Mini Lessons on Phonology

  • 387 views
Uploaded on

How to increase phonemic awareness among ENL students

How to increase phonemic awareness among ENL students

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
387
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Linguistics Poornima D’Souza Email: Poornima.dsouza@k12.sd.us Twitter: @pord_33
  • 2. Phonics Instruction for ESL Students
  • 3. How can teachers best help ESL students to develop as readers? **Information taken from Reading Rockets http://www.readingrockets.org/article/341
  • 4. Five Essentials of Reading Instruction Phonemic Awareness: The ability to identify phonemes in spoken words and understand that sounds word together to make words. • There are about 41 phonemes in the English language. • Always teach phonemic awareness within words students are already familiar with the meaning of. • Work as an instructor to be aware of linguistic differences between the students’ first languages and English (phonemes that exist and don’t exist in the native language). • Use a variety of activities: • Language games • Word Walls • Songs • Poems
  • 5. Five Essentials of Reading Instruction Phonics: Using the understanding of the predictable relationship between phonemes and graphemes to recognize familiar words and decode unfamiliar ones • If students are not literate in their first language, they may need to be taught concepts and functions of print first (reading front cover to back, writing and reading left to right, etc.) • Having a knowledge about students’ first language can help gauge instruction (i.e. students whose L1 is Spanish will generally need less consonant phonics instruction and more help with vowels).
  • 6. Five Essentials of Reading Instruction Vocabulary Development: The knowledge of stored information about the meanings and pronunciations of words necessary for communication • Vocabulary development is the primary factor in determining whether or not students will comprehend what they read. • Pre-teach vocabulary before lessons and activities • Devote time daily for vocabulary instruction • Remember the difference between BICS and CALP! • Teach students strategies for determining word meanings • Dictionaries • Using prefixes and suffixes • Using context clues
  • 7. Five Essentials of Reading Instruction Reading Fluency: The ability to read words accurately and at an appropriate pace, with comprehension • Fluency is critical for comprehension. The more fluently a child reads, the more likely she is to comprehend what she reads. • Students not initially learning to read in their first language should be see and hear hundreds of books in a school year to develop fluency • Fluency is different from reading without an accent. Fluent reading can (and often does) include an accent! • Two systematic approaches • Importance of independent silent reading to practice fluency skills • Guided repeated oral reading with instruction from teacher
  • 8. Five Essentials of Reading Instruction Reading Comprehension: The ability to understand what is read. • Comprehension should come as all four previous essentials are established • Anticipate and teach figurative language found in texts and lessons • Don’t isolate previous essentials (vocab development, phonics, etc.)! Expose students to authentic texts and challenge them to think critically (comprehend!) as they are working on other reading skills. • Graphic Organizers • “Thinking Aloud” • Questioning • Summarizing
  • 9. Sum it up… • When helping ESL students to grow as readers use best practices as with other students, BUT with some special considerations… • How does their first language differ from English? • What kind of literacy did they develop in their L1? • How do concepts of print differ in their written first language versus English?
