50 model pembelajaran (50 Learning Models)


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50 model pembelajaran (50 Learning Models)

  1. 1. Name : N.P.M : Learning Models: 1. Lesson Study Lesson Study is a method developed in Japan that the Japanese language is called Jugyokenkyuu. The term 'lesson study' it was created by Makoto Yoshida. Lesson Study is a process in developing the professionalism of teachers in Japan with the probe / tests their teaching practices in order to become more effective. The steps are as follows: 1. A number of teachers working in a group. This cooperation includes: a. Planning. b. Teaching practice. c. Observation. d. Reflection / criticism towards learning. 2. One of the teachers in the group doing the planning stages of making a mature lesson plan comes with the basics that support the theory. 3. Teachers who have made a lesson plan on (2) and then teaching in the real classroom. Mean phase accomplished teaching practice. 4. Other teachers in the group observe the learning process while matching lesson plans that have been made. Mean observation phase passed. 5. All the teachers in the group, including teachers who have taught together and then discuss their observations of the learning that has been going on. This stage is the stage of reflection. In this stage also discussed remedial measures for the next lesson. 6. Results in (5) further implemented in the classroom / learning next and so on back to (2). The advantages of using the 'lesson study' as follows: 1. Can be applied in every field starting art, language, math and sports and at each grade level. 2. Can be implemented between / across the school. 2. Examples Non Examples Examples Non-Examples are learning method using examples. Examples can be from cases / images relevant
  2. 2. The steps: 1. Teachers prepare the pictures in accordance with the purpose of learning. 2. Teachers put a picture on a board or displayed through OHP. 3. Teacher gives instructions and provide an opportunity for students to observe / analyze the images. 4. Through group discussion 2-3 students, the discussion of the image analysis be logged in the paper. 5. Each group is given the opportunity to read the results of their discussions. 6. Start from comment / discussion results of students, teachers starting explain the material to the purpose to be achieved. 7. Conclusion. Advantages: 1. Students are more critical in analyzing the images. 2. Students learn the application of the material in the form of an example image. 3. Students are given the opportunity to express their opinions. Weaknesses: 1. Not all the material can be presented in the form of images. 2. Take a long time. 3. Picture and Picture Picture and Picture is a learning method that uses images and paired / sorted into a logical sequence. The steps: 1. Teachers convey competence to be achieved. 2. Presenting the material as an introduction. 3. Teacher shows / showed pictures relating to the material. 4. Teacher Pointing / calling the students interchangeably to install / sort the pictures into a logical sequence. 5. Teacher asks the reasons / the rationale the image sequence. 6. From the reason / the image sequence, teachers start embeds concepts / materials in accordance with the competencies to be achieved. 7. Conclusion / summary. Advantages: 1. Teacher more knows each student's ability. 2. Trained to think logically and systematically.
  3. 3. Weaknesses: 1. Takes a lot of time. 2. Many students are passive. 4. Numbered Heads Together (Kepala Bernomor, Spencer Kagan, 1992) Numbered Heads Together is a method of learning in which each student is given a number and then created a group then teacher randomly call a number of students. The steps: 1. Students are divided into groups each student in each group gets a number. 2. Teachers give assignments and each group is working on. 3. Group discussed the correct answer and make sure each member of the group can do it. 4. Teacher call one of the numbers of students who called to report the results of their cooperation. 5. The response from another friend, then another teacher pointing another numbers. 6. Conclusion. Advantages: 1. Each student has to prepare. 2. Can conduct discussions seriously. 3. Students who are good can teach students who are less intelligent. Weaknesses: 1. Possibility the called number, called again by the teacher. 2. Not all members of the group called by the teacher. 5. Cooperative Script (Dansereau Cs., 1985) Scripts cooperative is learning method in which students work in pairs and verbally summarize the parts of the material being studied. The steps: 1. The teacher divides the students to pair up. 2. Teacher gives discourse / materials for each student to read and make a summary. 3. Teacher and students determine who first acts as speaker and who acts as a listener. 4. Speakers read the summary as complete as possible, by incorporating the main ideas in summary. While listeners listening / correcting / show the main ideas that incomplete and help remember / memorize the main ideas by connecting with the previous material or other material.
