Dr. Mohd Izham Bin Mohd Hamzahmenghurai tentang persepsi guru di Sekolah Menengah Kluster terhadaphubungan antara amalan Kepimpinan Transformasi di kalanganpengetua dengan amalan guru dalam organisasi pembelajaran tersebut.Hasil kajian mendapati hubungan antara dua pembolehubah tersebutadalah ditahap tinggi. Manakala, dapatan daripada analisis statistikmenunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang signifikan positif secarasederhana antara amalan kepimpinan transformasi dengan organisasipembelajaran.Tahap Amalan Pengurusan Sumber Manusia dan Kepuasan Guru DiSekolah Rendah Agama Negeri Selangor oleh Othman bin Yahya sertarakan-rakan mengkaji tentang tahap amalan pengurusan sumbermanusia dari perspektif guru dan tahap kepuasan guru berkaitan amalanpengurusan sumber manusia di sekolah-sekolah rendah agama diDaerah Hulu Langat dan Sepang, Selangor. Dapatan kajianmenunjukkan amalan pengurusan sumber manusia berada pada tahap‘memuaskan’. Manakala, dalam aspek kepuasan guru, didapati bahawasecara keseluruhannya berada pada tahap ‘agak puashati’. vi
  7. 7. Akhir sekali, artikel Transformasi Pemikiran : Satu Pandangan DariSudut Fahaman Konstruktivis oleh Dr. Nor Aini binti Azizmembincangkan persoalan mengapa pemikiran yang sedia ada sukardiubah dalam menjana Transformasi Pemikiran. Penulis telahmencadangan beberapa strategi untuk mengatasi ketegarankefahaman ini berdasarkan dapatan kajian pendidikan sains dari sudutfahaman konstruktivis.Diharapkan jurnal ini sebagai satu wacana cendiakawan, mampumembantu merealisasikan Tema Hari Guru 2011, “Guru PenjanaTransformasi Pendidikan Negara”.Sebagai penutup bicara, sidang editor melahirkan penghargaan kepadaDr. Uzi bin Dollah dan Prof. Madya Dr. Feridah binti Mohd. Nadzar, yangtelah sudi menjadi pewasit dan mengucapkan syabas kepada semuayang terlibat dalam penerbitan jurnal pada kali ini.Selamat Membaca dan Berfikir.Majlis Amanah RakyatJun 2011 vii
  8. 8. FACTORS AFFECTING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS AMONG MARA PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE STUDENTS Dr Mumtaz Begam Bt Abdul Kadir, Pn Munirah Bt Salim, Pn Halimahton Bt Kamarudin Kolej Profesional MARA Bandar Melaka Abstract A study was conducted to determine MARA Professional College students’ perception on entrepreneurial intention. The study was build on psychological model based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour to identify the factors influencing the entrepreneurial intention of these students. The study analyzes the factors contributing towards entrepreneurial intention among Mara Professional College students. Data were collected through questionnaires obtained from 181 students of three different programmes offered in MARA Professional Colleges. The study utilized correlation and regression statistics to analyse the data. The findings showed a significant relationship between attitudinal factor(r=0.5324), behavioural factor (r=0.5668) and educational support(r=0.6241) towards entrepreneurial intention. Educational support contributed the most (39%), followed by behavioural factor with 32.1% and attitudinal factor contributed 28.3% towards entrepreneurial intention among MARA Professional Colleges. It is suggested that educational support through professional education in these colleges is an efficient way of obtaining necessary knowledge about entrepreneurship. The result of the study has valuable implications for policy makers in Higher Education Division, college administrators and educators. Keywords: Entrepreneurial Intention; Entrepreneurship, Education; Educational Support 19
  9. 9. INTRODUCTIONMalaysia has begun to focus on educational practices througheducational institutions. These institutions have begun to study factorsassociated with entrepreneurship (Norasmah et al, 2003).Entrepreneurship has also captured the attention of policy makers inMARA. The main reason for this concern is the growing need forBumiputera entrepreneurs to accelerate the economic development byproviding employment opportunity and increasing competitiveness(Salmah, et al 2007). Mara Higher Educational programmes haveembraced entrepreneurship in its curriculum in Mara ProfessionalColleges.. Significant amount of money has been allocated to designand carryout a viable entrepreneurship education for students whoenrolled into these colleges. These colleges provide educational andassistance programmes such as the Young Entrepreneur Programme forpracticing businesses.REVIEW OF LITERATURELiterature review on entrepreneurship education shows that there are twoschools of thought regarding the conceptual framework for teachingentrepreneurship. One is the “new venture creation” and the other isknown as “innovation” (Saks & Ganglion, 2002). Entrepreneurshipeducation tries to develop in the participants the intention to performentrepreneurial behaviours, entrepreneurial knowledge and desirability ofthe entrepreneurial activity (Liñán, 2004). There are variousentrepreneurial education scope and structure among higher education inMalaysia.College students are trained as preparation to enter the business worldaccording to their areas of study. However, whether they would beofficers or entrepreneurs after graduation would be determined by theirintent. An intention is an anticipated outcome guided by planned actions.The theory of planned behaviour is linked between attitudes andbehaviours (Ajzen, 1991). Intentions predict deliberate behavioursbecause behaviour can be planned. Intention is assumed to take hold ofemotional factors that influence behaviour and indicate one’s effort to tryto perform intentional behaviour. In the context of entrepreneurship, 20
  10. 10. intension is identified as the important property for establishing anorganisation (Kantz & Gartner, 1988) and as a predictor of new reliableenterprise (Krueger, Michael & Casrud 2000).Many studies on college students’ intention to become entrepreneurshave been conducted. Christian (2000), studied on Batak students’intention to be entrepreneurs and found that 65% of the respondent hadintention to be entrepreneurs. Another study on Balinese students’intention showed that out of 105 respondents, 39.5% stated their intent tobe an entrepreneur and 35% more stated their desire to be entrepreneurs(Lie, 2004). Study by Christine (2004) on Chinese students’ intention tobe entrepreneurs found that out of 105 respondents, 33.66% stated theirintend to be entrepreneurs and 13.86% desired to be entrepreneurs.Similar study done by Gerald (2006) on Javanese students’ intention tobe entrepreneurs found that out of 194 respondents, 30.4% stated theirintent to be entrepreneurs and 22% stated their desire to beentrepreneurs.Personality trait is becoming popular as an explanation of entrepreneurialbehaviors and intentions. Personality trait is described as constructs toexplain regularities in people’s behaviour. Contemporary theoristidentifies five fundamental personality dimensions which areextroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness andopenness to experience. Traits predicting behaviour include risk taking,achievement motivation and locus of control.The concept of locus of control refers to a generalized belief that aperson can or cannot control his or her own destiny. Those who ascribecontrol of events to themselves are identified as having an internal locusand those who attribute control to outside forces are categorized ashaving external locus of control (Spector, 1997). Gifford (2003), in a studytheorizes that the influence of locus of control on perceptual alertness isthe potential ability to see opportunities in the environment and explainsthe influence of locus of control on entrepreneurs. He concluded a personwho has internal locus of control has greater amounts of perceptualalertness which leads to spontaneous learning.Curiosity has also been identified as a major motivator of behaviour indomains such as educational, occupational and recreational areas (Reio 21
