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World Languages

World Languages






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    World Languages World Languages Presentation Transcript

    • World LanguagesDifferences between English andArabic, Chinese, Kayah, and Hindi by Gloria Thorpe
    • Turn to a partner and describeto them exactly where youkeep scissors in your house orapartment.However, you must place all prepositionsbehind the nounEg: my house in the floor on a short table next to a painting under ocean of
    • Discuss with your partneryour reaction to the previous activity
    • Students of a new language have many rules to learn, as well as habits of speech to change
    • EnglishTom’s nice cat is in thekitchen
    • ArabicCat Tom nice the kitchenin
    • ChineseTom nice describe cat onekitchen in
    • KayahTom’s nice cat is kitchen in
    • HindiTom’s nice cat kitchen in is.
    • Now, work with a partner to saythese words: Vjio Pzae Ngucdt
    • Of 26 teenage ELLs surveyed, 85%reported that pronunciation has been the most difficult aspect of learning English.
    • Arabic
    • Varieties of Arabic Egypt – 50 million speakers Algeria – 22 million speakers Sudan – 19 million speakers Iraq/Saudi Arabia/Syria – 14 million speakers
    • English words drawn fromArabic  Crocus  Syrup  Ghoul  Candy  Giraffe  Alcohol  Algorithm  Lime  Camel  Sash  Sugar  Cable  Borax
    • Considerations for English learners 1/3 of English vowel sounds  Use of only ◦ “Sheep” versus “Ship” is difficult  Consistent syllable stress ◦ English stress is random and inconsistent  HOLiday  toMORrow  yesterDAY  Consistent patterns to distinguish parts of speech (eg. “ly” indicates adverbs) ◦ Lack of consistent patterns in English are confusing  No use of “to be” in present tense ◦ “The man nice” versus “The man is nice”  Leads to incorrect speaking in English  Consonant clusters (“spl”, “tch”) are rareDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
    • Kayah
    • Language of Karenni people inBurma 210,000 speakers Recently developed written language ◦ Low literacy rate of 20-50%
    • Considerations for English learners  Possible low exposure to reading and writing  Similar rules of grammar to English  Many different sounds ◦ Includes sounds that are not found in English ◦ Excludes many consonant clusters (“dr” & “ch”)Discuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
    • Chinese (Mandarin)
    • Mandarin Most common Chinese dialect/language 1,200,000 speakers Written symbols indicate meaning, rather than sound ◦ Written language is shared between different dialects and languages ◦ About 50,000 characters Tonal language ◦ Pitch of voice influences meaning of
    • Considerations for English learners  Phonetic alphabet is a new concept and, therefore, confusing  Difficulty distinguishing “r” “l” and “n”  Low exposure to words ending in consonants ◦ Vowel sounds may be added or extended  Use of tone to express emotion may be confusingDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
    • Hindi
    • Hindi Spoken by 370, 000 people Official language of India Closely related to 7 languages ◦ Such as Urdu, in Pakistan and Nepal
    • Considerations for English leaners  ½ vowels of English  2X consonants of English ◦ Sound patterns are unfamiliar  Highly phonetic language ◦ English phonics are inconsistent  Lack of “th” sound  Consistent syllable stress  Different use of present continuous ◦ I am not knowing the answerDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
    • References Crystal, D. (2003). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Shoebottom, P. (2012a). The differences between English and Arabic. Frankfurt International School. Retrieved from http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/arabic.htm Shoebottom, P. (2012b). The differences between English and Chinese. Frankfurt International School. Retrieved from http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/chinese.htm Mylanguages Ltd. (2011a). Learn Arabic. Retrieved from http://mylanguages.org/learn_arabic.php Mylanguages Ltd. (2011b). Learn Chinese. Retrieved from http://mylanguages.org/learn_chinese.php LearnArabicFree.info. (2011). Arabic for beginners. Retrieved from http://learnarabicfree.info/beginners/ Ager, S. (2012a). Arabic. Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/writing/arabic.htm Ager, S. (2012b). Kayah Li. Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/writing/kayahli.htm International Organization for Migration Cultural Orientation Team. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.churchworldservice.org/ Helgerson, H.A. (2009, October). Kayah Li. Retrieved from http://www.karennirefugees.com/uploads/3/0/1/9/3019325/learning_kayah.pdf Chinese-Lessons. (2006). Chinese lessons. Retrieved from http://www.chinese- lessons.com/ Living Language. (2007). Spoken word Hindi: A complete course for beginners. Broadway, MD: Random House, Inc.