  4. 4. 5. Exchanging the role, initially as a speaker and a listener exchanged into reverse, and do as above. 6. Teacher conclusion. 7. Closing. Advantages: 1. Train the auditory, accuracy / precision. 2. Each student gets a role. 3. Train the mistakes of others to express verbally. Weaknesses: 1. Only be used for certain subjects. 2. Only performed by two people (not involving the whole class so that the correction was limited to the two people). 6. Problem Based Instruction (PBI) Problem Based Instruction (PBI) to focus on issues that are meaningful to students' lives, the role of the teacher presents a problem, ask questions and facilitate the investigation and dialogue. The steps: 1. Teacher explains the purpose of learning. Explain the logistics required. Motivate students to involve in problem solving activities that selected. 2. Teacher helped students to define and organize learning tasks related with the issue (assign topics, tasks, schedules, etc.) 3. Teacher encourage students to collect appropriate information, carry out experiments to get an explanation and problem solving, data collection, hypothesis, problem solving. 4. Teacher helped students in planning and preparing the appropriate work such as reports and helped them share the duties with their friends. 5. Teacher helps students to do reflection, or evaluation of their investigation and the processes which they use. Advantages: 1. Students are involved in learning activities so that knowledge absorbed really well. 2. Trained to be able to cooperate with other students. 3. Can be acquiring from various sources. Weaknesses: 1. For students who are lazy goal of these methods can not be achieved. 2. Takes a lot of time and money.
  5. 5. 3. Not all subjects can be applied to this method. 7. Explicit Instruction (Pengajaran Langsung) Explicit Instruction is designed to develop students' knowledge of procedural and declarative knowledge that can be taught in step by step pattern. The steps: 1. Presents the objectives and preparing the students. 2. Demonstrating the knowledge and skills. 3. Guiding the training. 4. Checking the understanding and provide feedback. 5. Provide an opportunity for further training. Advantages: 1. Students can completely master the knowledge. 2. All students are active / involved in learning. Weaknesses: 1. Takes a long time so that the students who appeared were not so long. 2. For certain subjects. 8. Inside – Outside – Circle (Lingkaran kecil – Lingkaran besar) Students share information at the same time, with different pairs with briefly and organized. The steps: 1. Half the class stands in a small circle and facing out. 2. Other half of the class in a circle outside the first circle, facing out. 3. Two pairs of students from a small circle and large share information. This information exchange can be done by all the couples at the same time. 4. Then the students were silent on the small circle, while students that are in a big circle shifted one or two steps clockwise so that each student gets a new partner. 5. Now is the turn of students who in a great circle that divides the information. And so on. Advantages: Get different information at the same time. Weaknesses: 1. Requires a large classroom.
  6. 6. 2. Too long so don’t concentrate and be misused for jokes. 3. Complicated to do. 9. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) In this method students was formed groups to provide feedback against the discourse / clipping. The steps: 1. Form a group whose members are 4 people who are heterogeneous. 2. Teachers provide discourse / clipping according to the learning topic. 3. Students work together reading to each other and finding the main idea and give feedback on discourse / clippings and written on sheets of paper. 4. Presenting / read the results of the group. 5. Teacher makes conclusions together. 6. Closing. Advantages: 1. Students can freely give responses. 2. Be trained to be able to work together and respect the opinions of others. Weaknesses: At the time of presentation only active students that performing. 10. Student Facilitator and Explaining Students / participants to present ideas / opinions on fellow participants. The steps: 1. Teachers convey the competences that want to achieve. 2. Teacher demonstrating / presenting the material. 3. Provide opportunities to student / participant to explain to the others either through chart / map concept and others. 4. Teacher concludes the idea / opinions from students. 5. The teacher explains all the material presented at that time. 6. Closing. Advantages: Students are invited to explain to the other students, be able to expend the ideas he has in mind so it can be understand the material. Weaknesses:
  7. 7. 1. The existence of the same opinion that only partially performed. 2. Many students those are less active. 11. Course Review Horay A method of learning with comprehension testing using a box filled with numbers to write down the answers, the most first get the correct sign, immediately shouted horay. The steps: 1. Teachers convey the competences that want to achieve. 2. Teacher demonstrating / presenting the material. 3. Giving students question and answer. 4. To test understanding, students were told to make Box 9/16/25 in accordance with requirement and numbers of each box is filled according to individual taste. 5. Teacher read questions randomly and students write the answer in the box whose number is mentioned by teacher and directly discussed, if correct filled in correct mark (v) and wrong filled with a cross (x) 6. Students who have got the v sign vertical or horizontal, or diagonal must immediately yell horay or other slogans. 7. Student scores, calculated from the correct answers and the number horay acquired. 8. Closing. Advantages: 1. Exciting learning can be encouraged to plunge into it. 2. Train cooperation. Weaknesses: 1. Students active and passive be equated. 2. There are opportunities for cheating. 12. Talking Stick Learning methods with the aid of a stick, who's holding the stick have to answer questions from the teacher after the students learn the material principal. The steps: 1. The teacher prepares a stick. 2. Teacher deliver the subject matter to be studied, and then provides the opportunity for students to read and study the material on the handle / the package. 3. When finished reading the book and studying teacher invited students to close the book.
