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MAKING MATH TIME MEANINGFUL Making Math Instruction an Integral Part of Language Learning
MATH ACADEMIC VOCABULARYResearch says: It is difficult to master content-specific vocabulary while trying to teach the connected concept Academic language is much more difficult than conversational language used by many English language learners ELLs not only have to learn content-specific vocabulary, but function words (analyzing, explaining, predicting)
MATH ACADEMIC VOCABULARYLinguistic Implication: CEL p. 52 ―The vocabulary of everyday speech tends to be informal and domestic, limited and inexplicit, as speakers cope with difficulties of memory, attention, and perception. Academic vocabulary is difficult to acquire especially when the learner is still using conversational language as a means of communication Math language using on the limited or inexplicit language may not be able to fully explain the ELL’s complete thinking
MATH ACADEMIC VOCABULARYInstructional Strategies Pre-teach content-specific and function terms prior to the lesson Note multiple-meaning words that may cause problems Create different ways to ―keep‖ vocabulary Math Word Wall/Mathematician Wall Vocabulary/Picture Personal Dictionary Graphic Organizers Dual Language Vocabulary Chart (use of both languages) Total Physical Response (TPR) lesson
MATH ACADEMIC VOCABULARY ―THINK LIKE A MATHEMATICIAN‖ Instructional Strategy You Can UseA math wall is a simple way to ―store‖ importantvocabulary, math strategies, and math related content. Examples Math Wall This math wallincorporates pictureswhich helps withconcrete learning
MATH ACADEMIC VOCABULARY ―THINK LIKE A MATHEMATICIAN‖ Instructional Strategy You Can Use Take Away Activity: Pick 3 vocabulary words or strategies appropriate to your grade level. On your card: Write the word, think of a visual or picture to represent the word, and a sentence or simple description. Possibly include a TPR gesture that relates. Share
WRITTEN MATH PROBLEMSResearch says: The difficulty with word problems is that the problems require many layers: reading comprehension of the problem, making sense of the problem, identifying a question that needs to be answered, and planning to solve. Important part of math learning because written problems promote: Explicit vocabulary instruction Experience in problem solving Practice extracting information Repeated reading, listening, speaking, and writing practice.
WRITTEN MATH PROBLEMSLinguistic Implication CEL, p. 181 ―Written language displays several unique features, such as punctuation, capitalization, spatial organization…and other graphic effects.‖ Written math problems are not just difficult because of the math academic vocabulary, or the reading involved, but also because of written language features: Features: Punctuation, capitalization Graphic effects (font, spacing, etc.) ―Written language tends to be more formal than spoken language.‖
WRITTEN MATH PROBLEMSInstructional Strategies: Teacher Think-Alouds Modeling the logical process Pull out key vocabulary, scaffold before Student Think-Alouds Making a strategy anchor chart based on student- created strategies, providing picture clue Discussion Stems Posted Written problems that are high interest, appeal to the learner Using reading comprehension strategies to decode the problems
WRITTEN MATH PROBLEMS Instructional Strategy You Can Use Examples Sample Math Journals from ELs Task Turn and talk with a neighbor about how you would scaffold this problem for a language learner in your classroom...There are 5 giraffes at the zoo. There are 4cheetahs at the zoo. How many spotted zooanimals are there all together?
MATH BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGEResearch says: Identify the unique experiences that the learner brings… Learn as much about their prior math knowledge as possible Promote first language use as a way to build background Using native language will build more connections and create ―empowerment‖ and success in the learner
MATH BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGELinguistic Implications: CEL, p. 344-345 ―The lack of a common language can severely impede progress and can halt it altogether.‖ ―There are several ways of getting around the foreign language barrier, but none is simple, nor has any as yet been successful.‖ It is difficult for teachers and students that don’t have a common language, but one has to use resources available (translators, common words, or an existing language) that will increase motivation to learn language
MATH BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGEInstructional Strategies: L1 partner talks Identifying parts that would be confusing, building the background instead of trying to activate prior knowledge that may not be there yet Link concepts explicitly (from previous learning) Build in routines that promote continuous exposure to content Using high interest topics, identify important vocabulary Teaching the use of manipulatives Using real world situations that you can support with visuals, gestures, or experiences
MATH BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Instructional Strategy You Can Use Task Quiet Write: Think of at least 10 high interest topics that you could use during math instruction to link to your ELs background knowledge Share with your table
PRODUCING MATH ACADEMIC LANGUAGEResearch says: It is difficult to produce/speak math academic language because: Conversational language is much easier to master than academic language (language in the content areas) They are doing two jobs at once—learning a language and new math concepts
PRODUCING MATH ACADEMIC LANGUAGEInstructional Strategies: Use small group pairings Promotes positive support system, positive learning environment Scaffold Use sentence frames/stems for discussions ―Slow down, teacher!‖ – take a moment to reflect on your own teaching language Allow students to share their own math thinking usually use a more kid-friendly language Pair with the ELL teacher to plan important language…they can support this learning
REFERENCES Bibliography English Language Learners in Math. (2012). Retrieved from Teaching Today Glencoe: http://teachingtoday.glencoe.com/howtoarticles/english-language-learners-in-math Helping English Language Learners Master Math Terms. (2012). Retrieved from CAPELL: http://capellct.org/htmlfiles/documents/MiddleSchoolJournalMathTermsarticle.pdf Math Strategies for English Language Learners. (2012). Retrieved from Fair Lawn School District: http://mset.rst2.edu/ Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center. (2009). Effective Practices for Teaching English Language Learners. Charleston: Edvantia. Blachowicz, C. L., Fisher, P. J., & Watts-Taffe, S. (2005). Integrated Vocabulary Instruction: Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners in Grades K-5. Naperville: Learning Point Associates. Bresser, R. (2008). Teaching Math to English Language Learners. In R. Bresser, Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2 (pp. 2-8). Sausilito: Math Solutions. Carrier, K. A. (2005). Key Issues for Teaching English Language Learners in Academic Classrooms. Middle School Journal, 4-9. Crawford, J. (2004). Basic Research on Language Acquisition. In J. Crawford, Educating English Learners: Language Diversity in the Classroom (pp. 182-212). Los Angeles: Bilingual Educational Services, Inc. Crystal, D. (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language (2nd ed.). New York City: Cambridge University press. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. (2009). The Academic Language of Mathematics. In J. Echevarria, M. Vogt, & D. Short, The SIOP Model for Teaching Mathematics to English Learners (pp. 1-14). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Garrison, L., & Kerper Mora, J. (2008). Adapting Mathematics Instruction for English-Language Learners: The Language-Concept Connection. In J. K. Leslie Garrison, Changing the Faces of Mathematics: Perspectives on Latinos (pp. 35-48). National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc. Goldenberg, C. (2008, Summer). Teaching English Language Learners: What the Research Does-and Does Not-Say. American Educator, pp. 8-44. Jasper, D. B. (2005, November). Teachers Guide to Teaching Mathematics to English Language Learners. Retrieved from Mathematics for English Language Learners: http://www.tsusmell.org Mooneyhan, L. (2012). Supporting English Language Learners in Mainstreama nd Content Area Classrooms. Retrieved from Ohio Valley Educational Cooperative: http://www.ovec.org/ Robertson, K. (2009). Math Instruction for English Language Learners. Retrieved from Colorin Colorado: