Schools as Socio-Political System

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  • 1. EDMA 506: ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR IN EDUCATION POPS P. MACALINO Discussant
  • 2. The Social System Organizational Structure Governance and Decision Making
  • 3. The SCHOOL as a SOCIAL SYSTEM
  • 4. also known as Formal Education it is society’s primary learning system the main instrument for the achievement of the country’s educational goals and objectives
  • 5. model of a school organization is distinguished from its environment by a clearly defined boundary composed of subunits, elements, and subsystem that are interrelated within relatively stable pattern of social order components of a social system: boundaries, equilibrium, elements and activities
  • 6. Members and Elements of the Educational Community 1. Parents or Guardians who has the custody of the pupil or student 2. Students who are enrolled in, or a person engaged in formal study 3. School Personnel, or all persons working for an educational institution 4. Schools or Institution recognized by the State
  • 7. ENVIRONMENT BOUNDARY THE SCHOOL BUILDING E N V I INPUTS R O N M E N T 1. Elements – Subsystems -Formal School Structure Administration & Policy Classrooms -Informal Groups -Individuals Administrators Teachers Other Employees Students 2. Activities – Behaviors Administering Teaching Maintaining Learning Creating Socializing BOUNDARY FEEDBACK LOOP E N V OUTPUTS I R O N M E N T
  • 8. The GETZELS-GUBA BASIC MODEL The GUERRERO MODEL The TUCKMAN MODEL
  • 9. Boundary ---- School Building Institutio n Input Role Expectation s Intention Social Group Climate System s Individual Personalit y Social Behavior Needs Boundary ---- School Building Structural Elements using GETZELS-GUBA SYSTEMS MODEL Output
  • 10. THE GUERRERO MODEL ENVIRONMENT NEW SOCIETY SUPRASYSTEM EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM HIGHER EDUC PRE-ELEM ELEMENTA RY SECONDA RY A CONCEPTUALIZATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OUTPUT
  • 11. THE TUCKMAN MODEL INPUT FACILITIES CHARACTERISTICS OF: Students (prior learning) Teachers (past experience) PROCESS Teacher Style and Technique Administrator Style and Technique Program Operation Input, Process and Output of an Educational System OUTPUT Student: Achievement Attitudes Behavior
  • 12. SOCIAL SYSTEMS are
  • 13. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
  • 14. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE - Refers to the relatively fixed relationships that exist among the jobs in the organization - It provides a framework for vertical control and horizontal coordination of the organization
  • 15. refers to the division of work to be accomplished into specialized tasks and to organized them into distinct units. involves systematically moving employees from 1 job to another adds breadth to a job by increasing the no. and variety of activities performed by an employee adds depth to a job by adding administrative activities (decision making, staffing, budgeting, reporting) to an employers responsibility.
  • 16. is the process of combining jobs into ADVANTAGES: or departments groups  it promotes skill specialization  it needs to be familiar with only a JOB SIMILARITY relatively narrow set of skills HOMOGENOUS HETEROGENOUS DISADVANTAGES:  it reduces communication and cooperation between departments  conflict emerges as each department attempt to protect its own area of authority and responsibility.
  • 17. concerned with the flow of authority and responsibility within an organization TWO PRINCIPLES Unity of Command Scalar Principle
  • 18. Number ________________ Few Many Narrow Span of Control Broad Span of Control Tall Organization Structure Flat Organization Structure
  • 19. Tall Organization Structure Flat Organization Structure
  • 20. CONCEPTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN LINE STAFF AUTHORITY AUTHORITY -relationship in -the function of personnel in a which superior, exercis staff position is to create, develop es direct and analyze supervision over information which a subordinate flows to line personnel in the form of adviser.