  8. 8. 4. Teacher take the the stick and give to the students, after that the teacher asks questions and students who hold the stick had to answer, so on until most of the students got a part to answer any questions from the teacher. 5. The teacher gives the conclusion. 6. Evaluation. 7. Closing. Advantages: 1. Test the readiness of students. 2. Trained to read and understand quickly. 3. To be more active learning (learning first). Weaknesses: Make student’s heart gymnastics. 13. Couple Exchanging (bertukar pasangan) Students in pairs then joined another couple and to exchange couples to ask each other and reinforce each answer. The steps: 1. Each student gets a partner 2. Teachers give students tasks and do the work with his partner. 3. After done each student that paired, joined by one other couple. 4. Both the couple exchange partner, each new pair, questions and confirm their answers. 5. The new findings that obtained from the exchange pair were distributed to the original pair. Advantages: 1. Students are trained to can be work together, to hold opinions. 2. All the students involved. Weaknesses: 1. Takes a long time. 2. Teacher can’t figure out capabilities of each student. 14. Snowball Throwing Set up a group that represented the group leader to get assignments from teachers and then each student made a question, that was formed into a ball (question paper) and then thrown to the other students, each student answered the question of balls acquired.
  9. 9. The steps: 1. Teacher delivers material that will be presented. 2. Teacher form groups and calling the each group leader to give an explanation about the material. 3. Each the group leader back to each group, and then explain the material presented by the teacher to his friend. 4. Then each student was given a worksheet to write down any questions regarding the material that has been described by the head of the group. 5. Then, the paper created into a ball and thrown from one student to another student for approximately 5 minutes. 6. After student gets one ball / one question is given the opportunity to students to answer questions that are written in the ball shaped paper interchangeably. 7. The teacher gives the conclusion. 8. Evaluation. 9. Closing. Advantages: 1. Train, the readiness of students. 2. Give each other the knowledge. Weaknesses: 1. Knowledge is not extensive, just dwell on the the knowledge about the students. 2. Not effective. 15. Articulation Students formed a group twos, then someone telling material presented by teachers and others as a listener after that switch roles. The steps: 1. Convey the learning objectives to be achieved. 2. Teacher presents the material as usual. 3. To determine the absorption of students, form a group of two students. 4. Send the one of the pair telling the new material received from the teachers and their partner hearing while making little notes, then switch roles. Likewise other groups. 5. Tell the students take turns / present the results of interviews with randomized 6. Teacher repeated / explains again, the material which if the student is not yet understood. 7. Conclusion / closing. Advantages: 1. All students involved (get a role).
  10. 10. 2. Train the readiness of students. 3. Train the absorptive capacity of understanding others. Weaknesses: 1. For certain subjects. 2. It takes a lot of time. 3. The material acquired slightly. 16. Mind Mapping A very good learning method used for studentspreliminary knowledge or to find alternative answers. The steps: 1. Teachers convey competence to be achieved. 2. Teacher put forward the concept / problems that will responded by the student, the problems should have alternative answers. 3. Form a group whose members are 2-5 people. 4. Each group inventory / record the results of the discussion of alternative answers. 5. Each group read the results of the discussion and the teacher records on the board and the group, according to the needs of teachers. 6. From the the data on the board students are asked to make inferences or teacher to give appropriate comparative concept provided the teacher. Advantages: 1. Can express opinions freely. 2. Can work together with other friends. Weaknesses: 1. Only students who are actively involved. 2. Not fully student learning. 17. Student Teams – Achievement Divisions (STAD) (SLAVIN, 1995) Students are grouped heterogeneously then students who are good explaining to other members until understand. The steps: 1. Form a group whose members are 4 people, in heterogeneous (mixed according to achievement, gender, ethnicity, etc). 2. Teacher presents the lesson.
