World LanguagesDifferences between English andArabic, Chinese, Kayah, and Hindi by Gloria Thorpe
Turn to a partner and describeto them exactly where youkeep scissors in your house orapartment.However, you must place all prepositionsbehind the nounEg: my house in the floor on a short table next to a painting under ocean of
Discuss with your partneryour reaction to the previous activity
Students of a new language have many rules to learn, as well as habits of speech to change
EnglishTom’s nice cat is in thekitchen
ArabicCat Tom nice the kitchenin
ChineseTom nice describe cat onekitchen in
KayahTom’s nice cat is kitchen in
HindiTom’s nice cat kitchen in is.
Now, work with a partner to saythese words: Vjio Pzae Ngucdt
Of 26 teenage ELLs surveyed, 85%reported that pronunciation has been the most difficult aspect of learning English.
Varieties of Arabic Egypt – 50 million speakers Algeria – 22 million speakers Sudan – 19 million speakers Iraq/Saudi Arabia/Syria – 14 million speakers
Considerations for English learners 1/3 of English vowel sounds Use of only ◦ “Sheep” versus “Ship” is difficult Consistent syllable stress ◦ English stress is random and inconsistent HOLiday toMORrow yesterDAY Consistent patterns to distinguish parts of speech (eg. “ly” indicates adverbs) ◦ Lack of consistent patterns in English are confusing No use of “to be” in present tense ◦ “The man nice” versus “The man is nice” Leads to incorrect speaking in English Consonant clusters (“spl”, “tch”) are rareDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
Language of Karenni people inBurma 210,000 speakers Recently developed written language ◦ Low literacy rate of 20-50%
Considerations for English learners Possible low exposure to reading and writing Similar rules of grammar to English Many different sounds ◦ Includes sounds that are not found in English ◦ Excludes many consonant clusters (“dr” & “ch”)Discuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
Mandarin Most common Chinese dialect/language 1,200,000 speakers Written symbols indicate meaning, rather than sound ◦ Written language is shared between different dialects and languages ◦ About 50,000 characters Tonal language ◦ Pitch of voice influences meaning of
Considerations for English learners Phonetic alphabet is a new concept and, therefore, confusing Difficulty distinguishing “r” “l” and “n” Low exposure to words ending in consonants ◦ Vowel sounds may be added or extended Use of tone to express emotion may be confusingDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
Hindi Spoken by 370, 000 people Official language of India Closely related to 7 languages ◦ Such as Urdu, in Pakistan and Nepal
Considerations for English leaners ½ vowels of English 2X consonants of English ◦ Sound patterns are unfamiliar Highly phonetic language ◦ English phonics are inconsistent Lack of “th” sound Consistent syllable stress Different use of present continuous ◦ I am not knowing the answerDiscuss with partner: Which of these adjustments would be most difficult for an ELL?
References Crystal, D. (2003). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Shoebottom, P. (2012a). The differences between English and Arabic. Frankfurt International School. Retrieved from http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/arabic.htm Shoebottom, P. (2012b). The differences between English and Chinese. Frankfurt International School. Retrieved from http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/chinese.htm Mylanguages Ltd. (2011a). Learn Arabic. Retrieved from http://mylanguages.org/learn_arabic.php Mylanguages Ltd. (2011b). Learn Chinese. Retrieved from http://mylanguages.org/learn_chinese.php LearnArabicFree.info. (2011). Arabic for beginners. Retrieved from http://learnarabicfree.info/beginners/ Ager, S. (2012a). Arabic. Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/writing/arabic.htm Ager, S. (2012b). Kayah Li. Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/writing/kayahli.htm International Organization for Migration Cultural Orientation Team. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.churchworldservice.org/ Helgerson, H.A. (2009, October). Kayah Li. Retrieved from http://www.karennirefugees.com/uploads/3/0/1/9/3019325/learning_kayah.pdf Chinese-Lessons. (2006). Chinese lessons. Retrieved from http://www.chinese- lessons.com/ Living Language. (2007). Spoken word Hindi: A complete course for beginners. Broadway, MD: Random House, Inc.