1. Lesson Study
Lesson Study is a method developed in Japan that the Japanese language is called
Jugyokenkyuu. The term 'lesson study' it was created by Makoto Yoshida.
Lesson Study is a process in developing the professionalism of teachers in Japan with the
probe / tests their teaching practices in order to become more effective.
The steps are as follows:
1. A number of teachers working in a group. This cooperation includes:
b. Teaching practice.
d. Reflection / criticism towards learning.
2. One of the teachers in the group doing the planning stages of making a mature lesson
plan comes with the basics that support the theory.
3. Teachers who have made a lesson plan on (2) and then teaching in the real classroom.
Mean phase accomplished teaching practice.
4. Other teachers in the group observe the learning process while matching lesson plans
that have been made. Mean observation phase passed.
5. All the teachers in the group, including teachers who have taught together and then
discuss their observations of the learning that has been going on. This stage is the
stage of reflection. In this stage also discussed remedial measures for the next lesson.
6. Results in (5) further implemented in the classroom / learning next and so on back to
The advantages of using the 'lesson study' as follows:
1. Can be applied in every field starting art, language, math and sports and at each grade
2. Can be implemented between / across the school.
2. Examples Non Examples
Examples Non-Examples are learning method using examples. Examples can be from cases /
1. Teachers prepare the pictures in accordance with the purpose of learning.
2. Teachers put a picture on a board or displayed through OHP.
3. Teacher gives instructions and provide an opportunity for students to observe /
analyze the images.
4. Through group discussion 2-3 students, the discussion of the image analysis be logged
in the paper.
5. Each group is given the opportunity to read the results of their discussions.
6. Start from comment / discussion results of students, teachers starting explain the
material to the purpose to be achieved.
1. Students are more critical in analyzing the images.
2. Students learn the application of the material in the form of an example image.
3. Students are given the opportunity to express their opinions.
1. Not all the material can be presented in the form of images.
2. Take a long time.
3. Picture and Picture
Picture and Picture is a learning method that uses images and paired / sorted into a logical
1. Teachers convey competence to be achieved.
2. Presenting the material as an introduction.
3. Teacher shows / showed pictures relating to the material.
4. Teacher Pointing / calling the students interchangeably to install / sort the pictures
into a logical sequence.
5. Teacher asks the reasons / the rationale the image sequence.
6. From the reason / the image sequence, teachers start embeds concepts / materials in
accordance with the competencies to be achieved.
7. Conclusion / summary.
1. Teacher more knows each student's ability.
2. Trained to think logically and systematically.
1. Takes a lot of time.
2. Many students are passive.
4. Numbered Heads Together (Kepala Bernomor, Spencer Kagan, 1992)
Numbered Heads Together is a method of learning in which each student is given a number
and then created a group then teacher randomly call a number of students.
1. Students are divided into groups each student in each group gets a number.
2. Teachers give assignments and each group is working on.
3. Group discussed the correct answer and make sure each member of the group can do
4. Teacher call one of the numbers of students who called to report the results of their
5. The response from another friend, then another teacher pointing another numbers.
1. Each student has to prepare.
2. Can conduct discussions seriously.
3. Students who are good can teach students who are less intelligent.
1. Possibility the called number, called again by the teacher.
2. Not all members of the group called by the teacher.
5. Cooperative Script (Dansereau Cs., 1985)
Scripts cooperative is learning method in which students work in pairs and verbally
summarize the parts of the material being studied.
1. The teacher divides the students to pair up.
2. Teacher gives discourse / materials for each student to read and make a summary.
3. Teacher and students determine who first acts as speaker and who acts as a listener.
4. Speakers read the summary as complete as possible, by incorporating the main ideas
in summary. While listeners listening / correcting / show the main ideas that
incomplete and help remember / memorize the main ideas by connecting with the
previous material or other material.
5. Exchanging the role, initially as a speaker and a listener exchanged into reverse, and
do as above.
6. Teacher conclusion.
1. Train the auditory, accuracy / precision.
2. Each student gets a role.
3. Train the mistakes of others to express verbally.
1. Only be used for certain subjects.
2. Only performed by two people (not involving the whole class so that the correction
was limited to the two people).
6. Problem Based Instruction (PBI)
Problem Based Instruction (PBI) to focus on issues that are meaningful to students' lives, the
role of the teacher presents a problem, ask questions and facilitate the investigation and
1. Teacher explains the purpose of learning. Explain the logistics required. Motivate
students to involve in problem solving activities that selected.