  11. 11. 3. Teacher gives a task to be done by members of the group. Members who knows explain to other members until all members of the group understand. 4. Teacher gives a quiz / questionnaire to all students. When answering the quiz should not help each other. 5. Give an evaluation.Closing. Advantages: 1. All students become more readily. 2. Trained to be good in cooperation. Weaknesses: 1. All members of the group have difficulties. 2. Differentiate students. 18. Numbered Head Structure (Modification of Number Heads) Students are grouped with numbered and every number got a different job and will be able to join with other groups that have the same number to work together. The steps: 1. Students are divided into groups each student in each group gets a number. 2. Assignment given to each student based on the number on sequential task. 3. If necessary, the teacher can tell cooperation between groups, the students were told to get out of the group and joined with students the same number of other groups. In this opportunity, students with the same task can help each other or match the results of their cooperation. 4. Report the results of the group and the responses from the other groups. 5. Conclusion. Advantages: 1. Each student to be ready. 2. Can have discussions sincerely. 3. Can exchange ideas with other students. Weaknesses: 1. Teacher doesn’t know the capabilities of each student. 2. It takes a lot of time.
  12. 12. 19. Scramble Learning method by distributing worksheets that students filled. The steps: 1. Teacher presents the material 2. Hand out worksheets, by answers randomized arrangement. Advantages: 1. Facilitate the search for answers. 2. Encourage students to learn, work on the matter. Weaknesses: 1. Students lack thinking critically. 2. It could be cheating the answer another friends. 20. Word Square Students are given an activity sheet and then answer the questions and shading the letters in the box suitable with the answer. The steps: 1. Teacher delivering the material accordance with the competence. 2. Teacher sharing activity sheetsaccording example. 3. Students are asked to answer the questions. then shading the letters in the box, suitable the answer. 4. Give points every response in the box. Advantages: 1. The activities encourage students' understanding of subject matter. 2. Trained to be disciplined. Weaknesses: 1. Deadly creativity of students. 2. Students stay receives raw materials. 21. Arisan Card Students were formed groups and each answer rolled and inserted into a glass and then the students that holding a response card, reply after the first shake.
  13. 13. The steps: 1. Form a heterogeneous group of people. 2. Answer sheet distributed to students each with 1 sheet / card question rolled and inserted into a glass. 3. Glass that had contained question shaken rolls, then the one that falls was given. to be answered by students who hold answers card. 4. If the answer is correct, then students are welcome applause or other slogans. 5. Each correct answer was given 1 point as the value of the group so that the total value is the sum of points of the group members. Advantages: Interesting learning linked to real life. Weaknesses: 1. Not all students involved in learning activities. 2. Value depends on the individual that affect the value of another friends. 22. Concept Sentence Students was formed a heterogeneous group and make a sentence by a minimum of 4 keywords corresponding material presented. The steps: 1. Teacher presents the objectives. 2. Teacher presents the material sufficiently. 3. Teacher form a group whose members are less than 4 people in heterogeneous. 4. Presents some key words according material 5. Each group was asked to make a couple of sentences, using a minimum of 4 keywords every sentence. 6. Results of the group discussions, in plenary discussed again, which is teacher be guided. 7. Conclusion. Advantages: 1. Better understand key words, from the subject matter. 2. Students who are smarter, teach students who are less intelligent. Weaknesses: 1. Only for certain subjects. 2. For a passive, taking the answer from their friends.
  14. 14. 23. Make – A Match (Mencari Pasangan) Students are asked to find pairs of cards that is the answer / question before the deadline, who can match the card was given points. The steps: 1. Teacher prepare some cards, that contains some of the concepts or topics that are suitable for review sessions, otherwise one part question card, and other parts of the answer card. 2. Each student gets a single card. 3. Each student thinking about the answer / question of cards that are held. 4. Each student looking for a partner who has a card that matches his card 5. Any student that can match his card before the deadline was given points. 6. After one round of cards shuffled again so that each student gets a different card than before. And so on. 7. Conclusion. 8. Closing. Advantages: Train for accuracy, precision and precision as well as speed. Weaknesses: Fast time, lack of concentration. 24. Take and Give Students are given a card to memorize a moment then looking for a partner to share information, then students was given questions according by their card. The steps: 1. Prepare classroom as appropriate. 2. Please describe the material, on topic minute. 3. To establish control participants, each student is given one card to learn (memorize) approximately 5 minutes. 4. All students were told to stand up and find a partner to share information according material each card. Each student should record the name of the partner in control cards. 5. And so on until each participant can give and receive materials respectively. 6. To evaluate the success, give students the question, that according by his card 7. This strategy can be be modified according to circumstances. 8. Conclusion.
