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# History of Calculator

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### History of Calculator

1. 1. Science Technology and Society July 28, 2013 Aiza Mae Bernabe 4/BSE/A Physical Science Major1
2. 2. What is our partner in work? July 28, 20132
3. 3. What is our partner in work? July 28, 20133
4. 4. What is our partner in work? July 28, 20134
5. 5. They are like our signature… July 28, 20135
6. 6. How far can you go? 1+3= July 28, 20136 20-9= 4 x 6 = 45 ÷ 5 =√16 = 62 = 364 11 24 94
7. 7. July 28, 20137
8. 8. July 28, 20138
9. 9. July 28, 20139
10. 10. It’s Use in education  In most countries, students use calculators for schoolwork.  There was some initial resistance to the idea out of fear that basic arithmetic skills would suffer.  There remains disagreement about the importance of the ability to perform calculations "in the head", with some curricula restricting calculator use until a certain level of proficiency has been obtained, while others concentrate more on teaching estimation techniques and problem- solving.  Research suggests that inadequate guidance in the use of calculating tools can restrict the kind of mathematical thinking that students engage in. July 28, 201310
11. 11. Where did calculator came from? History Of Calculato r July 28, 201311
12. 12.  The abacus also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool used primarily in parts of Asia for performing arithmet ic processes.  the Sumerian, Ancie nt Egypt, Persians, Gre ek July 28, 201312
13. 13. July 28, 201313 Roman abacus Chinese abacus dates to the 2nd century BC ”Suanpan”
14. 14.  n Japanese, the abacus is called soroban impor ted from China around 1600. July 28, 201314 Native American “Inca quipu”
15. 15. Abacus  The first calculator  Today it is still debated whether the Babylonians or the Chinese invented it.  Used before written numeral system invented.  Constructed from a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires.  Still used by some merchants, fishermen and clerks in Africa, Asia, and elsewhere. July 28, 201315
16. 16. c1600 - Napier's bones  An abacus created by John Napier for calculation.  Invented in 1614.  Used for multiplication and division.  "Napier's bones" invented by John Napier for multiplication, based on the ancient numerical scheme known as the Arabian lattice. July 28, 201316
17. 17. 1622 - Slide rule. July 28, 201317 William Gunter developed a logarithmic rule for multiplication and division using dividers, which was the forerunner of the slide rule. Invented in 1622 by William Oughtred. Allows multiplication and division operations to be carried out significantly faster. People who sent the space shuttle Apollo to the moon used the slide rule for their calculations which was in 1961.
18. 18. 1623 Calculating Clock  Invented in 1623 by Wihelm Schickard.  Known as the first mechanical calculator.  The calculator was made from cogs and gears which were normally used for clocks.  It was the size of a typewriter.  It could add, subtract, multiply, and divide to up to six-digit numbers. July 28, 201318
19. 19. 1642 - the Pascaline o Capable of addition, subtraction was performed by nines-complement addition, and multiplication was performed by repeated additions and subtractions.  Invented by Blaise Pascal  Pascal invented it to reduce his father’s tax work load.  Used for taxes in France until 1799 July 28, 201319
20. 20. 1820 - Arithmometer July 28, 2013  Inventor: Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar  The arithmometer was the first commercially successful calculating machine to complete all four basic operations — addition, subtraction, multiplication and division — according to IBM. Like Hahn, Thomas also based his calculator on the stepped drum mechanism of Leibniz. The machine featured a second result display for subtraction and division as well as a multiplication gear.20
21. 21.  W.T. Odhner in Sweden independently develops the pin-wheel calculator, the first of the long series of Odhner calculators. Since then, many calculating machines have used the same principle. July 28, 201321 1874 - Odhner calculators
22. 22.  Dorr E. Felt invents The Comptometer, the first succesfull key-driven adding and calculating machine. In 1886 he joined with Robert Tarrant to form the Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Company which went on to make thousands of Comptometers July 28, 201322 1884 - Comptometer
23. 23. 1900-1975 Madas 20BZS  Madas 20BZS, a typical electrically driven, stepped- gear calculator with automatic multiplication and division. July 28, 201323
24. 24. 1948 - Curta  Curta miniature hand- held mechanical calculator introduced. One of the few major innovations in mechanical calculators in the mid 20th century. July 28, 201324