  11. 11. & Wiswell, 2000). A study conducted by Kashdan and Roberts (2004)found that highly curious individuals are more motivated to explore newenvironments to obtain diverse cognitive, perceptual, or sensationalinformation to satisfy their curiosity.An entrepreneur is a person who creates new business by taking risksand uncertainties in order to gain some benefits and growth in businessby identifying the opportunities and combining different resourcesrequired to establish the new business (Zimmerer & Scarborough, 2004).Brockhaus (1980) identified that risk to tolerance or ambiguity tolerancedoes not affect entrepreneurs differently. However, Ghosh and Block(1993) identified that risk and ambiguity have distinguished effects onentrepreneurial behaviour.High creativity in running enterprise is a need for an entrepreneur. Anentrepreneur should be ready to keep thinking and finding newopportunity in coping with problems and expanding the enterprise. Scott(1999) conducted a study on 36 entrepreneurial start-ups addressingspecifically to the role of creativity in business start-ups. This studysummarized case findings of these thirty-six start-ups and determinedthat where the fits are strong novelty generating components of creativity.Study by Riyanti (2007) found that an entrepreneur’s creativity generallyleads to creative innovations.The study by Autio, Keeley, Klofsten, & Ulfstedt, (1997) that investigatedentrepreneurial intention of university students in various cultural contextsindicated that the encouragement from university environment affects theentrepreneurial confidence of university students. Educational supportthrough professional education in universities is an efficient way ofobtaining necessary knowledge about entrepreneurship. This issupported by the study done by Wang and Wong (2004) who pointed outthat entrepreneurial dreams of many students are hindered byinadequate preparation of the academic institution. The school andeducation system also play a critical role in identifying and shapingentrepreneurial traits (Ibrahim & Soufani, 2002). Other studies havepointed out that entrepreneurship education, especially education thatprovides technological training, is crucial to enhance entrepreneurs’innovation skills in an increasingly challenging environment (Galloway &Brown, 2002 ; Garavan & O’Cinneide, 1994). 22
  12. 12. Therefore, previous studies have shown variables that might affectentrepreneurial intention. The area of this study covers behavioural,attitudinal and educational support factors and how these influence theintentions of students to become entrepreneurs.PROBLEM STATEMENTMARA has taken many steps to strengthen its education sector.Entrepreneurial education is primarily the focus of Mara ProfessionalColleges. Students from various academic programmes are required totake courses in foundations of entrepreneurial knowledge, skills andattitudes. However, it is unknown whether contextual founding conditionsor rather personality traits that drove students’ intention to self-employment. In order to design an effective programme, policy makershave to know the factors mentioned above that need to be emphasized(Autio et al 1997). Currently, after 3 years of following the business andentrepreneurship based programmes, students’ interests in pursuing self-employment seemed to dissipate. Thus, There is a need to conduct astudy focusing on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intentionand the factors affecting their decisions.OBJECTIVEThis paper therefore has the following objectives: 1. To examine the relationship between attitudinal factors (personality traits, locus of control, curiosity), behavioural factor (risk taking and creativity) and educational support with intention to be an entrepreneur. 2. To examine the contribution of attitudinal, behavioural and educational support factor towards intention to be an entrepreneur.RESEARCH CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKThe conceptual framework for this study is built based on the Theory ofPlanned Behaviour by Ajzen (1991) and previously presented model ondeterminants of entrepreneurial intentions and behaviour by Bird (1988),Krueger and Carsrud (1993) and Shapero and Sokol (1982). This 23
  13. 13. conceptual framework explains that entrepreneurial intention amongstudents is influenced by three main factor and they are attitudinal factor,educational support and behavioural factors as shown in Figure 1. Thedependent variable in this research is intention of entrepreneurship.Intentionality can be defined as a state of mind directing a person’sattention, experience and action towards a specific path to achievesomething (Bird, 1988). Therefore, intention is a predictor of plannedentrepreneurial behaviour (Kruger & Carsud, 1993). The independentvariables employed in this framework are attitudinal factor (personaltraits, risk taking and locus of control); behavioural factors (creativity andcuriosity) and educational support (syllabus, pedagogy and co-curriculum). The demographic factor is the controlled variables whichconsist of gender, programme and family background. ATTITUDINAL FACTORS  Personality Traits  Curiosity  Locus of Control DEMOGRAPHIC INTENTION TO  Gender BE AN  Programme EDUCATIONAL ENTREPRENEUR  Family SUPPORT Background  Syllabus  Pedagogy  Co-Curriculum BEHAVIOURIAL FACTORS  Creativity  Risk Taking Fig 1 : Research Conceptual Framework (Adapted from Bird (1988), Krueger and Carsrud (1993) & Shapero and Sokol (1982)) 24
  14. 14. METHODOLOGYThis study was carried out through a survey method, usingquestionnaires as the main instrument. This sample consists ofrespondents among students from three programmes (Diploma inEntrepreneurship, Diploma in Business Studies, Diploma in Accountancyand Diploma in Islamic Banking and Finance) in MARA ProfessionalColleges. A convenience sample was selected to obtain participant fromrepresentative in terms of gender and programme. The profile of therespondents is provided in the Table 1 below. Table 1 Profile of Respondents Number of Respondent Type of Programme Male Female Diploma in Entrepreneurship 45 43 Diploma in Business Studies 25 58 Diploma in Accountancy 27 69 Total 87 170INSTRUMENTThe questionnaire consists of 2 sections to measure the studiedelements. Section A consists of 3 items on the demography informationi.e. gender, programme and family background. Section B contains 70items firstly, to measure attitudinal factor (personal traits, curiosity andlocus of control), behavioural factors (creativity and risk taking) andeducational support (syllabus, pedagogy and co-curriculum). In order toexamine the personality traits, 9 items from five trait clusters which areextraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability andopenness were used. The items were adapted from the structure ofphenotypic personality traits (Goldberg, 1993). and a very brief measureof the Big-five personality domains (Gosling, Rentfrow, & Swann, 2003).5 items were constructed to look into the internal locus of control and 10items were to look into levels of curiosity of an individual. These itemswere adapted from Traits and state curiosity in genesis of intimacy(Kashdan et al 2004). The 10 items on risk taking were adapted from ADomain-specific Risk-attitude scale. (Weber, Blais, & Betz, 2002). Nomodification was made to measure creativity and innovation which wastaken from Entrepreneurial Leadership and New Ventures (Chen, 2007). 25
  15. 15. The items for educational support were constructed by researches takinginto consideration of the present educational support given by MARA tothe MARA Professional Colleges. To measure the entrepreneurialintention among students, 8 items were taken from The ProactivePersonality Scale as a predictor of entrepreneurial intention (Crant,1996). 7-point Likert scale was used where ‘1’ indicates StronglyDisagree and scale ‘7’ indicates Strongly Agree.A pilot study was carried out using the questionnaire and for analysis ofitem. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were measured.Factor analysis was performed to determine the underlying factorialstructure of the scale. The result of the analysis revealed three factors(behavioural factor, educational support and attitudinal factor) with Eigenvalues greater than 1.0. The internal consistencies of scale wereassessed through computing Cronbach’s alpha. The components offactor affecting entrepreneurial intention show the reliability valuebetween 0.813 to 0.930. Implication from these values indicates that all ofthe items used for each component in the questionnaire have a high andconsistent reliability values.FINDINGSIn this study, the relationships between attitudinal factors, behaviouralfactors, educational factors and entrepreneurial intention were examined.Table 2 shows the results of Pearson Correlation Analysis. Table 2 Analysis of Pearson Correlation– Zero Order Attitudinal Factor Educational Behavioural Support SupportEntrepreneurial 0.532 0.624 0.567Intention (181) (181) (181) p = 0.00 p = 0.00 p = 0.00Attitudinal Factor 1.000 0.639 0.551 (0) (181) (181) p=. p=0.00 p=0.00Educational 0.639 1.000 0.759Support (181) (0) (181) p=0.00 p=. p=0.00Behavioural Factor 0.551 0.759 1.000 (181) (181) (0) p=0.00 p=0.00 p=. *p< 0.05 26