2. Teacher helped students to define and organize learning tasks related with the issue
(assign topics, tasks, schedules, etc.)
3. Teacher encourage students to collect appropriate information, carry out experiments
to get an explanation and problem solving, data collection, hypothesis, problem
4. Teacher helped students in planning and preparing the appropriate work such as
reports and helped them share the duties with their friends.
5. Teacher helps students to do reflection, or evaluation of their investigation and the
processes which they use.
1. Students are involved in learning activities so that knowledge absorbed really well.
2. Trained to be able to cooperate with other students.
3. Can be acquiring from various sources.
1. For students who are lazy goal of these methods can not be achieved.
2. Takes a lot of time and money.
3. Not all subjects can be applied to this method.
7. Explicit Instruction (Pengajaran Langsung)
Explicit Instruction is designed to develop students' knowledge of procedural and declarative
knowledge that can be taught in step by step pattern.
1. Presents the objectives and preparing the students.
2. Demonstrating the knowledge and skills.
3. Guiding the training.
4. Checking the understanding and provide feedback.
5. Provide an opportunity for further training.
1. Students can completely master the knowledge.
2. All students are active / involved in learning.
1. Takes a long time so that the students who appeared were not so long.
2. For certain subjects.
8. Inside – Outside – Circle (Lingkaran kecil – Lingkaran besar)
Students share information at the same time, with different pairs with briefly and organized.
1. Half the class stands in a small circle and facing out.
2. Other half of the class in a circle outside the first circle, facing out.
3. Two pairs of students from a small circle and large share information. This
information exchange can be done by all the couples at the same time.
4. Then the students were silent on the small circle, while students that are in a big circle
shifted one or two steps clockwise so that each student gets a new partner.
5. Now is the turn of students who in a great circle that divides the information. And so
Get different information at the same time.
1. Requires a large classroom.
2. Too long so don’t concentrate and be misused for jokes.
3. Complicated to do.
9. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)
In this method students was formed groups to provide feedback against the discourse /
1. Form a group whose members are 4 people who are heterogeneous.
2. Teachers provide discourse / clipping according to the learning topic.
3. Students work together reading to each other and finding the main idea and give
feedback on discourse / clippings and written on sheets of paper.
4. Presenting / read the results of the group.
5. Teacher makes conclusions together.
1. Students can freely give responses.
2. Be trained to be able to work together and respect the opinions of others.
At the time of presentation only active students that performing.
10. Student Facilitator and Explaining
Students / participants to present ideas / opinions on fellow participants.
1. Teachers convey the competences that want to achieve.
2. Teacher demonstrating / presenting the material.
3. Provide opportunities to student / participant to explain to the others either through
chart / map concept and others.
4. Teacher concludes the idea / opinions from students.
5. The teacher explains all the material presented at that time.
Students are invited to explain to the other students, be able to expend the ideas he has in
mind so it can be understand the material.
1. The existence of the same opinion that only partially performed.
2. Many students those are less active.
11. Course Review Horay
A method of learning with comprehension testing using a box filled with numbers to write
down the answers, the most first get the correct sign, immediately shouted horay.
1. Teachers convey the competences that want to achieve.
2. Teacher demonstrating / presenting the material.
3. Giving students question and answer.
4. To test understanding, students were told to make Box 9/16/25 in accordance with
requirement and numbers of each box is filled according to individual taste.
5. Teacher read questions randomly and students write the answer in the box whose
number is mentioned by teacher and directly discussed, if correct filled in correct
mark (v) and wrong filled with a cross (x)
6. Students who have got the v sign vertical or horizontal, or diagonal must immediately
yell horay or other slogans.
7. Student scores, calculated from the correct answers and the number horay acquired.
1. Exciting learning can be encouraged to plunge into it.
2. Train cooperation.
1. Students active and passive be equated.
2. There are opportunities for cheating.
12. Talking Stick
Learning methods with the aid of a stick, who's holding the stick have to answer questions
from the teacher after the students learn the material principal.
1. The teacher prepares a stick.
2. Teacher deliver the subject matter to be studied, and then provides the opportunity for
students to read and study the material on the handle / the package.
