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presentation at E-Learn 2008 presentation at E-Learn 2008 Presentation Transcript

  • Investigating Effect of Computer Simulations in Physics Teaching at Undergraduate Level Author Popat S. Tambade Co-author Dr. B. G. Wagh Submitted to E-Learn 2008 – World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare and Higher Education Prof. Ramkrishna More College, Akurdi, Pune, INDIA K. A. A. N. M. Sonawane College, Satana, Nashik, INDIA [email_address]
  • Process of learning …….. Expectation from students …….
    • Have ability to solve standard physics problems
    • Integrate them into conceptual framework
    • Develop the reasoning ability
    • Relate the formalism of physics to objects and events in the real world
    • Develop functional understanding
  • Classroom Scenario
    • Write down every equation or the law that the teacher puts on the blackboard.
    • Memorize these, together with the list of formulae at the end of each chapter.
    • Do enough rote homework and end-of-the chapter problems to recognize which formula to be applied to which problem.
    • Pass the examinations by selecting the correct formulas for the problems on the examination.
    • Erase all information from the brain after the exam to make the room for the next set of the materials
    Classroom Scenario….
  • Objectives
    • To identify difficulties in learning physics
    • To overcome difficulties in learning physics and simplify concepts in physics
    • To develop the computer simulation package on the topics of Oscillations
    • To develop a tool (diagnostic test) to measure the effect of learning through use of computer simulations and traditional methods
    • To induce proper concepts of physics
  • Research Questions
    • In Oscillations
    • Will students be able to interpret formulae in physics?
    • Will students be able to interpret graphical representations in physics?
    • Will students be able to interpret physics in given situations?
    • Will students be consistent of conceptual understanding?
  • Research Work Method
    • Sample
    • Students from
    • 1. Prof. Ramkrishna More College, Pune
    • 2. Baburaoji Gholap College, Pune
    • 3. Annasaheb Magar College, Pune
    • 4. Waghire College, Otur, Pune
    • Total 128 students from 2005-06 and 2006-07
    Experimental Research work method is used
    • Population
    • Students from second year undergraduate physics affiliated to University of Pune
    • Tools
    • Diagnostic tests
    • Group discussion
    • Feedback from the students
  • Flow chart of design of study Traditional lectures Pretest Control Group Experimental Group Special sessions using computer simulations and Group discussions Posttest Revision by traditional method Data analysis
  • Interactive Physics Simulation Package
    • IPSP has following simulations
    • Stable and Unstable Equilibrium
    • Potential Energy curves
    • Spring Mass System Vertical
    • Spring mass system horizontal
    • Simple Pendulum
    • K. E. and P. E. Graphs
    • Lissajous Figures
    A PowerPoint Slide show was developed and these simulations were linked at appropriate places Click
  • Survey Results Oscillations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 12 13 14 15
  • Difficulties in Oscillations
    • Difficulty in interpretation of potential energy curves
    • Difficulty to see variation in velocity along the path of oscillator
    • Difficulty in separating out various parameters of oscillation
    • Difficulty in interpretation of graphs of position, velocity and acceleration
    • Students answers to two similar questions posed in different representations have strikingly different results
  • Pretest-Posttest Results
    • Oscillations
    • second year undergraduate science (2005-06) and (2006-07)
    Table shows that the two groups are equivalent. [ t critical =2.36 for df = 126 ] Significant difference between control and experimental group 14.05 S. D. 37.16% Mean 64 N Experimental 16.56 S. D. 37.72% Mean 0.420 0.20 (Not significant ) 64 N Control p t-value (0.01) Pretest Group 10.07 78.71% 0.66 (0.1367 ) 64 13.46 54.22% 1.35  10 –29 14.78 (Significant) 0.25 (0.1748) 64 p t –value (0.01) <g> (s.d.) Posttest
    • Conceptual understanding
    Consistency Interpretation of physics Interpretation of graph Interpretation of formula
  • Results
    • The experimental and control group were equivalent at the pretest.