  16. 16. 1. Relationship between attitudinal factors (personality traits, curiosity and locus of control) with intention to be an entrepreneur. Ho1: There is no significant relationship between attitudinal factors (personality traits, locus of control, risk taking) with intention to become an entrepreneur.The results showed that the correlation coefficients between attitudinalfactors and entrepreneurial intention is r = 0.53, n = 181, (p<0.05). Asignificant positive correlation (p<0.05) was found between attitudinalfactors and entrepreneurial intention.2. The relationship between behavioural factor (creativity and risk taking) and the intention to become an entrepreneur. Ho2: There is no significant relationship between behavioural factors (creativity and risk taking) with intention to become an entrepreneur.As for the relationship between behavioural factors and entrepreneurialintention the correlation coefficients is at r = 0.57, n = 181, (p<0.05). Thisshows a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) between behaviouralfactors and entrepreneurial intention.3. Relationship between educational support (syllabus, pedagogy and co-curriculum) with intention to become an entrepreneur. Ho3: There is no significant relationship between educational support (syllabus, pedagogy and co-curriculum) with intention to become an entrepreneur.The final relationship is between the educational support andentrepreneurial intention with the correlation coefficients at r = 0.62, n =181, (p<0.05). There is a significant relationship between educationalsupport (syllabus, pedagogy and co-curriculum) and entrepreneurialintention.The correlation coefficient value gained from this analysis shows a strongrelationship between the three elements (Davies in Baharom 2004). 27
  17. 17. Thus, Ho1, Ho2 and Ho3 are rejected. Whereby, this results show thatthere is a relationship between attitudinal factors, behavioural factors andeducational support towards developing entrepreneurial intention amongstudents.4. Contribution of attitudinal, behavioural and educational support factor towards intention to be an entrepreneur.The result from the correlation as shown in Table 2 fulfils the requiredconditions for regression analysis. The correlation analysis shows thatthe studied dependent variable does not have a high correlation.Tabachnik and Fidell (1996) in Pallant (2001) stated that regressionanalysis can only be done if the correlation value between the studiedenabler is < 0.7. Thus, the regression analysis can be carried out. Linearregression analysis was used to determine the contribution of theindependent variable which is the attitudinal factor, behavioural factorand educational support towards intention to be an entrepreneur amongstudents in MARA Professional College as stated in hypothesis Ho21below.Ho41: There is no significant contribution from independent variable attitudinal factor towards intention to be an entrepreneur.Ho42 : There is no significant contribution from independent variable behavioural factor towards intention to be an entrepreneur.Ho43 : There is no significant contribution from independent variable educational support towards intention to be an entrepreneur.Table 3 and 4 show the results of linear regression analysis for theinfluence of attitudinal factor towards the entrepreneurial intention. Thelinear regression analysis shows that the independent enabler which isthe attitudinal factor is the indicator with correlation (ß = 0.532, t = 8.461and p = 0.000) (p<0.05) and the value of R² (R²=0.283) contributes 28.3% towards entrepreneurial intention among Mara Professional Collegestudents. Thus, Ho21 is rejected. When the score for attitudinal factorgoes up a unit, the score for entrepreneurial intention will also increaseup to 0.532 units. 28
  18. 18. Table 3 Analysis of Linear Regression between Attitudinal Factors towards Intention to be Entrepreneur. Independent B Beta t Sig. -t R2 Contribution Variable (ß) (%) Attitudinal 0.590 0.532 8.461 0.000 0.283 28.3 Factors Constant 2.280 5.901 0.000R 0.534aR squared 0.283Adjusted R squared 0.279Standard Error 0.853 Table 4 Analysis of VarianceSource Sum of df Mean F Sig (p) Squared SquareRegression 52.140 1 52.140 71.589 0.000aResidual 131.826 181 0.728Total 183.966 182The contribution of attitudinal factor towards entrepreneurial intentionamong Mara Professional College students forms the linear regression isas below :Y = 2.280 + 0.5590 X1 + 0.853Y = Entrepreneurial IntentionX1 = Attitudinal FactorConstant 2.280Standard Error 0.386Table 5 and 6 show the results of linear regression analysis for theinfluence of behavioural factor towards the entrepreneurial intention. Thelinear regression analysis shows that the independent enabler which isthe behavioural factor is the indicator with correlation (ß = 0.567, t =9.257 and p = 0.000) (p<0.05) and the value of R² (R²=0.321) contributes32.1 % towards entrepreneurial intention among Mara ProfessionalCollege students. Thus, Ho22 will be rejected. When the score forattitudinal factor goes up a unit, the score for entrepreneurial intention willalso increase up to 0.567 units. 29
  19. 19. Table 5 Analysis of Linear Regression Between Behavioural Factors Towards Intention to be Entrepreneur. Independent B Beta t Sig. -t R2 Contribution Variable (ß) (%) Behavioural 0.746 0.567 9.257 0.000 0.321 32.1 Factors Constant 1.583 3.697 0.000R 0.567aR squared 0.321Adjusted R squared 0.318Standard Error 0.831 Table 6 Analysis of VarianceSource Sum of df Mean F Sig (p) Squared SquareRegression 59.108 1 59.108 85.686 0.000aResidual 124.858 181 0.690Total 183.966 182The contribution of attitudinal factor towards entrepreneurial intentionamong Mara Professional College students forms the linear regressionas shown below :Y = 1.583 + 0.746 X1 + 0.428Y = Entrepreneurial IntentionX1 = Attitudinal FactorConstant 1.583Standard Error 0.428The regression linear analysis in Table 7 and 8 show that theindependent enabler which is the educational support is the indicatorwhich has the correlation of (ß = 0.794, t=10.747 and p=0.000) (p<0.05)and the value of R²=0.390 indicates the contribution of 39% towards theentrepreneurial intention among MARA Professional College students.When the score for educational support goes up a unit, the score for theconstruction of vision, mission and goal will also increase to 0.794 units.Thus, Ho23 is rejected. 30
  20. 20. Table 7: Analysis of Linear Regression Between Educational Support towards Intention to be Entrepreneur Independent Variable B Beta t Sig. -t R2 Contribution (ß) (%) Educational Support 0.794 0.624 10.747 0.000 0.390 39.0 Constant 1.358 3.481 0.001R 0.624aR squared 0.390Adjusted R squared 0.386Standard Error 0.788 Table 8 Analysis of Variance Source Sum of df Mean F Sig (p) Squared Square Regression 71.660 1 71.660 115.493 0.000a Residual 112.305 181 0.620 Total 183.966 182The contribution of educational support towards the entrepreneurialintention among MARA Professional College forms the linear regressionas shown below:Y = 1.358 + 0.794 X1 + 0.390Y = Entrepreneurial IntentionX1 = Educational SupportConstant 1.358Standard Error 0.390From the linear regression, analysis can be concluded that educationalsupport contributed the most, which is 39%, followed by behaviouralfactor 32.1% and attitudinal factor contributed 28.3% towardsentrepreneurial intention among MARA Professional College.DISCUSSIONThe traditional research stream on entrepreneurial behaviour hasemphasized psychological and non-psychological factors to explain whysomeone starts a new firm. The psychological factors, or traitsperspective, addresses several human attributes, such as the need forachievement (McClelland, 1961) desire for independence (Cromie,1987), internal locus of control (Cromie & Johns, 1983; Cromie, 1987), 31
  21. 21. and self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997). The non-psychological factors areevent based and determine the behaviour of the individual. Individualacts,according to the constraints and possibilities of the situation theyfound themselves in. The entrepreneurial event approach stresses thatintentions are a strong predictor of individual behaviour such as starting anew firm (Ajzen, 1991; Krueger, 1993).This study shows that purposeful education enhances students’entrepreneurial intention by providing them with attitudes, knowledge andskills to cope with the complexities embedded in entrepreneurial taskssuch as opportunity seeking, resource assembling and leading thebusiness to success (Wilson, Kickul & Marlino, 2007). Formalentrepreneurial education provides students experience of mastery, rolemodels, social persuasion and support by involving them in hands-onlearning activities, business plan development and running simulated orreal small business (Fiet, 2000; Segal, Borgia & Schoenfeld, 2005).Student’s participation in entrepreneurial training programmes has beenassociated with changes in attitudes and intentions towardsentrepreneurship and these trainings need proper teaching strategiescompatible with the student-centred approach (Kuratko, 2005). This isbecause the development of students’ entrepreneurial intention will beaffected by the entrepreneurial instructions they received such as teamoriented method and hands-on activities (Rasmussen & Sorheim, 2006 ;Frank, Leuger & Mugler, 2005). Wood and Bandura (1991) suggestedhigher education teaching and learning should focus on providingmastery experience or repeated performance accomplishment.The current study illustrated that proper entrepreneurship educationexposure will enable students to have positive attitudes towards choosingentrepreneurship as a career. Entrepreneurship education, needs adifferent teaching pedagogy in which entrepreneurship education islinked to work-related learning (Dwerryhouse, 2001), experiential learning(Kolb, 1984), action-learning (Smith, 2001) and entrepreneurial training(Gibb, 1999). This is in line with the steps taken by Mara HigherEducation Division in offering entrepreneurship courses to all students soas to improve their entrepreneurial intention as suggested by Petermanand Kennedy (2003) and Souitaris, Zerbinati, and Al-Laham (2007) whofound that exposure to entrepreneurship education increases 32