  • 10. TeachingavocabularylessontomyclassroomwithSpanishspeakingENLstudents(choseSpanishthis timeforanexample). CouplethingsIincorporatedintothislessonthatIlearnedfromthisclass: 1-putinbitofcodeswitching. (reasonIchosetonarrowitdowntoSpanish) 2-addedtimetolookatalltheaspectofteachingtoENL--reading,writing,speaking,listening 3-addedvideos,practiceandgamesaswellasvisuals 4-limitedthewordstojustthreeastonowoverwhelmthelearner
  • 11. Integer (in-tu-jer) (Entero) Listen! Partner Share
  • 12. Integer (in-tu-jer) Any number from the set {...-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4...} where there is no end Cualquier número en un conjunto
  • 13. Negative Integer (entero negativo) Listen! Partner Share
  • 14. Negative Integer A number that is less than zero. Usually written with a - sign Cualquier número en un conjunto menor que cero escrito con un signo -
  • 15. Positive Integer (entero positivo) Listen! Partner Share
  • 16. Positive Integer A number that is greater than zero. Usually written with a + sign. Cualquier número en un conjunto mayor que cero escrito con un signo +
  • 17. Components of Reading Instruction www.time4learning.com/readingpyramid/ comprehension.htm http://articles.pubarticles.com/guided- reading-lesson-plan-template- 1324444019,619333.html
  • 18. Phonemic Awareness: Abilitytorecognize andmanipulatethesounds(phonemes)inspokenwords. • Phonemes are the smallest units that make up spoken language that combine to form syllables and words. • STOP has 4 phonemes (s-t-o-p). • SHOP has 3 phonemes (sh-o-p). • English has 41 phonemes. • As ELLs gradually learn that words are made up of sounds, they can build relationships between sounds and letters (ABC’s). • Instruction must have meaning so that words and sounds are familiar. http://www.grandmasnurseryrhymes.com/abcs.html
  • 19. StrategiestousewhenteachingPhonemicAwarenesstoELLstudents. • Use rhyming and repetitious text such as poems or songs to teach phonemic awareness. • Miss Mary Mack song • ABC song • Dr. Seuss books • Begin by helping students hear onset (beginning) sounds (/c/ in cat). THEN focus on other parts of the word. • Teachers can teach phonemic awareness while explicitly teaching vocabulary words, their meaning, and their pronunciation. • Use meaningful activities • Language games and word walls. http://www.wikkistix.com/educational_word.php
  • 20. Phonics:theunderstandingofrelationshipbetweenthesounds ofspokenlanguage(phonemes)andlettersofwrittenlanguage(graphemes). • Use this relationship to recognize familiar words and to decode unfamiliar ones. • Way of teaching reading that centers learning on how letters relate to sounds and how to use this in reading and writing instruction. hwww.readingfoundation.org/partn ers.jsp
  • 21. Tips for teaching phonics to ELL students… • May need to be taught about functions of print if illiterate in native language. • Teachers can effectively teach phonics if they are informed with knowledge about students background AND students’ native language. http://it.pinellas.k12.fl.us/Teachers3/gurianb/bookmarks.html
  • 22. Vocabulary:studentsusetheirpersonal vocabulariestohelpthemunderstandthewordstheysee inatext. • One of the biggest challenges to reading instruction for ELL students. • Primary determinant of reading comprehension. • Must understand meaning of majority of words in order to understand content. • BICS vs. CALP • Oral language proficiency vs. academic language proficiency http://teachers.saschina.org/mhagen/2012/09/10/vocabulary-16-–-appearances/
  • 23. Children learn majority of vocabulary by: • Engaging in conversations (mostly with adults) • Listening to adults read to them. • Reading frequently on their own *Can have negative effects for ELL students whose parents or guardians aren’t fluent in English **Educators need to know and incorporate ways for students to learn vocabulary directly -Explicitly teach vocabulary words before reading text -Teach how to use dictionaries - Teach how to use prefixes and suffixes to determine word meanings - Teach how to use context clues http://www.bostonabilitycenter.com/index.php/therapeutic-listening/ www.reading.ccsu.edu/
  • 24. Fluency:abilitytoreadatextquicklyandaccurately. • Critical factor necessary for reading comprehension • Two instructional approaches: • Guided repeated oral reading • Independent silent reading http://missreeve.wikispaces.com/Flue ncy+Strategies http://blackboardandbeyond.blogspot.com/2011/07/ new-classroom-theme-owls.html