3. When finished reading the book and studying teacher invited students to close the
4. Teacher take the the stick and give to the students, after that the teacher asks questions
and students who hold the stick had to answer, so on until most of the students got a
part to answer any questions from the teacher.
5. The teacher gives the conclusion.
1. Test the readiness of students.
2. Trained to read and understand quickly.
3. To be more active learning (learning first).
Make student’s heart gymnastics.
13. Couple Exchanging (bertukar pasangan)
Students in pairs then joined another couple and to exchange couples to ask each other and
reinforce each answer.
1. Each student gets a partner
2. Teachers give students tasks and do the work with his partner.
3. After done each student that paired, joined by one other couple.
4. Both the couple exchange partner, each new pair, questions and confirm their
5. The new findings that obtained from the exchange pair were distributed to the original
1. Students are trained to can be work together, to hold opinions.
2. All the students involved.
1. Takes a long time.
2. Teacher can’t figure out capabilities of each student.
14. Snowball Throwing
Set up a group that represented the group leader to get assignments from teachers and then
each student made a question, that was formed into a ball (question paper) and then thrown to
the other students, each student answered the question of balls acquired.
1. Teacher delivers material that will be presented.
2. Teacher form groups and calling the each group leader to give an explanation about
3. Each the group leader back to each group, and then explain the material presented by
the teacher to his friend.
4. Then each student was given a worksheet to write down any questions regarding the
material that has been described by the head of the group.
5. Then, the paper created into a ball and thrown from one student to another student for
approximately 5 minutes.
6. After student gets one ball / one question is given the opportunity to students to
answer questions that are written in the ball shaped paper interchangeably.
7. The teacher gives the conclusion.
1. Train, the readiness of students.
2. Give each other the knowledge.
1. Knowledge is not extensive, just dwell on the the knowledge about the students.
2. Not effective.
Students formed a group twos, then someone telling material presented by teachers and others
as a listener after that switch roles.
1. Convey the learning objectives to be achieved.
2. Teacher presents the material as usual.
3. To determine the absorption of students, form a group of two students.
4. Send the one of the pair telling the new material received from the teachers and their
partner hearing while making little notes, then switch roles. Likewise other groups.
5. Tell the students take turns / present the results of interviews with randomized
6. Teacher repeated / explains again, the material which if the student is not yet
7. Conclusion / closing.
1. All students involved (get a role).
2. Train the readiness of students.
3. Train the absorptive capacity of understanding others.
1. For certain subjects.
2. It takes a lot of time.
3. The material acquired slightly.
16. Mind Mapping
A very good learning method used for studentspreliminary knowledge or to find alternative
1. Teachers convey competence to be achieved.
2. Teacher put forward the concept / problems that will responded by the student, the
problems should have alternative answers.
3. Form a group whose members are 2-5 people.
4. Each group inventory / record the results of the discussion of alternative answers.
5. Each group read the results of the discussion and the teacher records on the board and
the group, according to the needs of teachers.
6. From the the data on the board students are asked to make inferences or teacher to
give appropriate comparative concept provided the teacher.
1. Can express opinions freely.
2. Can work together with other friends.
1. Only students who are actively involved.
2. Not fully student learning.
17. Student Teams – Achievement Divisions (STAD) (SLAVIN, 1995)
Students are grouped heterogeneously then students who are good explaining to other
members until understand.
1. Form a group whose members are 4 people, in heterogeneous (mixed according to
achievement, gender, ethnicity, etc).
2. Teacher presents the lesson.
3. Teacher gives a task to be done by members of the group. Members who knows
explain to other members until all members of the group understand.
4. Teacher gives a quiz / questionnaire to all students. When answering the quiz should
not help each other.
5. Give an evaluation.Closing.
1. All students become more readily.
2. Trained to be good in cooperation.
1. All members of the group have difficulties.
2. Differentiate students.
18. Numbered Head Structure (Modification of Number Heads)
Students are grouped with numbered and every number got a different job and will be able to
join with other groups that have the same number to work together.
1. Students are divided into groups each student in each group gets a number.
2. Assignment given to each student based on the number on sequential task.
3. If necessary, the teacher can tell cooperation between groups, the students were told
to get out of the group and joined with students the same number of other groups. In
this opportunity, students with the same task can help each other or match the results
of their cooperation.