  22. 22. entrepreneurial intention. Emphasize is also given to teaching pedagogyand lecturers are sent for training to equip them with the pedagogicalknowledge.Entrepreneurship education can be offered in many ways. If theobjective is to provide understanding of what entrepreneurship is about,the most effective way to achieve this objective is to provide informationthrough public channels such as media, seminars or lectures. Thesemethods are effective to send the relevant information to a broaderpopulation. If the objective is to equip individuals with entrepreneurialskills, the best way to deliver the education and training is via industrialtraining. However, if the objective of education is to prepare individuals toact as entrepreneurs, the most effective technique is to facilitateexperiments by trying entrepreneurship out in a controlled environment,such as business simulation or role playing (Hytti & O’Gorman, 2004).This study also found that the industrial training programme madecompulsory for all programme and the changes made in the programmeby introducing students to business simulation by MARA policy makersconcurs with Hytti and O’Gorman (2004).IMPLICATION AND CONCLUSIONAlthough there is no consensus on the content and structure ofentrepreneurship education, the findings of current study showed thatHigher Education Institution should, at least, “encourage thedevelopment of creative ideas for being an entrepreneur”, “provide thenecessary knowledge about entrepreneurship”, and “develop theentrepreneurial skills” through educational support such as pedagogical,syllabus and co-curricular activities. To develop human resources,education and training are among the most important elements. Theprevious studies in literature also indicate a link between education andentrepreneurship. It has been found that the probability of entrepreneurialrecognizes opportunities to start up, have received specific information,and perceives that their education institutions are giving support toentrepreneurship (Galloway & Brown, 2002; Gorman & Hanlon, 1997;Henderson & Robertson, 2000).It is suggested that educational system which provides adequateknowledge and inspiration for entrepreneurship develop the students’intention to perform entrepreneurial behaviours and the possibility of 33
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  28. 28. Wood R.& Bandura A. (1989). Social Cognitive Theory of Organizational Management. Academy of Management Review, 1 4, 361-384.Zimmerer, T.W. & Scarborough, N.M. (2001). Essentials of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management. Prentice-Hill : Upper Saddle River, NJ. 39
  29. 29. A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP PRACTICES AND LEARNING ORGANIZATION PRACTICES IN CLUSTER SECONDARY SCHOOLS Fuziah Binti Mat Yakop SMK Bandar Tasik Selatan Dr Mohd Izham Bin Mohd Hamzah Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia ABSTRACTThe aim of the research is to examine the relationship between principaltransformational leadership practices and teacher learning organization practicesin cluster secondary schools based on teachers’ perspectives. The purpose ofthe research is also to a) identify the level of practices of principaltransformational leadership based on four leadership dimensions and b) identifythe level of teacher learning organization practices based on five principles oflearning organization. A quantitative research employing a survey method wasconducted using questionnaire as a research instrument. The research involved285 teachers selected based on the stratified sampling method. The datacollected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The resultshave shown that the level of transformational leadership of principals andteacher learning organization practices are high. Meanwhile, the results of thestatistical analysis reveal that there is a moderate positive significant relationshipbetween the practices of transformational leadership and learning organization.Based on the research, it is stressed that comprehensive knowledge andunderstanding of the two concepts studied and how they could contribute toschool excellence is very crucial. The existing transformational leadership aswell as learning organization practices should be continuously improved andenhanced to ensure the sustainability of schools as learning organizations. Thiswould enable schools to cope with educational change and lead them towardsachieving their school excellence.Keywords: cluster schools; transformational leadership; learning organization; school improvement; teacher learning 41
  30. 30. INTRODUCTIONIn the era of globalization, an organization should become more flexible,responsive and capable of adapting to change for its survival. The 21stcentury seems to place a greater emphasis on every individual andorganization to be engaged with continuous learning so that they are ableto deal with the rapid change surrounding them. Globalization,technological change and uncertainty have been identified as challengingelements that an organization has to deal with and the success of theorganization in surviving change is measured by its capacity in becominga learning organization in which the learning of every individual issustained (Marquardt, 2002).Other than globalization and change, the Malaysian education system isalso faced with demands of the country’s rapid development as well aseducation reforms which aim at improving the quality and standard of theeducation system through continuous improvement efforts carried out.Therefore, there is definitely a very strong need for schools to changeand adapt to their surroundings, develop the school capacity and thecapacity of every individual in schools so that they are able to managechange and realize the development of the country. According to Ishakand Nor Asikin (2003), it is the responsibility of school principals to forman organization in which all its members are able to learn new skills andknowledge continuously so that they are capable of dealing with changeand meeting the ultimate goal of the country’s education system.Silins (2002) stated that schools are facing new challenges when theyare expected to adapt to change and achieve continuous improvement.Change requires schools to undergo reforms and adapt to the presentcurriculum and instructional needs. Thus, learning organization is theanswer to education reforms. In line with the needs of education reformsin Malaysia, schools should become learning organizations, increase theleadership capacity and support the personal development of everyindividual, particularly teachers in schools. As teachers have a very hugeresponsibility in playing their role as change agents, it is very crucial thatthey are involved with continuous learning. This is to ensure theimprovement of the quality of teaching which ultimately contributes toschool excellence (Rahimah, 2000). 42
  31. 31. In transforming schools into learning organizations, there are severalunderlying principles which can be practiced by teachers and they are a)personal mastery, b) mental models, c) shared vision, d) team learningand e) systems thinking (Senge, 2006). These principles, if embracedand practiced, are capable of transforming teachers into a group of highlyknowledgeable, competent and skilled individuals through the continuouslearning process taking place at all levels. This would eventuallycontribute to school improvements as a whole.However, the concept of learning organization can only be embraced byteachers if school leaders particularly the principals are committed totransforming their schools into a learning organization. The role of theprincipals in a learning community is to promote learning to teachers andstudents alike in which they themselves become learners. The schoolprincipals should show a very strong commitment to the teachers’continuous learning by giving them opportunities to develop personallyand professionally, build a collaborative learning culture, embrace acollective vision and form a committed team in achieving schoolobjectives (Hughes & Kritsonis, 2006; Rahmad, 2007; Thompson et al,2004).Amin (2005) stated that school leaders who are able to transform schoolsinto learning organizations are capable of building a vision, accepting thegroup goal and providing intellectual stimulation for all members in theschool. This view is clearly shared by many researchers on change andlearning organizations (Crawford, 2004; Rahmad, 2007; Stoll, 2002).Thus, the focus on organizational improvement requires a paradigm shiftin school leadership (Cheng, 2005). Most education literature suggeststhat transformational leadership as the most relevant type of leadership indealing with change. The leadership is said to be more sensitive toorganizational learning, building collected vision and practicing sharedleadership. These are very important elements in ensuring anorganizational excellence (Barnett et al. 2001; Sillins & Mulford, 2002).In conclusion, learning has indeed become a critical issue nowadays dueto the rapid change in the era of globalization. It is imperative that schoolleadership plays a significant role in promoting learning amongst studentsas well as teachers in schools. School principal transformationalleadership styles are seen as the most effective in sustaining schools aslearning organizations. The practice of learning organization principles 43