  15. 15. Advantages: Trained to understand the material in a short time. Weaknesses: Ineffective and too wordy. 25. Guess the Word (Tebak Kata) This method uses the card card size 10 x 10 cm and diidi other traits that lead to the the answer, the second card measures 5 x 2 cm to write words / terms that would predict. The steps: 1. Describe matter minutes. 2. Tell the students stand in front of the class and in pairs. 3. A student is given a card the size of 10 x 10 cm that later read by the partner. Other students was given a card measuring 5 x 2 cm whose contents can not be read (folded) and then placed on the forehead or in the ear tuck. 4. While students take the card 10 x 10 cm read the words written in it while her partner to guess what is on card 10 x 10cm. The right answer when in accordance with the contents of that card taped to the forehead. 5. If the answer is right (as written on the card) then the pair should sit down. If not exactly at a predetermined time may be directed by another words just do not give direct answer. Advantages: It is interesting that every student wants to try it. Weaknesses: If a student does not answer correctly then not all students can be advanced for a limited time. 26. Discussion Method Discussion method is a way of teaching that is characterized by an attachment to a topic or a subject or problem statement in which the participants with an honest attempt to reach or obtain a decision or opinion agreed. Discussion as a learning method is more suitable and necessary if teachers want: a. utilizing a variety of capabilities that exist in students b. provide opportunities for students to remove their ability c. get feedback from the students whether the goal has been reached
  16. 16. d. help students learn to think critically e. helping students learn to assess their own abilities and the role of self and friends f. help students recognize and be able to formulate their own problems and from school lessons g. develop motivation for further study. The activities of teachers in the implementation of the method of discussion as follows: a. Principal or a teacher sets a problem to be discussed or the teacher asked the students to present a subject or problem to be discussed. b. Teachers explain the purpose of the discussion. c. Teachers give lectures punctuated by questions and answers regarding the subject matter being discussed. d. Teachers set the speaker's turn that not all students simultaneously speak an opinion. e. Keep the classroom atmosphere and set each speaker so the whole class can listen to what is being proposed. f. Organize your turn to speak lest brave and ambitious students who use the self- effacing opportunity to issue his opinion. g. Set so that the nature and content of the conversation does not stray from the subject / problem. h. Take note of the things that you think teachers should be immediately corrected that lets students do not realize the wrong opinion. i. Always trying to keep the discussion between students and students. j. No longer be the main speaker but rather to control the conversation. Student activities in the implementation of the method of discussion as follows: a. Reviewing the topic / subject matter presented by the teacher or work out a problem and a topic to the class. b. Actively thinking about their own or record data sources from books or other sources of knowledge, in order to put forward the proposed answer problem solving. c. Well thought of expression itself or acquired after discussing together a group of friends or a bench. d. Hear from other groups of reactions or responses to the new opinion expressed. e. Listen carefully and try to understand the opinions expressed by students or other groups. f. Respect the opinions of friends or other groups though different opinions. g. Noting his own subjects important opinion expressed mutual friend both agree and contradictory. h. Formulate conclusions discussions in good and proper language. i. Care for and maintain the order of discussion. j. Does not aim to seek victory in the discussion but trying to find the correct opinion that has been analyzed from every point of view.
  17. 17. The advantages of using the discussion as follows: 1. Educating students to learn to express thoughts or opinions. 2. Provide an opportunity for students to obtain explanations from the various data sources. 3. Provide an opportunity for students to live up to the renewal of a problem together. 4. Train students to discuss under the care of teachers. 5. Stimulate students to participate in their own expression, approve or oppose the opinion of his friends. 6. Fostering a sense of responsibility for an opinion, conclusion, or decision that would or has been taken. 7. Develop a sense of solidarity / tolerance of opinion may vary or contradict at all. 8. Fostering students to think carefully before speaking. 9. Discuss not only requires knowledge, ready and eloquence, but also requires the ability to speak in a systematic and logical. 10. By listening to all the information presented by the speakers, knowledge and students' views on a problem will expand. The disadvantage in the discussion as follows: 1. Not all topics can be used as the method of discussion only things that can be problematic are discussed. 2. Depth discussion requires a lot of time. 3. Difficult to determine the extent or depth of a boundary description of the discussion. 4. Usually not all students dare to express an opinion that time will be wasted because the waiting students express opinions. 5. Of discussion may be dominated by a bold student and have been a regular talking. Shy and quiet students will not use the opportunity to speak. 6. Allow the emergence of a sense of hostility between groups or group considers itself to be smarter and know everything than any other group or other groups considered as a rival, lower, or more stupid trivial. 