4. Report the results of the group and the responses from the other groups.
1. Each student to be ready.
2. Can have discussions sincerely.
3. Can exchange ideas with other students.
1. Teacher doesn’t know the capabilities of each student.
2. It takes a lot of time.
Learning method by distributing worksheets that students filled.
1. Teacher presents the material
2. Hand out worksheets, by answers randomized arrangement.
1. Facilitate the search for answers.
2. Encourage students to learn, work on the matter.
1. Students lack thinking critically.
2. It could be cheating the answer another friends.
20. Word Square
Students are given an activity sheet and then answer the questions and shading the letters in
the box suitable with the answer.
1. Teacher delivering the material accordance with the competence.
2. Teacher sharing activity sheetsaccording example.
3. Students are asked to answer the questions. then shading the letters in the box,
suitable the answer.
4. Give points every response in the box.
1. The activities encourage students' understanding of subject matter.
2. Trained to be disciplined.
1. Deadly creativity of students.
2. Students stay receives raw materials.
21. Arisan Card
Students were formed groups and each answer rolled and inserted into a glass and then the
students that holding a response card, reply after the first shake.
1. Form a heterogeneous group of people.
2. Answer sheet distributed to students each with 1 sheet / card question rolled and
inserted into a glass.
3. Glass that had contained question shaken rolls, then the one that falls was given. to be
answered by students who hold answers card.
4. If the answer is correct, then students are welcome applause or other slogans.
5. Each correct answer was given 1 point as the value of the group so that the total value
is the sum of points of the group members.
Interesting learning linked to real life.
1. Not all students involved in learning activities.
2. Value depends on the individual that affect the value of another friends.
22. Concept Sentence
Students was formed a heterogeneous group and make a sentence by a minimum of 4
keywords corresponding material presented.
1. Teacher presents the objectives.
2. Teacher presents the material sufficiently.
3. Teacher form a group whose members are less than 4 people in heterogeneous.
4. Presents some key words according material
5. Each group was asked to make a couple of sentences, using a minimum of 4 keywords
6. Results of the group discussions, in plenary discussed again, which is teacher be
1. Better understand key words, from the subject matter.
2. Students who are smarter, teach students who are less intelligent.
1. Only for certain subjects.
2. For a passive, taking the answer from their friends.
23. Make – A Match (Mencari Pasangan)
Students are asked to find pairs of cards that is the answer / question before the deadline, who
can match the card was given points.
1. Teacher prepare some cards, that contains some of the concepts or topics that are
suitable for review sessions, otherwise one part question card, and other parts of the
2. Each student gets a single card.
3. Each student thinking about the answer / question of cards that are held.
4. Each student looking for a partner who has a card that matches his card
5. Any student that can match his card before the deadline was given points.
6. After one round of cards shuffled again so that each student gets a different card than
before. And so on.
Train for accuracy, precision and precision as well as speed.
Fast time, lack of concentration.
24. Take and Give
Students are given a card to memorize a moment then looking for a partner to share
information, then students was given questions according by their card.
1. Prepare classroom as appropriate.
2. Please describe the material, on topic minute.
3. To establish control participants, each student is given one card to learn (memorize)
approximately 5 minutes.
4. All students were told to stand up and find a partner to share information according
material each card. Each student should record the name of the partner in control
5. And so on until each participant can give and receive materials respectively.
6. To evaluate the success, give students the question, that according by his card
7. This strategy can be be modified according to circumstances.
Trained to understand the material in a short time.
Ineffective and too wordy.
25. Guess the Word (Tebak Kata)
This method uses the card card size 10 x 10 cm and diidi other traits that lead to the the
answer, the second card measures 5 x 2 cm to write words / terms that would predict.
1. Describe matter minutes.
2. Tell the students stand in front of the class and in pairs.
3. A student is given a card the size of 10 x 10 cm that later read by the partner. Other
students was given a card measuring 5 x 2 cm whose contents can not be read (folded)
and then placed on the forehead or in the ear tuck.
4. While students take the card 10 x 10 cm read the words written in it while her partner
to guess what is on card 10 x 10cm. The right answer when in accordance with the
contents of that card taped to the forehead.
5. If the answer is right (as written on the card) then the pair should sit down. If not
exactly at a predetermined time may be directed by another words just do not give
It is interesting that every student wants to try it.
If a student does not answer correctly then not all students can be advanced for a limited time.