  32. 32. by every individual in schools specifically the teachers are crucial inmeeting the goals; achieving school excellence and producing the type ofhuman capitals required by the nation. The principal transformationalleadership practices and teacher learning organization practices are thetwo identified determinants in ensuring continuous school improvementsand excellence.RATIONALE OF STUDYAs far as the Malaysian education context is concerned, studies onrelationship between principal leadership and learning organization havenot been extensively done. However, these two concepts of leadershipand learning organization have been quite extensively studied in theWest and other countries (Abu-Tineh, 2003; Fitriana & Siahaan, 2007;Johnston & Caldwell, 2001; Silins & Mulford, 2002). These studies havemanaged to highlight the significant relationship between the twoconcepts and at the same time, contribute to the body of knowledge ineducational leadership and teacher learning.According to Suseela (2008), it is still vague to see how principals playtheir role in supporting the improvement of teachers’ instructionalpractices with regards to providing support for the teachers’ professionaldevelopment as well as teacher learning. Despite the apparent value ofthe reform agenda, little attention has been paid by the educationalmanagement authorities and school administrators to issues of howteachers learn and implement new instructional practices. Mostprincipals expect teachers to produce new innovative ideas but theformer are not engaged with the learning process themselves. Likewise,teachers have high expectations on students getting excellent grades butthese teachers hardly promote themselves as learners. Other than that,lack of time for interaction and collaboration, lack of focus on the corebusiness of teaching and learning due to various school programs heldand teacher isolation issues have directly affected the quality of teachers’instructional practices (Waters, 2009). All these constraints haveapparently become a hindrance to the transformation of schools intolearning organizations which regard learning for every individual ascrucial and indispensable . This scenario seems to reaffirm the claimmade by Barth (1990) that learning does not really take place in schools.Therefore, a research of this kind should be done to gather informationon the relationship between transformational leadership practices and 44
  33. 33. teacher learning organization practices especially in reputable schoolssuch as cluster schools.RESEARCH SCOPEThe research is to examine the relationship between the principaltransformational leadership practices and teacher learning organizationpractices in cluster secondary schools. Cluster Schools in the Malaysianeducation context, are a brand name given to schools which have beenidentified as being excellent within their cluster from the aspects of schoolmanagement and student excellence. The establishment of ClusterSchools is aimed at propelling the excellence of educational institutions inthe Malaysian education system and developing model schools that canbe benchmarked against by other schools within the same cluster as wellas others outside its cluster.The research was carried out based on the underlying assumption thattransformational leadership and learning organization practices in thoseschools among the principals and teachers respectively do exist to theextent that they are able to contribute to the continuous improvement ofthe schools in order to sustain their excellence.RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThe objectives of the research are to: a. Determine the relationship between principal transformational leadership practices and teacher learning organization practices. b. Identify the level of transformational leadership practices based on the leadership dimensions such as fostering idealized influence, providing inspirational motivation, creating intellectual stimulation and showing individualized consideration based on teachers’ perspectives. c. Identify the level of teacher learning organization practices based on the principles of personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking. 45
  34. 34. RESEARCH HYPOTHESISHo: There is no significant relationship between principal transformationalleadership practices and teacher learning organization practices.CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKThe conceptual framework for this research is based on the theoreticalframework of five principles of learning organization (Senge, 2006) andmodel of transformational leadership by Slocum and Hellriegel (2007).The five principles of learning organization consist of personal mastery,mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking.Senge (2006) has outlined the five principles in order for an organizationto become a learning organization and be able to adapt to change andachieve the goal of continuous improvement in the organization. Theresearch also focuses on transformational leadership practices amongschool principals based on the four dimensions of transformationalleadership which are fostering idealized influence, providing inspirationalmotivation, creating intellectual stimulation and showing individualizedconsideration (Slocum & Hellriegel, 2007). Learning Organization PracticesTransformational Leadership  Personal MasteryPractices  Mental Models  Fostering idealized influence  Shared Vision  Providing inspirational motivation  Team Learning  Creating intellectual stimulation  Systems Thinking  Showing individualized consideration Schools as Learning OrganizationsConceptual Framework Based on Transformational Leadership Model (Slocum & Hellriegel 2007) and Five Disciplines of Learning Organization Theory (Senge 2006) 46
  35. 35. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThe design of the research is quantitative survey. Since the research wasbased on the teachers’ perspectives, the population of the study wasteachers from six cluster secondary schools in the states of KualaLumpur Federal Territory and Selangor. The samples of the studyconsisted of 285 secondary school teachers. The research instrumentused was a questionnaire which measured the teachers’ perspectives ontheir principal transformational leadership practices and the teachers’own learning organization practices. The reliability coefficients of theinstrument varied from .70 to .96.The data collected were analyzed using the SPSS Version 16.0.Descriptive analysis such as frequency, percentage and mean scorewere used to explain the respondents’ background and the level oftransformational leadership practices and learning organization practices.Meanwhile, inferential statistics Pearson Correlation was employed toanswer the research hypothesis.RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONSA. Respondents’ Profiles Table 1.1 Respondents’ Profiles Comment [s1]: I’ve merged the cells for “teaching experience” and “subject Background Frequency Percentage specialization” (%) Teaching 5 years and below 88 30.9 experience 6-10 years 66 23.1 11 years and above 131 46.0 Total (N) 285 Subject Language 81 28.4 Humanities 63 22.1 specialization Science & Mathematics 84 29.5 Technical & Vocational 57 20.0 Total (N) 285A total of 285 teachers responded to the questionnaires distributed to allthe six selected cluster secondary schools. Out of the figure, 88 teachers(30.9%) have taught for 5 years and less in schools, 66 (23.1%) have 6-10 years teaching experience and 131 (46.0%) have been teaching for11 years and more. As for the teachers’ subject specialization, 81 47