  • 25. Things to consider when teaching ELL students fluency: • Students need to learn to speak English before reading and writing fluently • Students CAN read fluently in English while having a native language accent. • Students need to see and hear hundred of books throughout a school year for fluency to be model for them. • Do BIG BOOK read-alouds • Have ELL students read with proficient readers • Give numerous opportunities for ELL students to listen to books to gain English fluency. http://laes.ccs.k12.nc.us/2012/09/12/readi ng-rocks-and-bucks-for-books/
  • 26. Comprehension:ability to create meaning from a text.• Goal of reading instruction • Mastery in other reading skills leads to comprehension and vice versa • Depends on understanding of language and referents of the text. • Provide opportunities to develop native language and English literacy skills. • Teach mini-lesson about figurative and literal meanings. • Differentiate reading instruction to fit needs and give exposure to rich-in-text literature and higher order thinking skills • Introduce new vocabulary before reading • Use graphic organizers • Modeling • Think alouds • Stop frequently during text to ask questions and summarize www.highsmith.com/edupress/Reading-Comprehension-Strategies-Bulletin-Board-EP2269-c_28540375/
  • 27. Phoneme Awareness
  • 28. Guidelines and considerations • Need to be aware of developmental requirements • Segmenting a compound words into its two parts precedes segmenting syllables and sounds • Identification tasks are easier than production tasks • Activities should not take more than 15-20 minutes • Selected from material used actively in the class
  • 29. Literature • Focus on literature that deals with speech sounds through rhymes • Easily recalled • New rhymes • While reading: • Comment on the language use • Encourage prediction of sound, word, and sentence patterns • Comment on specific aspects of sound patterns
  • 30. Direct instruction • Rhyme recognition can be reinforced by direct modeling of instances and non-instances of rhyming word pairs (nose/rose), (bed/car) • Games • Give a thumbs up or a thumbs down depending if words rhyme or not • Important that child repeats the rhyming pairs • Odd word out • Memory
  • 31. Isolated sound recognition • Important for teacher to provide children with a concept of speech sounds • Can be done by associating phonemes with a creature, action, or an object
  • 32. Word, syllable, and phoneme counting • Words and syllables are more directly perceivable than individual phonemes • Can be used as initial steps leading to isolated phoneme synthesis and segmentation • Clapping hands, tapping the desk, marching in place
  • 33. Sound synthesis • Blend an initial sound onto the remainder of a word, then blend syllables together and then isolated phonemes into a word • /l/ and ight • Use children’s names • Guessing games
  • 34. Letter-sound association • Advantage of combining phoneme awareness with letter knowledge • Use pictures • Say the initial sound of the item in the picture • Identify the letter represented by the first sound
  • 35. References •
  • 36. Games and Worksheets on Phonics http://www.softschools.com/ language_arts/phonics/
  • 37. Ending Sounds • http://www.softschools.com/language_arts/phonics/ • UP: Pronounces the onset, rime, and whole word • DOWN: Fool Proof
  • 38. Missing Letters • http://www.softschools.com/language_arts/phonics/games/oi _oy_sounds.jsp • UP: Variety of sounds, letters, words • DOWN: Must ‘click’ to check answer • DOWN: Reveals the answer
  • 39. Matching Games • http://www.softschools.com/language_arts/phonics/games/p honics_matching_games/vegetables/ • UP: For ELLs to learn vocab and letters/spelling
  • 40. Animal sounds across cultures How onomatopoeias change in different languages.
  • 41. Animal sounds across the world • A sample of different animal sounds around the world: http://www.esl-languages.com/en/animal-sounds.htm
  • 42. Why does it happen? • Some linguists believe that onomatopoeic sounds were the beginnings of spoken language • As languages developed sounds became less realistic and more arbitrary and symbolic. • This would have allowed animal sounds in different languages to change gradually as the languages themselves changed. • Another theory has to do with the sounds themselves • High sounds and front vowels (like i) are associated with small and light things • Low sounds and back vowels are associated with large and dark things • This theory accounts for the similarities in animal sounds across languages.
  • 43. More theories • Other theories take into account the use of different sounds spoken in a language. • If certain sounds are used in the spoken language it is natural that they would be used in onomatopoeia as well.