26. Discussion Method
Discussion method is a way of teaching that is characterized by an attachment to a topic or a
subject or problem statement in which the participants with an honest attempt to reach or
obtain a decision or opinion agreed.
Discussion as a learning method is more suitable and necessary if teachers want:
a. utilizing a variety of capabilities that exist in students
b. provide opportunities for students to remove their ability
c. get feedback from the students whether the goal has been reached
d. help students learn to think critically
e. helping students learn to assess their own abilities and the role of self and friends
f. help students recognize and be able to formulate their own problems and from school
g. develop motivation for further study.
The activities of teachers in the implementation of the method of discussion as follows:
a. Principal or a teacher sets a problem to be discussed or the teacher asked the students
to present a subject or problem to be discussed.
b. Teachers explain the purpose of the discussion.
c. Teachers give lectures punctuated by questions and answers regarding the subject
matter being discussed.
d. Teachers set the speaker's turn that not all students simultaneously speak an opinion.
e. Keep the classroom atmosphere and set each speaker so the whole class can listen to
what is being proposed.
f. Organize your turn to speak lest brave and ambitious students who use the self-
effacing opportunity to issue his opinion.
g. Set so that the nature and content of the conversation does not stray from the subject /
h. Take note of the things that you think teachers should be immediately corrected that
lets students do not realize the wrong opinion.
i. Always trying to keep the discussion between students and students.
j. No longer be the main speaker but rather to control the conversation.
Student activities in the implementation of the method of discussion as follows:
a. Reviewing the topic / subject matter presented by the teacher or work out a problem
and a topic to the class.
b. Actively thinking about their own or record data sources from books or other sources
of knowledge, in order to put forward the proposed answer problem solving.
c. Well thought of expression itself or acquired after discussing together a group of
friends or a bench.
d. Hear from other groups of reactions or responses to the new opinion expressed.
e. Listen carefully and try to understand the opinions expressed by students or other
f. Respect the opinions of friends or other groups though different opinions.
g. Noting his own subjects important opinion expressed mutual friend both agree and
h. Formulate conclusions discussions in good and proper language.
i. Care for and maintain the order of discussion.
j. Does not aim to seek victory in the discussion but trying to find the correct opinion
that has been analyzed from every point of view.
The advantages of using the discussion as follows:
1. Educating students to learn to express thoughts or opinions.
2. Provide an opportunity for students to obtain explanations from the various data
3. Provide an opportunity for students to live up to the renewal of a problem together.
4. Train students to discuss under the care of teachers.
5. Stimulate students to participate in their own expression, approve or oppose the
opinion of his friends.
6. Fostering a sense of responsibility for an opinion, conclusion, or decision that would
or has been taken.
7. Develop a sense of solidarity / tolerance of opinion may vary or contradict at all.
8. Fostering students to think carefully before speaking.
9. Discuss not only requires knowledge, ready and eloquence, but also requires the
ability to speak in a systematic and logical.
10. By listening to all the information presented by the speakers, knowledge and students'
views on a problem will expand.
The disadvantage in the discussion as follows:
1. Not all topics can be used as the method of discussion only things that can be
problematic are discussed.
2. Depth discussion requires a lot of time.
3. Difficult to determine the extent or depth of a boundary description of the discussion.
4. Usually not all students dare to express an opinion that time will be wasted because
the waiting students express opinions.
5. Of discussion may be dominated by a bold student and have been a regular talking.
Shy and quiet students will not use the opportunity to speak.
6. Allow the emergence of a sense of hostility between groups or group considers itself
to be smarter and know everything than any other group or other groups considered as
a rival, lower, or more stupid trivial.
27. Jigsaw Method
Basically, in this model the teacher split large units of information into smaller components.
The teacher divides students into cooperative learning groups consisting of four students so
that every member is responsible for the control of every component / subtopic assigned with
the best teachers. Students from each group that responsible for the same subtopic forming
more groups consisting of consisting of two or three people.
These students work together to complete the task in their cooperation: a) learn and become
proficient in the subtopic thereof; b) plan how to teach subtopics part to members of the
original group. After that the students go back to their respective groups as an "expert" in
subtopics and subtopics teach the important information to his friend. Experts in other
subtopics also act similarly. So that all students are responsible to demonstrate mastery of all
the material assigned by the teacher. Thus, every student in the group must master the topic
as a whole.
