Call overview


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Call overview

  1. 1. CALL Overview Porntip Bodeepongse
  2. 2. What is CALL? <ul><li>is the acronym for Computer Assisted </li></ul><ul><li>Language Learning and it is related to </li></ul><ul><li>the use of computers for language </li></ul><ul><li>teaching and learning. </li></ul>
  3. 3. CALL Typology (1) <ul><li>the type of CALL packages that were available at the time (Davies & Higgins, 1982 and Davies & Higgins 1985): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gap-filling exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-format exercises </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CALL Typology (2) <ul><li>Re-ordering exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Adventures </li></ul><ul><li>Action mazes </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Total Cloze: text manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory programs </li></ul><ul><li>Writing - word-processing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Phases of CALL <ul><li>Warschauer (1996) distinguishes 3 phases of CALL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviouristic CALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative CALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrative CALL </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Behaviouristic CALL <ul><li>late 70s, early 80s </li></ul><ul><li>computer as a mechanical tutor, serving mainly as a vehicle for delivering instructional materials to the learner </li></ul><ul><li>computer as a tutor which never grew tired or judgmental and allowed students to work at an individual pace </li></ul>
  7. 7. Communicative CALL (1) <ul><li>emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>used for skill practice, but in a non-drill format and with a greater degree of student choice, control and interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>focus more on using forms , teaching grammar implicitly , allowing and encouraging students to generate original utterances , and using the target language predominantly or even exclusively (Jones & Fortescue, 1987; Phillips, 1987; Underwood, 1984). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Communicative CALL (2) <ul><li>This phase also includes </li></ul><ul><li>(a) using the computer to stimulate discussion, writing or critical thinking (e.g. using programs such as Sim City, reading mazes, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>(b) using the computer as a tool or workhorse - examples include word-processors, spelling and grammar checkers, and concordancers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Integrative CALL <ul><li>seeks both to integrate various skills (e.g., listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and also integrate technology more fully into the language learning process </li></ul><ul><li>This phase is marked by the introduction </li></ul><ul><li>of two important innovations: (a) Multimedia (b) The Internet </li></ul>
  10. 10. Approaches to CALL <ul><li>Bax (2003) prefers to talk about approaches rather than phases . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted CALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open CALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated CALL </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Restricted CALL <ul><li>&quot;I call the first approach 'Restricted CALL’…since it allows us to refer not only to a supposed underlying theory of learning but also to the actual software and activity types in use at the time, to the teachers' role , to the feedback offered to students and to other dimensions - all were relatively 'restricted', but not all were 'behaviourist'. The term is more comprehensive, more flexible and therefore more satisfactory as a descriptor.&quot; (Bax 2003:20) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Open CALL <ul><li>According to Bax, this variety of CALL is more open in terms of feedback given to students, software types and the role of the teacher. It includes simulations and games. Bax argues that we are still using the Open CALL approach. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Integrated CALL <ul><li>&quot;This concept is relevant to any kind of technological innovation and refers to the stage when the technology becomes invisible, embedded in everyday practice and hence ' normalised '. To take some commonplace examples, a wristwatch, a pen, shoes, writing - these are all technologies which have become normalised to the extent that we hardly even recognise them as technologies.&quot; (Bax 2003:24) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Benefits of CALL (1) <ul><li>multimodal practice with feedback </li></ul><ul><li>individualization in a large class </li></ul><ul><li>pair and small group work on projects, either collaboratively or competitively </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation because of the fun factor </li></ul><ul><li>variety in the resources available and learning styles used </li></ul><ul><li>real-life skill-building in computer use </li></ul>
  15. 15. Benefits of CALL (2) <ul><li>exploratory learning with large amounts of language data </li></ul><ul><li>Interest and Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible Learning Style </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal Use of ALT: Academic Learning Time (ALT) is the amount of time a student spends attending to relevant academic tasks while performing those tasks with a high rate of success.  </li></ul>