  • 21. -when school administrators retain most of the authority, depending on subordinates to implement decisions only. -administrators delegate authority and responsibility
  • 22. COMPLIANCE THEORY A. ETZIONI Power of Administrator Coercive • Use of force or fear to control subordinates Utilitarian • Use of remuneration or extrinsic rewards Normative • Controls through allocation of intrinsic rewards
  • 23. COMPLIANCE THEORY A. ETZIONI Power of Administrator COERCIVE Alienative (-) Calculative (+/-) Moral (+) UTILITARIAN NORMATIVE * * *
  • 24. Department of Education Region III – Central Luzon DIVISION OF TARLAC PROVINCE San Roque, Tarlac City ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF SCHOOLS DIVISION OF TARLAC PROVINCE OFFICE OF THE SCHOOLS DIVISION SUPERINTENDENT OFFICE OF THE AUDITOR OFFICE OF THE ASST. SCHOOLS DIVISION SUPERINTENDENT (SECONDARY) ELEMENTARY EDUCATION DIVISION SECONDARY EDUCATION DIVISION OFFICE OF THE ASST. SCHOOLS DIVISION SUPERINTENDENT (ELEMENTARY) ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM DIVISION HEALTH AND NUTRITION UNIT PLANNING UNIT ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION BUDGET AND FINANCE DIVISION PERSONNEL UNIT ELEMENTARY & SECONDARY SCHOOLS LEGAL UNIT CASHIER UNIT SUPPLY UNIT RECORDS UNIT
  • 25. GOVERNANCE
  • 26. R.A. No. 9155 or GOVERNANCE OF BASIC EDUCATION ACT OF 2001 NATIONAL LEVEL Policy + Principle REGI ON DIVISIO N SCHOOLS and LEARNING CENTERS Programs, Projects, and Services Principle of SHARED GOVERNANCE - It is a principle which recognizes that every unit in the education bureaucracy has a particular role, task and responsibility and accountable for outcomes.
  • 27. R.A. 9155 or GOVERNANCE OF BASIC EDUCATION ACT OF 2001 NATIONAL LEVEL Secretary of Education Bro. Armin A. Luistro, Fsc REGION DIVISION Regional Director Schools Division Superintendent SCHOOL DISTRICT LEVEL SCHOOL LEVEL District Supervisors School Head / Principal Dr. Isabelita Borres CESO IV Dr. Antonieta B. Tiotuico, CESO V
  • 28. FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS 1. Supervise and direct all school personnel 2. Lead in the development and implementation of all educational programs of the school 3. Promote efficiency of teaching and learning in all classes through in-service training, observations, visits, etc. 4. Leads in the evaluation of achievements towards the growth of the school.
  • 29. ELEMENTARY LEVEL: Principal I – 11-24 teachers Principal II – 25-49 teachers Principal III – 50 or more SECONDARY LEVEL: Principal I – 11-24 teachers Principal II – 25-99 teachers Principal III – 100-174 teachers Principal IV – 175 and above
  • 30. FUNCTIONS OF DISTRICT SUPERVISORS  Supervises pre-elementary and elementary classes with prior authority from the division/city schools superintendent  Evaluates educational achievements in the district  Preparing and ensuring the proper distribution of instructional materials, equipment and supplies for the district
  • 31. FUNCTIONS OF REGIONAL DIRECTORS  Defining regional policy framework  Approving on the establishment of public and private elementary and high schools, and learning centers  Evaluating all SDS and ASDS in the region
  • 32. FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOLS DIVISION SUPERINTENDENT  Transmits and recommends approval of principal budgets in his division through the regional office.  Exercise general administration and supervision of school.  Approves classroom teaching appointments,  Make periodic visits to schools to check compliance and implementation of curricular requirements  Approves vouchers, payrolls and requisitions
  • 33. DECISION MAKING
  • 34.  what has to be done  how it is to be done  substance  process
  • 35. Establish Goals and Objectives Identify the Problem Develop alternative solutions Evaluate alternative Choose an Alternative Implement the Decision Evaluation and Control
  • 36. 5 Decision-Making Competencies of the School Manager skill in differentiating among types of decisions skill in determining the amount and type of information needed to reach a decision skill in determining the appropriate involvement of other people in reaching decisions skill in establishing priorities for action skill in anticipating consequences of decisions
  • 37. PERSONALITY FACTORS IN DECISION MAKING by: Eduard Spranger 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The economic The aesthetic The theoretical The social The political The religious
  • 38. Receptive Orientation Exploitation Orientation Hoarding Orientation Marketing Orientation Ideal Decision Making Orientation
  • 39. Aquino, Gaudencio V. “EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION:THEORY AND PRACTICE.” Rex Bookstore:Manila.2002 pp.118-150 Cherrington, David J. “ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: THE MANAGEMENT OF INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE.” Massachusetts.1989.pp.515-524,607-627 Lunenberg, Fred and Allan Ornstein. “EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION CONCEPTS AND PRACTICES. 4th Edition.2004. California Sims, Ronald, et.al., “READINGS IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR.” 1992.Massachusetts. Wagner III, John A. and John R. Hollenbeck. “MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR. 2nd Edition. 1992: New Jersey. http://www.gov.ph/2001/08/11/republic-act-no-9155/ http://www.slideshare.net/smseow/organization-behaviordecision-making