28. Group Investigation Method
Group investigation method is often viewed as the most complex and the most difficult to
implement in a cooperative learning. This method involves students from planning, both in
determining the topic and how to learn through investigation. This method requires the
students to have good skills in communication and the group process skills (group process
skills). Teachers who use investigative methods generally divide the class into groups of
several groups consisting of 5 to 6 students with heterogeneous characteristics. The small
groups can also be based on pleasure friends or common interests to a particular topic. The
students choose the topics they want to learn, follow the in-depth investigation of the various
subtopics that have been, then prepare and present a report to the class as a whole. The
description of the steps the group investigation method can be expressed as follows:
a. Selection of topics
The students chose a variety of subtopics within an area most commonly described problems
in advance by the teacher. The students then organized into groups oriented task (task
oriented groups) consisting of 2 to 6 people. Heterogeneous composition of both groups in
gender, ethnicity and academic ability.
b. Cooperation plan
The students and teachers plan a range of specific learning procedures, tasks and common
goals that are consistent with a variety of topics and subtopics that have been out of step a)
The students carry out the plans that have been formulated in step b). Learning should
involve a variety of activities and skills with a wide variety and encourage students to use a
variety of sources contained both within and outside the school. Teachers are constantly
following the progress of each group and provide assistance if needed.
d. Analysis and synthesis
The students analyze and synthesize various information obtained in step c) and planned to be
summarized in an interesting presentation to the class.
e. Presentation of final results
All groups present an interesting presentation of the various topics they have learned in the
classroom so that all students engage with each other and reach a broad perspective on the
topic. Group presentations coordinated by the teacher.
Students and their teachers to evaluate the contribution of each group to the class as a whole
work. Evaluation can include each student individually or in groups, or both.
29. Inquiry Method
This method emphasizes the discovery and solving problems in a sustainable manner.
Advantages of this method encourages students to think scientifically, creative, intuitive and
works on the basis of its own initiative, cultivate an attitude of objective, honest and open.
Weakness requires quite a long time, not all course materials contain the problem, require
regular and careful planning, and ineffective if there are some students that passively.
30. Debate Method
Method of debate is one very important method of learning to improve students' academic
abilities. Teaching materials selected and arranged into packets pros and cons. Students are
divided into several groups and every group consisted of four people. Within the group,
students (two men took positions pro and two others in a position counter) did debate on
assigned topics. Each group reports regarding pros and cons of both positions is given to the
teacher. The teacher can evaluate each student on mastery of material that covers both
positions and evaluate how effectively the students involved in debate procedures.
Basically, that all successful models of cooperative learning as expected, every model must
involve teaching materials that allow students to help each other and support when they learn
the material and work mutually dependent (interdependent) to complete the task. Social skills
required in business collaboration should be central to the successful completion of the task
group. These skills can be be taught to students and student roles can be specified to facilitate
the group process. The roles may vary according to the task, for example, the role of recorder
(recorder), making conclusions (Summarizer), regulator of the material (material manager),
and the role of the teacher or facilitator can be a learning process monitors.
31. Role Playing Method
Role Playing method is a way of mastery learning materials through the development of
imagination and appreciation of students. Development of imagination and appreciation of
the students by play her as a character living or inanimate objects. This game is generally
carried more than one person, it depends on what is played.
Advantages of Role Playing method:
1. Involving all students have the opportunity can be participate in its ability to promote
2. Students are free to make decisions and expression intact.
3. The game is a simple discovery and can be used in different situations and time.
4. Teacher can be evaluate students' understanding through observation at each time
playing a game.
5. The game is a fun learning experience for children.
32. Problem Solving Method
Methods of problem solving is the use of the method in learning activities by road train
students face various problems be it personal or individual issues or problems to be solved
alone or group together.
Orientation learning is the investigation and discovery that is basically problem solving.
The advantage of the method of problem solving as follows:
1. Train students to design an invention.
2. Think and act creatively.
3. Solve problems realistically
4. Identify and conduct investigation.
5. Interpret and evaluate observations.
6. Stimulate the development of student thinking progress to resolve the problems faced
by the right.