  • 44. Sources and additional information: • Information on the link between onomatopoeia and language development: • http://www.thomastsoi.com/wp- content/downloads/Characteristics%20of%20Onomatopoeia.pdf • http://matadornetwork.com/notebook/animal-noises-around- the-world/ • http://www.esl-languages.com/en/animal-sounds.htm
  • 45. Big Pig on a Dig • The lesson is designed for elementary age ENL students, and age special ed students, or any age ENL students. • I would have copies of the book to hand out to students to follow along. I would also have a copy of the book. • We would listen to the recording of the book, and pause it to point out the -ig words. • Next, we would listen to the 'Big Pig' song. • Third, I would have students come up to the board and fill in the missing word. (the oil picture is 'rig'). All of the pictures are words that end in -ig. • The next day, I would have students take out their copy of Big Pig on a Dig and highlight all of the -ig words. We would listen to the song again, and even read the book together again as well. Repetition is a great way to learn things! :-)
  • 46. Big Pig on a Dig http://www.usborne.com/quicklinks-library/Phonics/Pig-about.pdf
  • 47. Rhyming pattern from ~video (-ig), show this video to my 1st graders so they can hear the music and rhythm and repetition of these words. As –ig is a word family focus on during the beginning of they year it important to show the student how these words are being changed so they rhyme. After showing the video I would hand a slip of paper with –ig on it and then various letters (b,d,f,j,p,w).  I would have them lay the letters face up above their slip of paper with –ig on it.  I would them show them a picture from the song video and have them listen for the beginning sound of the word. So for a picture of a pig they would have to identify the “p” sound. Then I would have them find that letter/sound from the letter cards they have and put it next to the –ig to create the word pig. Then I would show them another picture, say a wig, and I would have them identify the beginning sound as a “w”. I would then have them look at the word pig still on their slip of paper and instruct them to think about how they can make “pig” into “wig”. After letting them try it we would do it together removing the “p” and placing the “w” in it’s place making the word “wig”. We would then discuss how “pig” and “wig” are the same.
  • 48. Rhyming pattern from ~video (-ig), What sounds do you hear in both of these words? Then I would hold up another picture of something “big” and ask the class, “ So if we know how to spell and say, “pig” and “wig” how do you think we would spell “big?” They would respond, and we would them remove the “w” and replace it with a “b” for big. After going over the additional letter cards they have left they would have to make all the words by themselves saying the out loud and also writing them down in their phonics notebooks. To review at the end, I would show them the video again and then say the word “big” and ask who can tell me another word that had an –ig at the end. My goal would be to have all these student be able to tell me all the 6 words they made today in the –ig family and how they relate to one another.
  • 49. Phonics rule When a vowel is followed by an “r,” the vowel sound is neither long nor short but has its own sound. For example, “ar” says /ar/ as in car; “or” says /or/ as in fort; and “er,” “ir,” and “ur” all say /er/ as in fern, bird, and church.  To teach this rule, I will find 20 words in our daily readings for the week and use direct instruction to teach them.  I will teach the words one at the time by saying the word, having the students repeat, calling on individuals to syllabicate and identify the vowel with the /r/, and then calling on individuals to say the sound it makes.  I will assign a “Pick The Fit” activity for homework. It will list other words (not the 20 we are focusing on), and my students will distinguish between the words that fit our phonics rule and those that do not.  Extra credit will be given to students who come up with examples of additional words that fit the vowel followed by an /r/ rule.
  • 50. Vowel Circle byLindamoodBell
  • 51. Vowel Circle We spend about six weeks memorizing the different vowel sounds and incorporating the spelling patterns as we encounter them in our daily work Once we memorize the sounds, I will give the students a list of words at their level to write (I give the words orally) or tell me (I write the word for them and do not pronounce it) where it would go on the chart. I have made Bingo games for the students to practice finding the sound when given orally, provided them a blank chart to write the sounds when given orally, and had them pair up with a partner to play memory. When they get a match, they have to tell the sound correctly in order to keep it or the partner can steal the match. If neither partner can tell the sound, the cards go back into the game face down. I am working on a Go Fish card game where the students will have to ask for the sound and the partner will have to find a word that matches that sound.
  • 52. Phonics http://www.primaryjunction.net/2011/10/phonics-generalization-mini- lesson.html. • Steps:  Pick one phonics generalization for the week When picking one to study for the week, I would tie it in with read alouds for the week.  Next, find books that tailor to this phonics generalization... a.k.a. books that have several examples of those types of words. For example, if I were teaching Phonics Generalization # 2 "Words having double e usually have the long e sound", I would look through age appropriate books to find one that has a bunch of double e words. As far as I know, there is no specific way of doing this. Just flip through books until you find one that has at least five of those words. Of course, the easier way to do this is to pick a book and then see what phonics generalizations it has in it! In the class that I am teaching we have books already picked out, so I will use each chapter and find a rule that applies.  After introducing the phonics rule to your child, let them explore the book to see how many words they can find that follow the rule. Make a list of all the words they can find. This could be a word wall that they could refer back to.
  • 53. Phonics http://www.primaryjunction.net/2011/10/phonics-generalization-mini-lesson.html.  After you complete your list, have a more in-depth discussion about the phonics rule. For example, I might say, "Let’s look at the word seed. Let’s pretend we are reading a book and seeing the word for the first time. Let’s sound it out. Se-ed. Do you hear the long e sound? Yes, when there is a word has double e, it usually has the long e sound. Okay, I want you to work with the person sitting next to you. You are going to look through the book again and find words that have double e. When you find a word, try to read it aloud.“  Let students work with a partner to search for words and practice using their new skill/word knowledge aloud.  Next, it is important to link this skill to what else students might be working on in reading workshop, independent reading, or at home. (Studies show if we connect what we learn to what we already know, we have a better chance of remembering the new information and connecting it to other knowledge in the future.) One way to do this is to let students go through their daily reading books or textbooks to find other examples of the phonics generalization in other books. Before students search through their books, ask them what should they do if they have trouble reading a word (in this case a double e word). They should remember the phonics generalization and the sound/s it teaches them.  Finally, bring closure to the lesson. Have students share what words they found and add them to the list from earlier. End with reminding students that whenever they come across a word that follows that rule to remember the sound/s it makes!
  • 54. Phonics Lesson Mini Lesson #1: Practice with onset and rime. Alliteration and assonance are both taught in 4th grade. I teach them when we study figurative language. The students always enjoy this unit. I think it would be very easy to find/create some tongue twisters using content from math, social studies, or science. The students would love to create these. The tongue twisters could be said during transitions or when lining up to leave the room. Mini Lesson #2: Sound Segmentation. I have had many ENL students struggle sounding out words and being unable to identify sounds within words. I have in the past drawn make-shift boxes like the Elkonin boxes. This is something I learned in Reading Recovery. In Reading Recovery, we used magnets to ‘push’ the sounds into the boxes. Well, it isn’t feasible to always have magnets available for students, especially when doing on the spot reading. I like that this lesson uses small chips to ‘push’ up the sounds. This is something I will do when reading 1:1 with students, or when a student is having difficulty reading a word. Mini Lesson #3: Compound Phonemic Awareness. Word to Word Matching. The ‘SNAP’ activity they explained could easily be modified to work with Words Their Way. Students are assigned a specific category. For instance, a group of students might be practicing long a and short a words. A pair of students would play the game identifying the words that fit into each category. When the student has mastered the category, they can take their cards home to practice.
  • 55. Phonics Lesson  I would start the first day of school and class and go around the room and learn names and the phonology of their names.  After the students introduce themselves, I would have the students clap for each syllable as they speak aloud to develop syllabic awareness.  First I would have them begin with their own names.  Next, go round the circle and discuss how many children have first names with one, two or three syllables  I would have each of their names on a worksheet divided with boxes and spaces to put their classmates’ names in on the worksheet so they can visually see how their names are spelled phonetically on paper.  I would have them use marker to color code the differences in the syllables.  My aim is to improve student recognition and pronunciation of each students name in class.  Level- could be any level needing to improve pronunciation skills.  After learning names- I would continue the lesson on the theme of the week and the words that we are going to learn to build with syllables and blocks. I would use would education.com as a resource Find letter cards at: www.education.com/worksheet/article/letter-cards/
  • 56. Phonetic Alphabet Chart In order to help students understand the spelling and pronunciation of the words that we study  I would have them look at the phonology of each word. Leading up to this lesson, we would practice the phonemes with flashcards, playing games to get the students more invested in the practice. After they were comfortable with the sounds, I would use them with a vocabulary study. we would go over the words and definitions, and discuss their meanings. For an assignment, I would provide students with the phonetic alphabet chart and ask them to write each word along with its phonetic spelling. The next day, I would have my students get into groups and share their homework, and then I would have some volunteers share what they came up with to the class.