25. 25. 1961  The first electronic desktop calculators. They use vacuum tubes.  The world's first electronic desktop calculators were announced by the Bell Punch Co., Uxbridge, England - theAnita Mk VII for the continental European market and theAnita Mk 8 for other markets. These models used cold- cathode vacuum tubes and numerical display ("Nixie" type) tubes. July 28, 201325
26. 26. 1963-1964  First commercial all- transistor desktop calculators: Friden EC130 & EC132,  Mathatron, IME 84,  Sharp CS10A.  Prices comparable to that of family cars. July 28, 201326
27. 27. 1969  First battery powered, hand- held, electronic calculator.  First calculator using just LSI (Large Scale Integration) chips - Sharp QT-8D, with ICs by Rockwell. Size & weight much reduced, calculator now portable.  First battery powered, hand- held calculator - Sharp QT- 8B.  Green fluorescent tube displays introduced . July 28, 201327
28. 28. 1970  Hand-held calculators take off.  First shirt pocket sized electronic calculator.  All very expensive.  Some of the first hand-held calculators: Canon Pocketronic,  Sanyo ICC-0081 ,  Sharp EL-8, but very expensive.  First use of "calculator on a chip" introduced by Mostek of Dallas - used in Busicom Junior(desk calculator) and allows the production of the first shirt pocket sized electronic calculator, the Busicom LE-120A.  First use of LED (Light Emitting Diode) displays used in Busicom LE-120A. July 28, 201328
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30. 30. 1971  First calculator to use a microprocessor.  First microprocessor - Intel 4004 - was designed for and used in Busicom 141-PF desk calculator July 28, 201330
31. 31. 1972  Rapid development of electronic calculators, and reduction in price.  First scientific pocket calculator introduced - Hewlet-Packard HP35.  Ultra-thin Sinclair Executive launched.  Many new companies entering the calculator business and prices dropping rapidly.  LCD (Liquid Crystal Device) displays appear briefly in a version giving silver-reflective numbers, including: Lloyds Accumatic 100,  Rapidman 1208LC.  The Sharp EL-801 sees the first use of C-MOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) integrated circuits in a calculator.July 28, 201331
32. 32. July 28, 201332
33. 33. 1973  First Sharp "COS" (Crystal on Substrate) reflective LCD calculators, including E L-805S July 28, 201333
34. 34. 1974  Texas Instruments awarded patent for "miniature electronic calculator", based on the "CalTech".  The Hewlett Packard HP65 is the first hand-held programmable calculator. July 28, 201334
35. 35. 1978  First solar-powered and first credit card sized calculators.  The first solar powered calculators were introduced, the Royal Solar 1, Teal Photon, and Sharp EL-8028.  The Casio Mini Card LC- 78 is the first credit card sized calculator. July 28, 201335
36. 36. 1980  First hand-held computer  The Sharp PC1211 / Tandy TRS80 PC-1 is the first hand-held computer; it has a QWERTY keypad and runs the BASIC language. July 28, 201336
37. 37. 1985: First Graphing Calculator Device Name: Casio fx-7000G Inventor: Casio A Brief History: The Casio fx-7000G was developed with 422 bytes of memory and could store up to ten programs in 10 program slots, according to the Computing History website. It offered 82 scientific functions, and its display could toggle between 8 lines of 16 characters each or a 64x96 dot matrix graphical display.  Interesting Fact: Today’s graphing calculators like the TI- 83 kept the fx-7000G’s display format. July 28, 201337
38. 38.  2003: First Graphing Calculator with Touch Functionality  Photo Credit: Gumtree  Device Name: Sharp EL-9650  Inventor: Sharp  A Brief History: When most people think of touch devices, they think of using their fingers, but Sharp broke the mold by debuting the first stylus-based graphing calculator, according to Tech Powered Math. Sharp, unfortunately, didn’t find much success with the model.  Interesting Fact: The EL-9650 had a slideshow functionality that allowed teachers to walk through pre- programmed lessons and formulas on the calculator. July 28, 201338
39. 39. 2010: First Color Graphing Calculator Device Name: Casio PRIZM Inventor: Casio A Brief History: While the world of mobile devices quickly moved to full-color screens in the early 2000s, it took a while for graphing calculators to catch up. Casio’s PRIZM calculator, with its advanced, 216x384 resolution, full-color display, debuted in late 2010. Texas Instruments soon followed with its own color calculator, the TI-NSpire Cx, in early 2011. Students could finally bid good-bye to the monochrome, low-pixel displays of years past.  Interesting Fact: The PRIZM allows students to create graphs over images, which helps them understand the real-world applications of the work they’re doing on their graphing calculators. July 28, 201339
40. 40. July 28, 201340 Thank You for Listening!
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