7. Can make school education more relevant to life, especially the working world.
Weakness problem solving method as follows:
1. Some subjects are very difficult to apply this method. Eg lack of laboratory equipment
make it difficult for students to see and observe and ultimately conclude the event or
2. Allocation requires a longer time compared by other learning methods.
33. Team Games Tournament Method (TGT)
TGT cooperative learning is one type or model of cooperative learning are easy to
implement, involving the activities of all students without any differences in status, involving
the participation of students as peer tutors, and contains elements of the game and
Learning activities with games designed in the TGT model of cooperative learning allows
students to learn more relaxed in addition foster responsibility, teamwork, healthy
competition and learning engagement.
There are 5 major components in the TGT main components are:
1. Class presentation
In the early learning teachers present material in class presentation, usually done by direct
teaching or by lectures, discussions led by the teacher. At the time of presentation of this
class students should really pay attention to and understand the material presented teacher,
because it will help students work better when group work and by the time the game because
the score of the game will determine the score of the group.
2. Group (team)
The group usually consists of 4 to 5 students are members of heterogeneous views of
academic achievement, gender and race or ethnicity. Function of the group is to further
explore the material as a group and more specifically to prepare members of the group in
order to work properly and optimally at the time of the game.
Game consists of questions designed to test students' knowledge gained from classroom
presentation and study groups. Most games consist of simple questions numbered. Students
choose a numbered card and try to answer the questions according to the numbers. Students
who answered the question correctly will get a score. These scores were later gathered
students for a weekly tournament.
Tournament usually done on weekends or on any unit after presenting the class teacher and
the group has been working on a worksheet. The first tournament of teachers divide students
into multiple table tournaments. The three highest student achievements grouped in tables I,
three students at the next table II and so on.
5. Recognize team (group award)
The teacher then announces the winning team, each team will receive a gift certificate or if
the average score meets the specified criteria. Team earned the nickname "Super Team" if the
average score of 45 or more, "Great Team" when an average of 40-45 and "Good Team" if
the average 30-40.
34. Collaborative Learning
Collaborative Learning is a method of learning that focuses on collaboration among students
that is based on the consensus that was established by members of the group. Problem / task /
case is derived from the professors and are open ended, but the formation of groups based on
interests, group work procedures, determining the time and place of discussion / group work,
to how the results of the discussion / work group wants to be judged by professors, all
determined through common consensus among group members.
35. Quantum Learning
Quantum Learning is a teaching that can turn a fun learning environment as well as the ability
to change students' natural talent to be a light that will benefit themselves and for others.
Quantum is learning tips, hints, strategies, and the whole process of learning to sharpen
understanding and memory, as well as a process to make learning fun and rewarding.
36. TAI (Team Assisted Individualization or Team Accelerated Instruction)
Type of cooperative learning model this one is actually a merger of cooperative learning with
individual learning. On cooperative learning model TAI, students follow individual level
based on a placement test, and then be able to progress to the next stage based on the level of
learning speed. Thus, each member of the group is actually learning the units of different
subject matter. Peer group will examine the work of a group of other colleagues and provide
assistance if needed. The test is then given at the end of the unit without the help of friends
from their group and given a score. Then each week the teacher will add the total units
completed a group material and provide certificates or awards if they managed to exceed the
established criteria, and some extra points for that group members have received a perfect
score. Advantages of cooperative learning model TAI is because students are responsible for
checking the work of other colleagues, the teachers have more time to help small groups who
find many barriers to learning which is a collection of the group members who are at the level
of unit same subject matter. Many studies have reported that cooperative learning model TAI
is very effective to use in learning.
37. Round Table or Rally Table
To use cooperative learning Rally Table model the teacher can give the student a specific
category (eg, words that begin with the letter "s"). Subsequently have students take turns to
write one word in turn.
38. Jigsaw Team
To use a cooperative learning, Jigsaw model assign each student in each group to learn from
reading a quarter page or text on any subject (eg IPS), or a quarter of a topic that they have to
learn or remember. After each student had completed the lesson and then teach each other
(explain) about the material that was his job or work together to form a unified whole matter
when they complete a task or puzzle.
39. Jigsaw II
Type of cooperative learning model this one is a modification of the type of Jigsaw. Jigsaw II
was developed by Robert Slavin in 1980 in which all members of the original group studied
the same topic, it's just that each member is focused to explore certain parts of the topic. Each
member of the group home should be an expert in the topics they understood better part. Such
as Jigsaw, Jigsaw in type II they also have to teach these skills at home the other group
members in turn.