27. Jigsaw Method Basically, in this model the teacher split large units of information into smaller components. The teacher divides students into cooperative learning groups consisting of four students so that every member is responsible for the control of every component / subtopic assigned with the best teachers. Students from each group that responsible for the same subtopic forming more groups consisting of consisting of two or three people. These students work together to complete the task in their cooperation: a) learn and become proficient in the subtopic thereof; b) plan how to teach subtopics part to members of the original group. After that the students go back to their respective groups as an "expert" in subtopics and subtopics teach the important information to his friend. Experts in other subtopics also act similarly. So that all students are responsible to demonstrate mastery of all
  18. 18. the material assigned by the teacher. Thus, every student in the group must master the topic as a whole. 28. Group Investigation Method Group investigation method is often viewed as the most complex and the most difficult to implement in a cooperative learning. This method involves students from planning, both in determining the topic and how to learn through investigation. This method requires the students to have good skills in communication and the group process skills (group process skills). Teachers who use investigative methods generally divide the class into groups of several groups consisting of 5 to 6 students with heterogeneous characteristics. The small groups can also be based on pleasure friends or common interests to a particular topic. The students choose the topics they want to learn, follow the in-depth investigation of the various subtopics that have been, then prepare and present a report to the class as a whole. The description of the steps the group investigation method can be expressed as follows: a. Selection of topics The students chose a variety of subtopics within an area most commonly described problems in advance by the teacher. The students then organized into groups oriented task (task oriented groups) consisting of 2 to 6 people. Heterogeneous composition of both groups in gender, ethnicity and academic ability. b. Cooperation plan The students and teachers plan a range of specific learning procedures, tasks and common goals that are consistent with a variety of topics and subtopics that have been out of step a) above. c. Implementation The students carry out the plans that have been formulated in step b). Learning should involve a variety of activities and skills with a wide variety and encourage students to use a variety of sources contained both within and outside the school. Teachers are constantly following the progress of each group and provide assistance if needed. d. Analysis and synthesis The students analyze and synthesize various information obtained in step c) and planned to be summarized in an interesting presentation to the class. e. Presentation of final results All groups present an interesting presentation of the various topics they have learned in the classroom so that all students engage with each other and reach a broad perspective on the topic. Group presentations coordinated by the teacher.
  19. 19. f. Evaluation Students and their teachers to evaluate the contribution of each group to the class as a whole work. Evaluation can include each student individually or in groups, or both. 29. Inquiry Method This method emphasizes the discovery and solving problems in a sustainable manner. Advantages of this method encourages students to think scientifically, creative, intuitive and works on the basis of its own initiative, cultivate an attitude of objective, honest and open. Weakness requires quite a long time, not all course materials contain the problem, require regular and careful planning, and ineffective if there are some students that passively. 30. Debate Method Method of debate is one very important method of learning to improve students' academic abilities. Teaching materials selected and arranged into packets pros and cons. Students are divided into several groups and every group consisted of four people. Within the group, students (two men took positions pro and two others in a position counter) did debate on assigned topics. Each group reports regarding pros and cons of both positions is given to the teacher. The teacher can evaluate each student on mastery of material that covers both positions and evaluate how effectively the students involved in debate procedures. Basically, that all successful models of cooperative learning as expected, every model must involve teaching materials that allow students to help each other and support when they learn the material and work mutually dependent (interdependent) to complete the task. Social skills required in business collaboration should be central to the successful completion of the task group. These skills can be be taught to students and student roles can be specified to facilitate the group process. The roles may vary according to the task, for example, the role of recorder (recorder), making conclusions (Summarizer), regulator of the material (material manager), and the role of the teacher or facilitator can be a learning process monitors. 31. Role Playing Method Role Playing method is a way of mastery learning materials through the development of imagination and appreciation of students. Development of imagination and appreciation of the students by play her as a character living or inanimate objects. This game is generally carried more than one person, it depends on what is played. Advantages of Role Playing method: 1. Involving all students have the opportunity can be participate in its ability to promote work together. 2. Students are free to make decisions and expression intact.