  36. 36. teachers are language teachers, 63 of them are from the humanitiesdepartment and 84 teachers come from the science and mathematicsdepartment. The remaining 57 have been identified as technical andvocational teachers. The summary of demographic information is shownin Table 1.1.B. The level of transformational leadership practices based on the four leadership dimensions Table 1.2 Level of principal transformational leadership practicesTransformational Leadership Dimensions Mean Std dev InterpretationFostering Idealized Influence 3.74 0.617 HighProviding Inspirational Motivation 3.83 0.639 HighCreating Intellectual Stimulation 3.67 0.609 HighShowing Individualized Consideration 3.63 0.643 ModerateOverall level of leadership practices 3.72 0.597 HighTable 1.2 above illustrates that the level of principal transformationalleadership practices, based on the teachers’ perspectives, is high. Thesecond dimension, providing inspirational motivation shows the highestmean score. Among the leadership practices highlighted by the teacherswere that, the principals showed a very strong commitment to the schoolmission and vision and consistently involved the teachers in achievingthose vision and mission of their schools. This is in line with theimportance of leaders possessing a clear vision which is embraced byevery individual in schools so that they can have a clear direction and beable to channel the energy towards achieving the vision (Edaris, 2004;Mumtaz, 2009; Rahmad, 2007).Meanwhile, the fourth dimension studied, showing individualizedconsideration has the lowest mean score. This indicated that thisparticular leadership dimension has been practiced the least by theprincipals. The moderate mean score for this leadership dimension hasshown that the principals gave little focus on the humanity aspect of theleadership such as giving space for teachers to have different opinionsand taking into consideration the teachers’ individual needs, abilities andambitions. School principals should pay attention to this leadershipdimension because teachers need self achievement and growth. Asschool principals, they can coach, mentor, facilitate or council theteachers on how to handle their job and encourage them to be creative 48
  37. 37. and innovative. On the other hand, for the same dimension beingdiscussed, the teachers perceived that their principals supervised theteachers’ work so that they could always improve on their teaching andlearning process. This has actually portrayed the practice oftransformational leadership in which that the supervision carried out bythe principals is able to benefit and motivate the teachers (Sidhu & Chan,2010). The teachers also agreed that principal supervision is a form ofadditional support given to them so that they are able to improve theirinstructional practices and have the opportunity to develop professionally.C. The level of learning organization practices based on the five principles of learning organization Table 1.3 Level of teacher learning organization practices Learning organization principles Mean Std dev Interpretation Personal Mastery 3.88 0.462 High Mental Models 4.12 0.412 High Shared Vision 4.05 0.413 High Team Learning 4.15 0.429 High Systems Thinking 4.15 0.406 High Overall learning organization practices 4.07 0.371 HighBased on the Table 1.3 above, the level of teacher learning organizationpractices is high for all the learning organization principles studied. Thismeans that the five principles of learning organization were frequentlypractised by the teachers in cluster secondary schools. The results havealso implied that the concept of learning organization which is morecommonly related to the context of management and industry can also beapplied in school settings. The findings are found to be consistent withthe qualitative findings of Park and Rojewski (2006) and Retna and Ng(2004) which concluded that the concept of learning organization bySenge (2006) can be applied in the Asian cultural and educationalcontext.The practice of personal mastery by the teachers has shown that theywere consistently involved with the learning process and improved theirknowledge and skills. This is probably due to the fact that the teacherswere aware of the importance of being learners themselves and lookingfor strategies to improve their instructional practices. According toThompson et al. (2004), the personal mastery possessed by teacherscan actually in turn help increase the student learning. The mental 49
  38. 38. models practices show similarly high mean score. The teachers werewilling to change their old teaching methods and carry out reflectivesessions so that they were able to synthesize ideas for creating newlearning (Glickman et al. 2003). In addition, the teachers also learnedand changed through feedback from students in class and theircolleagues respectively. The next learning organization practice studiedis shared vision which also displays a high mean score. According toSenge (2006), shared vision is also capable of providing focus andenergy for learning in an organization.Likewise, the fourth principle which is team learning, also shows a highmean score. The findings have been able to support the manyarguments in literature that team learning is crucial in creating a learningorganization. Senge (2006), Goh (2003) and Coppieters (2005) haverespectively outlined team learning or team work as one of the strategicbuilding blocks in creating a learning organization. The teachers studiedclaimed that they were being open and honest about sharing their bestpractices and shared information about each other’s evaluation on theirstudents’ performance. These practices have been stressed to beimportant in improving students’ performance and teachers’ teachingmethodology (Crawford, 2004; Hughes & Kritsonis, 2006). The researchhas also highlighted the practices of collaboration, collegiality and howthe teachers perceived their principals to be encouraging in creating acollaborative climate in schools. The last principle of learningorganization which is systems thinking has also shown a high meanscore. The teachers have a positive perception when they were able toperceive their schools as an organization with its own systems. Theteachers were also capable of considering their every action and how itmay affect their students and colleagues alike in schools. 50
  39. 39. D. Relationship between principal transformational leadership practices and teacher learning organization practices. Table 1.4 Relationship between principal transformational leadership practices and teacher learning organization practices Transformational Learning Leadership Organization **Transformational Pearson Correlation 1 0.573Leadership Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 N 285 285Learning Pearson Correlation 0.573** 1Organization Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 N 285 285Significant level at 0.05Ho: There is no significant relationship between principal transformationalleadership practices and teacher learning organization practices.The table 1.4 above shows that there is a moderate positive significantrelationship between the principal transformational leadership practicesand teacher learning organization practices. Therefore, the nullhypothesis has been rejected. This shows that when the teachersperceived their principals to be transformational leaders, they wouldpractise the learning organization principles even more. When furtheranalyzed according to the leadership dimensions, it was found that all thedimensions showed the same moderate positive significant relationshipwith teacher learning organization practices (see Table 1.5). Thedimension of providing inspirational motivation had the highest correlationand fostering idealized influence showing the lowest. The findings clearlyshow that the principal transformational leadership is the most relevanttype of leadership practised in the context of change and is able tocontribute to the successful learning organization practices among theteachers. 51
  40. 40. Table 1.5 Correlation between principal transformational leadership practices and teacher learning organization practices Dimensions of principal Teacher Learning Organization Practices transformational r Sig Interpretation leadership practices Fostering Idealized 0.525 0.000 Moderate Influence Providing Inspirational 0.560 0.000 Moderate Motivation Creating Intellectual 0.545 0.000 Moderate Stimulation Showing Individualized 0.552 0.000 Moderate ConsiderationSignificant level at 0.05CONCLUSIONLearning organization is a management approach that is capable oftransforming an organization into a more competitive and adaptive inresponse to change. In school contexts, the existence of teacherlearning organization practices which are consistently supported bytransformational principals would enable the schools to achievecontinuous improvement and excellence in terms of teaching andlearning aspects as well as student learning. The findings of theresearch have concluded that there is a significant relationship betweenthe principal transformational leadership practices and teacher learningorganization practices in cluster secondary schools. On top of that, thehigh level of transformational leadership and learning organizationpractices as perceived by the teachers has successfully portrayed andmatched the level of excellence and recognition of the schools involved inthe research. School leadership particularly principals play a verysignificant role in ensuring that the existing learning organizationpractices among teachers is further enhanced and sustained for meetingthe school improvement goals. The least practiced leadership dimensionwhich is showing individualized consideration should be given moreemphasis and the other leadership dimensions should be continuallyimproved so that schools can be sustained as learning organizations.Thus, a certain amount of knowledge and comprehension from relevantstakeholders is required in order for them to understand the relationshipbetween the two concepts studied. Aspects of teachers’ professionaldevelopment focusing on their continuous learning in terms of improvingtheir instructional practices should be given priority by relevant parties. 52