  • 57. Read Aloud  Multiple meaning words are difficult to interpret sometimes for my ELL students.  As a lesson I would do a class book. I would model with reading a book that contains some words the children could use. The King Who Rained, How Much Can a Bare Bear Bear,A Chocolate Moose for Dinner,(always a funny one!)  I would focus in on multiple meaning words such as bat, sink, can, kid, seal, wave, block, etc.  I would have the students see if they can brainstorm in small groups. They would have markers and a sheet of paper.  Then we can all come together and put our words on the board.  From there the students will choose one word, talk with a partner about what the 2 meanings are for the word.  Then each student will draw a picture of the what the word means, label the picture, and use it in a sentence correctly. Example: My brother uses his favorite bat at all his baseball games. The picture would be of a boy using a bat. The other picture would be the mammal bat perhaps flying or hanging upside down in a cave. The sentence would be....Bats are nocturnal animals that eat mosquitoes.  I would choose a word and do an example on the board then explain they could not use my word.  When our class book is finished I would bind it and have each student read the page they wrote as I filmed it on my iPad using iBook. When finished each child would get a turn to read and listen to the book on the iPad. This helps with meaning, syntax, fluency and it is fun!
  • 58. Differentiating subtle sounds in words Supplies: letters for each student- e i n r t w, pocket chart, flashcards with the words written below in bold print, pencils and paper or dry erase boards and markers.  Students will arrange the letters to make the words as the teacher says them.  Make the 2 letter word in.  Add 1 letter to make it say tin.  Change one letter so it says ten.  Rearrange your letters to make the word net.  Change one letter to make the word wet.  Change one letter to make the word wit.  Change one letter to make the word win.  Add a letter to make the word twin.  Change the i to an e. Now arrange your letters to make the 4 letter word went.  Change one letter to make the word rent.  Change the i to an n. Arrange your letters to make the word tire.  Change one letter to make the word wire.  Go back to the 4 letter word twin.  Add a letter to make the word twine.  Use all of your letters to make a secret word (winter).
  • 59. Differentiating subtle sounds in words Post the words on flashcards on a pocket chart as the students make their words with their letter cards. Now have the students (as a class) sort the words. Students will read the words that are sorted. -Words that end with –et. -Words that end with –in. -Words that end with –ent. -Words that end with –ire. Now have the students use what they have learned. They need to write the following words. If they can spell net and wet they can spell set and pet. If they can spell in, tin, win and twin, they can spell pin and spin. If they can spell went and rent they can spell bent and dent. If they can spell tire and wire they can spell fire and hire.
  • 60. Phonics 1. I would start the mini lesson by having different sets of words at each table group (words ending in -ig at one table, -ick at one, and -ill at another). The students would have time to set out the cards and explore them. This would get their minds curious about the mini-lesson. 2. Next, the students would have 2-3 minutes to discuss what they thought the words had in common, what they meant, and if they knew the words or not. The words could be adjusted by grade-level, content/subject area, and skill level of the students. 3. We would then come together as a whole-class and I would show the students a YouTube video on phonics ending in -ig, for example. We would then discuss the meaning of the -ig and what happens when the prefix letters are changed. 4. Students would then get the opportunity to go to different stations around the room to explore word work with different endings. For example, they could watch a phonics song, use shaving cream to write out different words with the ending of their choice, etc. 5. For an extension activity, students could work in groups/partners to make a phonics rap/jingle. Word groups would be provided if they needed them.
  • 61. 1-Strongly disagree 2-disagree 3-Mediocre 4-Agree 5-Strongly Agree Rate This Presentation I learned more about Phonology The material was presented in an engaging way I could see how connections can be made from this presentation with our ENL students I am excited to use these mini lessons!
  • 62. Questions or Comments Add your questions, comments and suggestion by replying to the post
  • 63. •Delicious Book marks: pord_33 •Twitter: pord_33 •Diigo: pord_33 •Email : pord_33@yahoo.com •Wiki: http://poornima.wikispaces.com/ •Linguisitics: http://enllinguistics.wikispaces.com/ •Diversity & Parental Involement Ning
  • 64. References  Adger, Carolyn Temple; Catherine Snow & Donna Christian, eds. (2002) What Teachers Need to Know About Language.  Antunez, Beth (2002) English Language Learners and the Five Essential Components of Reading Instruction. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/341/  Crystal, David (1997, second edition) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Languages.  Andrews, Larry. Linguistics for L2 Teachers. (2001). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.  Finegan, E. (2008). Language Its Structure and Use. (Fifth ed.). MA: Michael Rosenberg  Freeman, David and Yvonne. Essential linguistics. Heinemann. Portsmouth, NH: 2004  Reading rockets http://www.readingrockets.org/article/388/  Videos for phonology from the web