  20. 20. 3. The game is a simple discovery and can be used in different situations and time. 4. Teacher can be evaluate students' understanding through observation at each time playing a game. 5. The game is a fun learning experience for children. 32. Problem Solving Method Methods of problem solving is the use of the method in learning activities by road train students face various problems be it personal or individual issues or problems to be solved alone or group together. Orientation learning is the investigation and discovery that is basically problem solving. The advantage of the method of problem solving as follows: 1. Train students to design an invention. 2. Think and act creatively. 3. Solve problems realistically 4. Identify and conduct investigation. 5. Interpret and evaluate observations. 6. Stimulate the development of student thinking progress to resolve the problems faced by the right. 7. Can make school education more relevant to life, especially the working world. Weakness problem solving method as follows: 1. Some subjects are very difficult to apply this method. Eg lack of laboratory equipment make it difficult for students to see and observe and ultimately conclude the event or concept. 2. Allocation requires a longer time compared by other learning methods. 33. Team Games Tournament Method (TGT) TGT cooperative learning is one type or model of cooperative learning are easy to implement, involving the activities of all students without any differences in status, involving the participation of students as peer tutors, and contains elements of the game and reinforcement. Learning activities with games designed in the TGT model of cooperative learning allows students to learn more relaxed in addition foster responsibility, teamwork, healthy competition and learning engagement.
  21. 21. There are 5 major components in the TGT main components are: 1. Class presentation In the early learning teachers present material in class presentation, usually done by direct teaching or by lectures, discussions led by the teacher. At the time of presentation of this class students should really pay attention to and understand the material presented teacher, because it will help students work better when group work and by the time the game because the score of the game will determine the score of the group. 2. Group (team) The group usually consists of 4 to 5 students are members of heterogeneous views of academic achievement, gender and race or ethnicity. Function of the group is to further explore the material as a group and more specifically to prepare members of the group in order to work properly and optimally at the time of the game. 3. Game Game consists of questions designed to test students' knowledge gained from classroom presentation and study groups. Most games consist of simple questions numbered. Students choose a numbered card and try to answer the questions according to the numbers. Students who answered the question correctly will get a score. These scores were later gathered students for a weekly tournament. 4. Tournament Tournament usually done on weekends or on any unit after presenting the class teacher and the group has been working on a worksheet. The first tournament of teachers divide students into multiple table tournaments. The three highest student achievements grouped in tables I, three students at the next table II and so on. 5. Recognize team (group award) The teacher then announces the winning team, each team will receive a gift certificate or if the average score meets the specified criteria. Team earned the nickname "Super Team" if the average score of 45 or more, "Great Team" when an average of 40-45 and "Good Team" if the average 30-40. 34. Collaborative Learning Collaborative Learning is a method of learning that focuses on collaboration among students that is based on the consensus that was established by members of the group. Problem / task / case is derived from the professors and are open ended, but the formation of groups based on interests, group work procedures, determining the time and place of discussion / group work,
  22. 22. to how the results of the discussion / work group wants to be judged by professors, all determined through common consensus among group members. 35. Quantum Learning Quantum Learning is a teaching that can turn a fun learning environment as well as the ability to change students' natural talent to be a light that will benefit themselves and for others. Quantum is learning tips, hints, strategies, and the whole process of learning to sharpen understanding and memory, as well as a process to make learning fun and rewarding. 36. TAI (Team Assisted Individualization or Team Accelerated Instruction) Type of cooperative learning model this one is actually a merger of cooperative learning with individual learning. On cooperative learning model TAI, students follow individual level based on a placement test, and then be able to progress to the next stage based on the level of learning speed. Thus, each member of the group is actually learning the units of different subject matter. Peer group will examine the work of a group of other colleagues and provide assistance if needed. The test is then given at the end of the unit without the help of friends from their group and given a score. Then each week the teacher will add the total units completed a group material and provide certificates or awards if they managed to exceed the established criteria, and some extra points for that group members have received a perfect score. Advantages of cooperative learning model TAI is because students are responsible for checking the work of other colleagues, the teachers have more time to help small groups who find many barriers to learning which is a collection of the group members who are at the level of unit same subject matter. Many studies have reported that cooperative learning model TAI is very effective to use in learning. 37. Round Table or Rally Table To use cooperative learning Rally Table model the teacher can give the student a specific category (eg, words that begin with the letter "s"). Subsequently have students take turns to write one word in turn. 38. Jigsaw Team To use a cooperative learning, Jigsaw model assign each student in each group to learn from reading a quarter page or text on any subject (eg IPS), or a quarter of a topic that they have to learn or remember. After each student had completed the lesson and then teach each other (explain) about the material that was his job or work together to form a unified whole matter when they complete a task or puzzle.