  41. 41. Similarly, school principals should be consistently exposed to the besttheories and practice of school leadership through courses, workshopsand seminars.REFERENCESAbu-Tineh, Abdullah. (2003). Exploring the Relationship Between the Perceived Relationship Style of Principals and their Teachers’ Practice of the Five Disciplines of Learning Schools. PhD Thesis, Florida University.Amin Senin. (2005). Sekolah Sebagai Satu Organisasi Pembelajaran. Jurnal Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Pendidikan. Institut Aminuddin Baki, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. 15(1): 31-43.Barnett, K., McCormick, J., & Conners, R. (2001). Transformational Leadership in Schools- Panacea, Placebo or Problem? Journal of Education Administration. 39(1): 24-46.Barth, R. B. (1990). Improving Schools from Within: Teachers, Parents, and Principals Can Make the Difference. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.Cheng, Y.C. (2005). New Paradigm for Reengineering Education: Globalization, Vocalization, and Individualization. Springer: The Netherlands.Coppieters, P. (2005). Turning Schools into Learning Organizations. European Journal of Teacher Education. 28 (2): 129-139.Crawford, M. L. (2004). High School Principal Leadership: Practices and Beliefs with the Learning Organization. PhD Thesis, Education Faculty, Virginia University.Edaris Abbu Bakar. (2004). Pengurusan Strategik: Konsep dan Aplikasi untuk Pendidikan. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications and Distributors Sdn. Bhd.Fitriana, R. & Siahaan, D.P. (2007). Hubungan antara Organisasi Pembelajaran, Kepemimpinan Transformasional, dan Perfomansi Pada Himpunan Mahasiswa Teknik Industri Universitas Trisakti. 1st PPM National Conference on Management Research “Manajemen di Era Globalisasi”. Sekolah Tinggi Manajemen PPM. 7 November. 53
  42. 42. Glickman, C., Gordon, S, & Ross-Gordon, J. (2003). Supervision and Instructional Leadership: A New Developmental Approach. Boston: Allen & Bacon.Goh, S.C. (2003). Improving Organizational Learning Capability: Lessons from Two Case Studies. The Learning Organization. 10(4). 216- 227.Hughes, A. T., & Kritsonis, A. W. (2006). A National Perspective: An Exploration of Professional Learning Communities and the Impact on School Improvement Efforts. National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoring Student Research. 1 (1): 1-12.Ishak Sin & Nor Asikin Salleh. (2003). Era Globalisasi: Pendidikan dan Cabaran. Jurnal Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Pendidikan. Institut Aminuddin Baki, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. 13(1). 19-28.Johnston, C., & Caldwell, B. (2001). Leadership and Organizational Learning in the Quest for World Class Schools. The International Journal of Education Management. 14(5): 198-209.Marquardt, M. (2002). Building the Learning Organization: Mastering the Five Elements for Corporate Learning. CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Mumtaz Begum. (2009). Learning Organization: Membentuk Budaya Belajar dalam Organisasi. PTS Professional Publishing Sdn. Bhd.Park, J. H., & Rojewski, J. W. (2006). The Learning Organization Model Across Vocational and Academic Teacher Groups. Career and Technical Education Research. 31 (1): 23- 48.Rahimah Ahmad. (2000). School Leadership for the Twenty First Century. Syarahan Perdana. Institut Pengajian Kepengetuaan, Universiti Malaya.Rahmad Sukor bin Ab Samad. (2007). Education Management in the Context of Quality Improvement: Managing Change for Improving Learning Community. Masalah Pendidikan. 30 (2): 93-106.Retna, K. S. & P.T. Ng. (2006). The Challenges of Adopting the Learning Organization Philosophy in a Singapore School. International Journal of Education Management. Vol 20: 140-152. 54
  43. 43. Senge, P. (2006). The Fifth Discipline:The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. Second Edition. New York: Doubleday.Sidhu, G. K. & Chan, Y.F. (2010). Formative Supervision of Teaching and Learning: Issues and Concerns for the School Head. European Journal of Scientific Research. 39(4): 589-605.Silins, H. & Mulford, B. (2002). Schools As Learning Organizations: The Case for System, Teacher and Student Learning. Journal of Education Management. 40(5): 425-446.Silins, H. (2002). What Characteristics and Processes Define a School as a Learning Organization? Is This a Useful Concept to Apply to Schools? International Education Journal. 3(1): 24-32.Slocum, J. W. & Hellriegel, D. (2007). Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. USA: Thomson South Western.Stoll, L. (2002). Enhancing Internal Capacity:Leadership for Learning. National College for School Leadership. 1-10.Suseela, M. (2008). Teacher Learning in Malaysia: Problems and Possibilities of Reform. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.Thompson, C. S., Gregg, L. , & Niska, M. J. (2004). Profesional Learning Communities, Leadership and Student Learning. RMLE Online Research. 28 (1): 1-15.Waters, D.C. (2009). Case Study: Teacher Perceptions of Professional Learning Communities in an Elementary School Setting. PhD Thesis, Walden University. 55
  44. 44. KURIKULUM SEJARAH KE ARAH PEMBENTUKAN PERPADUAN KAUM DI MALAYSIA Ahamad bin Rahim IPG Kuala Terengganu Azwani bin Ismail Bahagian Sumber Manusia MARA Dr Abdul Razaq bin Ahmad Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Prof Madya Dr Datin Zahara binti Aziz Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Dr Sharifah Nur Puteh Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia AbstrakMasyarakat Malaysia merupakan masyarakat yang berbilang kaumyang majoritinya terdiri daripada kaum Melayu, Cina dan India.Pelbagai usaha telah dilakukan bagi mengeratkan perpaduan kaumdi Malaysia sama ada oleh pihak kerajaan ataupun badan-badanbukan kerajaan. Oleh itu, kertas kerja ini akan membincangkanperanan pendidikan Sejarah di sekolah menengah bagi membantumeningkatkan usaha yang ada ke arah mempertingkatkan tahapintegrasi kaum di Malaysia. Pendidikan Sejarah merupakan satumata pelajaran yang dianggap relevan dalam menerapkan nilai-nilaiperpaduan kaum dalam masyarakat multietnik di negara ini. Kertaskerja ini meninjau dari aspek permasalahan dalam pendidikanSejarah dan mencadangkan beberapa langkah yang sesuai bagimenjadikan mata pelajaran Sejarah mampu menerapkan nilai-nilaiyang berkaitan dengan hubungan kaum dari aspek kandungan,penerapan nilai dan aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran.Seterusnya kertas kerja ini juga mencadangkan langkah-langkahyang perlu dilakukan di sekolah dan pihak Kementerian PelajaranMalaysia (KPM) bagi memantapkan aplikasi pendidikan Sejarah kearah mencapai matlamat pendidikan Sejarah dalam membentuksikap toleransi, patriotisme, kewarganegaraan dan nilai-nilai murnike arah melahirkan masyarakat yang bersatu padu selari dengankonsep 1 Malaysia.Kata Kunci : Kurikulum, Pendidikan Sejarah, Integrasi Kaum 1
  45. 45. PENGENALANKonteks Masyarakat Majmuk di MalaysiaFurnivall (1965) mengatakan masyarakat majmuk merujuk kepadapenduduk pelbagai kaum yang tinggal di suatu kawasan tetapimengamalkan kebudayaan, agama, bahasa dan adat resam yangtersendiri. Beliau menjelaskan masyarakat Malaysia sering ditakrifkansebagai masyarakat majmuk dengan komuniti Melayu, Cina dan Indiayang hidup sebelah-menyebelah tetapi berbeza dari segi kepercayaan,budaya dan bahasa. Walaupun mereka hidup sebelah-menyebelah tetapimereka terpisah dari segi perbezaan bahasa, budaya dan kepercayaan.Malaysia adalah sebuah negara yang terdiri daripada pelbagai bangsa,keturunan dan agama. Mengikut Jabatan Perangkaan Negara (2006),komposisi jumlah penduduk di Malaysia adalah seramai 26.64 juta orang.Daripada jumlah tersebut, 24.8 juta orang merupakan warganegaraMalaysia manakala bakinya 1.84 juta orang merupakan bukanwarganegara Malaysia. Kaum Melayu mewakili 54% daripada populasipenduduk iaitu seramai 13.48 juta orang. Kaum bumiputera selaindaripada Melayu seramai 2.93 juta orang yang mewakili 11.8%. Oleh itu,kaum Bumiputera mewakili 65.8% daripada jumlah keseluruhanwarganegara Malaysia. Kira-kira 25% daripada penduduk Malaysia ialahkaum Cina iaitu seramai 6.22 juta orang, 7.5% terdiri daripada kaumIndia seramai 1.86 juta orang, manakala kaum lain pula mewakili 1.7%iaitu seramai 318.9 ribu orang.Masyarakat yang pelbagai etnik ini hidup dengan aman danmengamalkan kepercayaan dan budaya masing-masing secara bebasdan saling menghormati antara satu sama lain. Menurut Faridah et al.(2008) hubungan etnik yang merujuk kepada interaksi antara etnik yangberbeza (interetnik) atau interaksi dalam kumpulan etnik yang sama(intraetnik), kepelbagaian kelompok etnik di Malaysia telah diterima oehsemua rakyat dan ini merupakan sumber kekuatan perpaduan diMalaysia. Dari segi sejarah, kerjasama dan ikatan perpaduan pelbagaibangsa dan kaum di Malaysia bermula dengan apa yang dinamakansebagai kontrak sosial antara etnik terbesar di Malaysia. Kontrak sosialadalah satu persetujuan dalam kalangan masyarakat berbilang kaummelalui proses muafakat dan musyawarah ke arah peralihan kuasa 2