40. Reverse Jigsaw
This type of cooperative learning model developed by Timothy Hedeen (2003). Jigsaw is the
difference with the type, if the type of cooperative learning jigsaw model of expert group
members only teaches skills to members of the original group, then the reverse jigsaw
cooperative learning model, the students of the group of experts teach their skills (the
material they studied or understood better) to the whole class.
41. Three-Step Interview
On cooperative learning three-step interview model (also called three problem-solving)
performed 3 steps to solve the problem. In the first step the teacher can bring up a variety of
issues that opinion, then ask a few questions to all students in the class. The second step,
students work in pairs to play a role as interviewer and interviewee. Then, in the third step,
after the first interview conducted pairing reversed roles: acting as the interviewer and the
interviewee instead of people who had interviewed a person who was interviewed. After all
couples have exchanged roles, then each spouse may share or present the results of their
interviews with the class in turns. This type of cooperative learning model (three-step
interview) is effective to teach students about problem solving.
42. Three-Minute Review
Cooperative learning three-step review model effective for use when the teacher stops at
certain moments during a discussion or presentation took place, and invite students reviewing
what they had expressed during discussions in their groups. Students in these groups can be
asked to clarify to other members or to answer questions from other members. For example,
after a discussion about the complex processes that occur in the human body such as the
digestion of food, students can form groups and reviewing the discussion and ask questions to
43. Reciprocal Teaching
Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching model developed by Brown & Paliscar (1982).
Teaching reciprocal or reciprocal teaching is also a cooperative learning model that asks
students to form pairs while participating in a dialogue (a conversation or discussion) on a
text (reading material). Each member of the couple akanbergantian read text and ask
questions, receive and obtain feedback (feedback). Type of reciprocal teaching learning
model allows students to practice and use metacognitive techniques such as clarifying,
questioning, predicting, and concluding. Reciprocal cooperative learning model was
developed on the basis of teaching that students can effectively learn from other students.
Read a more detailed article about cooperative learning model reciprocal teaching.
44. The Williams
The type of cooperative learning The Williams model invites students collaborate to answer a
big question that is a learning goal. At this learning model students grouped heterogeneously
group as in STAD. Then each group was given different questions with the aim to improve
the cognitive abilities that enable students to achieve the learning objectives.
45. TPS (Think Pairs Share)
Cooperative learning TPS model (think pairs share) originally developed by Frank T. Lyman
(1981). This type of cooperative learning model allows each member of the pair to the
students to contemplate the question posed. After being given enough time they were then
asked to discuss what they think about before (result contemplation) with their respective
spouses. After discussion with the couple finished, the teacher then collects responses or
answers to questions that have been asked of the whole class.
46. TPC (Think Pairs Check)
Cooperative learning TPC (Think Pairs Check) model is a modification of the type of think
pairs share, where the emphasis is on learning when they are asked to check each answer or
response to the teacher's question while with their pair.
47. TPW (Think Pairs Write)
TPW cooperative learning model type (Think Pairs Write) is also a variation of cooperative
learning model TPS (Think Pairs Share). The emphasis of this type of cooperative learning
model is after they pair, they were asked to write down the answers or responses the
questions that have been given by the teacher. TPW cooperative learning model is very
suitable for writing lessons.
48. Tea Party
On cooperative learning Tea Party model, students form two concentric circles or two lines in
which the students face each other. The teacher asks a question (in any subject area) and then
students discuss the answers with students that in front of them. After one minute, the outer
line or outer circle moves like clockwise. So they will be faced with a new partner. The
teacher then asked a second question to discuss them. Such measures continued until the
teacher finishes asking 5 or more questions to discuss. For a little variation can also be
students are asked to write questions on cards to record later when held test.
49. Round Robin Brainstorming or Rally Robin
Examples of implementation of cooperative learning Round Robin Brainstorming model for
example: given a category (eg, "the names of rivers in Indonesia) for discussion. All students
take turns to mentions the items that are included in that category.
50. LT (Learnig Together)
The man who be the first developed the type of cooperative learning that is Learning
Together (LT) model is David Johnson and Roger Johnson at the University of Minnesota in
1999. On cooperative learning model Learning Together, students formed by 4-5 people for a
heterogeneous student working on a task sheet. Each group was given only one worksheet.
They were then given the praise and appreciation on the work of the group. In the learning
model with variations such Cooperative Learning Together, each group is directed to
undertake activities to build group cohesion and discussion beforehand about how they
should work together in groups.