  23. 23. 39. Jigsaw II Type of cooperative learning model this one is a modification of the type of Jigsaw. Jigsaw II was developed by Robert Slavin in 1980 in which all members of the original group studied the same topic, it's just that each member is focused to explore certain parts of the topic. Each member of the group home should be an expert in the topics they understood better part. Such as Jigsaw, Jigsaw in type II they also have to teach these skills at home the other group members in turn. 40. Reverse Jigsaw This type of cooperative learning model developed by Timothy Hedeen (2003). Jigsaw is the difference with the type, if the type of cooperative learning jigsaw model of expert group members only teaches skills to members of the original group, then the reverse jigsaw cooperative learning model, the students of the group of experts teach their skills (the material they studied or understood better) to the whole class. 41. Three-Step Interview On cooperative learning three-step interview model (also called three problem-solving) performed 3 steps to solve the problem. In the first step the teacher can bring up a variety of issues that opinion, then ask a few questions to all students in the class. The second step, students work in pairs to play a role as interviewer and interviewee. Then, in the third step, after the first interview conducted pairing reversed roles: acting as the interviewer and the interviewee instead of people who had interviewed a person who was interviewed. After all couples have exchanged roles, then each spouse may share or present the results of their interviews with the class in turns. This type of cooperative learning model (three-step interview) is effective to teach students about problem solving. 42. Three-Minute Review Cooperative learning three-step review model effective for use when the teacher stops at certain moments during a discussion or presentation took place, and invite students reviewing what they had expressed during discussions in their groups. Students in these groups can be asked to clarify to other members or to answer questions from other members. For example, after a discussion about the complex processes that occur in the human body such as the digestion of food, students can form groups and reviewing the discussion and ask questions to clarify.
  24. 24. 43. Reciprocal Teaching Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching model developed by Brown & Paliscar (1982). Teaching reciprocal or reciprocal teaching is also a cooperative learning model that asks students to form pairs while participating in a dialogue (a conversation or discussion) on a text (reading material). Each member of the couple akanbergantian read text and ask questions, receive and obtain feedback (feedback). Type of reciprocal teaching learning model allows students to practice and use metacognitive techniques such as clarifying, questioning, predicting, and concluding. Reciprocal cooperative learning model was developed on the basis of teaching that students can effectively learn from other students. Read a more detailed article about cooperative learning model reciprocal teaching. 44. The Williams The type of cooperative learning The Williams model invites students collaborate to answer a big question that is a learning goal. At this learning model students grouped heterogeneously group as in STAD. Then each group was given different questions with the aim to improve the cognitive abilities that enable students to achieve the learning objectives. 45. TPS (Think Pairs Share) Cooperative learning TPS model (think pairs share) originally developed by Frank T. Lyman (1981). This type of cooperative learning model allows each member of the pair to the students to contemplate the question posed. After being given enough time they were then asked to discuss what they think about before (result contemplation) with their respective spouses. After discussion with the couple finished, the teacher then collects responses or answers to questions that have been asked of the whole class. 46. TPC (Think Pairs Check) Cooperative learning TPC (Think Pairs Check) model is a modification of the type of think pairs share, where the emphasis is on learning when they are asked to check each answer or response to the teacher's question while with their pair. 47. TPW (Think Pairs Write) TPW cooperative learning model type (Think Pairs Write) is also a variation of cooperative learning model TPS (Think Pairs Share). The emphasis of this type of cooperative learning model is after they pair, they were asked to write down the answers or responses the
  25. 25. questions that have been given by the teacher. TPW cooperative learning model is very suitable for writing lessons. 48. Tea Party On cooperative learning Tea Party model, students form two concentric circles or two lines in which the students face each other. The teacher asks a question (in any subject area) and then students discuss the answers with students that in front of them. After one minute, the outer line or outer circle moves like clockwise. So they will be faced with a new partner. The teacher then asked a second question to discuss them. Such measures continued until the teacher finishes asking 5 or more questions to discuss. For a little variation can also be students are asked to write questions on cards to record later when held test. 49. Round Robin Brainstorming or Rally Robin Examples of implementation of cooperative learning Round Robin Brainstorming model for example: given a category (eg, "the names of rivers in Indonesia) for discussion. All students take turns to mentions the items that are included in that category. 50. LT (Learnig Together) The man who be the first developed the type of cooperative learning that is Learning Together (LT) model is David Johnson and Roger Johnson at the University of Minnesota in 1999. On cooperative learning model Learning Together, students formed by 4-5 people for a heterogeneous student working on a task sheet. Each group was given only one worksheet. They were then given the praise and appreciation on the work of the group. In the learning model with variations such Cooperative Learning Together, each group is directed to undertake activities to build group cohesion and discussion beforehand about how they should work together in groups.