  46. 46. pemerintahan sendiri daripada pihak Inggeris dan dimanifestasikanmelalui kemenangan Perikatan dalam pilihan raya 1955. Semangatkontrak sosial ini berasaskan semangat kerjasama dan setia kawan sertaperkongsian kuasa yang kemudiannya terjelma dalam perjuanganmenuntut kemerdekaan dan penggubalan Perlembagaan Persekutuan.(Anuar dan Nur Atiqah, 2008).Jika dilihat dari data yang dinyatakan oleh Jabatan Perangkaan Negara(2006), maka tidak hairanlah isu perpaduan kaum menjadi suatu agendayang diberi perhatian serius oleh kerajaan. Kepelbagaian ini seharusnyadiurus dengan baik kerana kita tidak mahu peristiwa 13 Mei 1969berulang kembali, ekoran sifat masyarakat yang heterogen. (Azwani &Zahara, 2009). Oleh yang demikian, perpaduan menjadi perkara utamabagi sesuatu dasar, pelan dan perancangan yang dibentuk olehkerajaan.LATAR BELAKANG KURIKULUM SEJARAH DI MALAYSIAPendidikan zaman penjajahan British mencerminkan kepentinganpenjajah. Ini jelas digambarkan melalui mata pelajaran Sejarah yangdijadikan saluran propaganda British yang amat berkesan. Britishmemperkenalkan kurikulum Sejarah yang berbeza-beza antara sekolahaliran British dan sekolah aliran Melayu. Sekolah-sekolah Cina dan Tamilpula menggunakan kurikulum Sejarah dari negara China dan India.Sejarah British diberi tempat yang penting dalam kurikulum Sejarah(Khoo Kay Kim, 1992). Ini diakui oleh Abdul Razaq (2007) yangmenjelaskan kurikulum Sejarah lebih menceritakan latar belakangmasyarakat Eropah ataupun sejarah England itu sendiri. Bagi Jamaliah(2005), sebenarnya inilah yang menyebabkan wujudnya jurang dalampendidikan sejarah antara murid sekolah aliran Inggeris, Cina dan Tamil.Hal ini mengakibatkan identiti dan nilai kerjasama tidak wujud dalamkalangan masyarakat ketika itu.Pada peringkat awal pendidikan Sejarah yang diperkenalkan di sekolah-sekolah aliran Melayu lebih berbentuk kepada Kesusasteraan MelayuKlasik. British tidak menekankan pendidikan Sejarah tempatan dalamkalangan masyarakat di Tanah Melayu kerana dikhuatiri bolehmenggugat kepentingan politik dan ekonominya. Hanya selepas negaramencapai kemerdekaan, pengaruh kurikulum British dilihat semakin 3
  47. 47. berkurangan (Maharom Mahmood, 2001). Sementara pengaruhkurikulum Sejarah negara India dan Cina tamat apabila Laporan Razak1956 dikemukakan untuk memastikan satu sukatan pengajaran danpeperiksaan yang sama dilaksanakan demi perpaduan kaum di negaraini.Selepas Perang Dunia ke-2 kurikulum Sejarah mula memberi penekananke arah perpaduan dan integrasi kaum. Pada tahun 1973, terdapatperbincangan untuk mengkaji semula kurikulum Sejarah. Kurikulum yangsedia ada dilihat terlalu luas dan tidak bersifat tempatan (Siti Zainun Mat,1998; 1990). Beberapa forum seperti Kongres Kebudayaan Malaysia1971, Seminar Sejarah Malaysia 1 dan 11 yang diadakan dalam tahun1973 dan 1974 (Siti Zainun Mat, 1988 dan 1990) telah diadakan untukmembincangkannya. Dapatan seminar telah menggesa pihakKementerian Pelajaran Malaysia menggunakan pendekatan ‘berpusatkanke-Malaysiaan’ dalam menggubal sukatan pelajaran dan penulisan bukuteks Sejarah (Siti Zainun Mat 1988, 1990).Hanya pada tahun 1989, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia telahmenjadikan mata pelajaran Sejarah sebagai subjek teras yang wajibdiambil oleh semua pelajar. Bagi Aini Hassan (2008) perubahan inimerupakan satu anjakan besar dalam falsafah dan konsepsi pengajarandan pembelajaran Sejarah di sekolah. Falsafah, matlamat dan objektifpengajaran dan pembelajaran telah dinyatakan dengan jelas. Fokusterhadap sejarah tempatan telah diterapkan dalam kurikulum.Pembahagian tajuk pula dilakukan mengikut tema-tema (PPK, 2002).Perkembangan kurikulum Sejarah pra dan pascamerdeka telahmengalami perubahan pesat, selari dengan tuntutan semasa.KEDUDUKAN MATA PELAJARAN SEJARAHMatlamat pendidikan Sejarah bagi peringkat menengah rendah danmenengah atas ialah memupuk semangat taat setia kepada bangsa dannegara serta berbangga menjadi warganegara Malaysia. Kandungankurikulum yang disediakan, memberikan fokus kepada pemahaman yangmenyeluruh tentang sejarah negara yang merangkumi jangka masa limaratus tahun dan dibuat secara kronologis iaitu mengikut susunan tahun.Pengajaran dan pembelajaran Sejarah seharusnya memberi tumpuankepada pemerolehan pengetahuan, perkembangan kemahiran dan 4
  48. 48. pemupukan nilai-nilai. Kedudukan mata pelajaran Sejarah dijelaskanseperti yang berikut: “ mata pelajaran Sejarah dalam KBSM, merupakan mata pelajaran teras yang wajib dipelajari oleh semua pelajar sekolah menengah.” (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, 2002)Langkah Kementerian Pelajaran menjadikan subjek Sejarah sebagaisubjek wajib lulus pada tahun 2012 di peringkat SPM dilihat sangatsignifikan dalam konteks semasa. Seterusnya menjadikannya sebagaisubjek teras untuk sekolah rendah mulai 2014. Ini selaras dengantransformasi dalam sistem pendidikan negara dengan perubahan KBSRkepada KSSR mulai tahun 2011. Ini secara tidak langsung akanmemartabatkan lagi kedudukan mata pelajaran ini di kaca matamasyarakat. Shakila Yacob (2010) melihat langkah mewajibkan subjekSejarah ini bertujuan untuk memartabatkan ilmu sejarah di Malaysia,menonjolkan kepentingan dan kerelevanan ilmu sejarah dalam setiapaspek kehidupan rakyat Malaysia dan memperkasakan legasi sejarahMalaysia yang mencerminkan kepelbagaian masyarakat selari denganperjuangan 1 Malaysia.Berdasarkan kenyataan di atas, dapatlah disimpulkan bahawa pembuatdasar negara sangat peka terhadap kepentingan mata pelajaran inisebagai wawasan masa hadapan dalam membina perpaduan bangsadan negara. Dasar mewajibkan pelajar sekolah menengah mempelajarisejarah adalah menepati kehendak Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan(FPK) yang inginkan perkembangan jasmani, emosi, rohani dan intelekpelajar secara serentak dan bersepadu. Sebelum ini mata pelajaranSejarah dianggap sebagai mata pelajaran kelas kedua dan dikaitkandengan pelajar-pelajar aliran sastera (Omar 1992 dan Abdul Ghani2008).MATLAMAT PENDIDIKAN SEJARAHPendidikan Sejarah bertujuan memupuk semangat setia negara danperasaan bangga sebagai rakyat Malaysia melalui pengetahuan danpenghayatan sejarah tanah air. Di peringkat menengah rendah,kurikulumnya meliputi jangka masa selama lima ratus tahun dan disusun 5
  49. 49. secara kronologi. Kurikulum ini bertujuan untuk memberi pemahamanmenyeluruh dan satu gambaran yang lengkap tentang sejarah negara.Dalam rentetan peristiwa ini dimasukkan pula sejarah negara luar yangmempunyai kaitan dengan sejarah negara. Sejarah negara luar inimerupakan asas bagi pelajar untuk mengetahui dan memahamihubungan dan kaitannya dengan Sejarah Malaysia (PPK 2002).Pendidikan Sejarah dilihat dapat mewujudkan ingatan bersama terhadapsejarah sebagai rangka rujukan kesedaran kebangsaan danpersefahaman antara bangsa (PPK 2002) kerana tujuan pendidikanSejarah itu adalah untuk memupuk semangat setia negara dan perasaanbangga sebagai rakyat Malaysia melalui pengetahuan dan perasaanbangga sebagai rakyat Malaysia.ISU-ISU DALAM PENDIDIKAN SEJARAHSering kedengaran pembelajaran Sejarah yang berpusatkan guru kurangmemberi kesan sebagaimana yang diharapkan. Pengajaran guru yangbersifat indoktrinasi dan tidak kreatif, bercorak sehala, tidak mewujudkanpeluang interaksi antara guru dan pelajar. Hal ini menyebabkan prosespengajaran dan pembelajaran (P & P) Sejarah menjadi begitu kaku danmembosankan pelajar. Guru masih mengekalkan kaedah tradisi di bilikdarjah. Guru kurang mempunyai kepakaran dalam menyampaikanpedagogi terkini. Kaedah “chalk and talk” yang menekankan interaksisehala serta teknik hafalan terhadap sesuatu fakta telah menyebabkanSejarah dilihat sebagai “the dead man of curriculum” (Abdul Razaq,2009). Sikap negatif guru menyebabkan mereka gagal mencerna mindapelajar supaya lebih bersifat intelektual dan ini menyebabkan pelajarkurang memberi tumpuan semasa P & P dijalankan.Kandungan kurikulum Sejarah amat padat dengan fakta-fakta dan tahun-tahun yang perlu diingati oleh pelajar. Mempelajari subjek Sejarahbermakna terpaksa menghafal fakta-fakta dan tahun-tahun yang begitumembebankan. Perkara ini menjadikan subjek Sejarah kurang menarikminat pelajar. Bagi pelajar, subjek ini lebih banyak bercerita tentangperistiwa yang sudah lapuk dan mereka tidak nampak apa yang harusdinilai dalam mempelajari Sejarah (Hartini Husain, 2006). Tambahanpula, terdapat ibu bapa yang melihat mata pelajaran ini tidak penting danmerupakan subjek kegemaran pelajar aliran sastera (Robiah Sidin,1994). Kurikulum Sejarah lebih menjurus kepada penghafalan fakta dan 6

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