    • After treatment the normalized gain in the case of experimental group is significantly high as compared to the control group. The t- value of the comparison of results of control group and experimental group is high and significant at 0.01 levels.
    • The treatment given to experimental group is effective
  • About Simulations
    • Computer simulations have great potential to advance conceptual change by helping students move from their alternative science conceptions to correct conceptions.
    • The information provided in tandem with the simulations was more beneficial than the information provided before the simulation.
    • When students use a complex simulation, group learning may be more effective than an individual learning context.
    • In order to have more effect, simulations must be combined with some external support, such as text material, assignments, model progression, workbooks etc.
  • Thank You AACE and Participants
  • Pretest and Posttest
    • 15 multiple choice questions on Oscillations
    Test content
    • Mathematical skills
    • Interpretation of the equations
    • Interpretation of graphical representations
    • Interpretation of the physics (what happens)
    • Checking the consistency of conceptual understanding
    Student had to choose correct answer as well as give proper reasoning for each question R
  • Pretest…. R Oscillations 0.83 Reliability index 0.31 Avg. discrimination index 0.56 Avg. difficulty index Diagnostic Test Index
  • Analysis of Data R
    • Actual gain for each students
    G = %posttest – %pretest
      • Maximum possible gain for each student
    G max = 100 – %pretest
    • Normalized gain for each student
    • Find class average normalized gain < g > with standard deviation
    • t – test over average normalized gain at 0.01 level
    g = %posttest – %pretest 100 – %pretest
  • Q1. See the following potential energy curve of simple harmonic oscillator. Out of four points shown on the curve at which point the force acting on the particle is more. (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D   Reason : return 
    • Q 2. Which one of the following figures correctly represents the graph of period T against mass m of the oscillator.
    • Reason :
    • Q3. An oscillator is oscillating between – 5cm and +5cm through 0 as shown in figure.
    • What will be the phase difference between displacement and velocity at x = 4 cm from equilibrium position.
    • 30 0 (b) 60 0 (c) 180 0 (d) 90 0
    • Reason :
    • return
  • Q4. We have four oscillators O 1 , O 2 , O 3 and O 4 having masses 10 gm, 15 gm, 20 gm and 25 gm respectively. Suppose they are oscillating along the same path each with amplitude 5 cm as shown in Fig. Which oscillator will take more time to move from position x = 4cm to x = 3cm. (a) O 1 (b) O 2 (c) O 3 (d) O 4 Reason : Q5. See question (4) which oscillator will make more oscillations in one second? (a) O 1 (b) O 2 (c) O 3 (d) O 4 Reason : Q6. Two oscillators O 1 and O 2 with masses 10 gm and 20 gm respectively are oscillating with the same amplitudes 5 cm and along the same path. Both have the same force constant. Let v 1 and v 2 be the velocities of O 1 and O 2 respectively at x = 4 cm from equilibrium position. Then (a) v 1 = v 2 (b) v 1 < v 2 (c) v 1 > v 2 (d) nothing can be said Reason : return
  • Q7 : An oscillator of mass 10 gm is oscillating along the straight line with period 2 sec with amplitude 5 cm. Let t 1 be the time taken by the oscillator to go from position 4 cm to 3 cm and t 2 be the time taken by the oscillator to go from position 2 cm to 1 cm. Then which one of the following is correct.   (a) t 1 = t 2 (b) t 1 > t 2 (c) t 1 < t 2 (d) Nothing can be said. Reason : Q8 : See the following potential energy curve of an-harmonic oscillator. Out of four points shown on the curve at which point the force acting on the particle is less. (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D   Reason : return        
  • Q9. See following potential energy curves. When particles are moving in these potential, in which potential the particle will perform simple harmonic motion. Reason :   Q10. See the potential energy curves in Q.9. In which potential the force acting on the particle will always be constant. (a) a (b) b (c) c (d) d Reason :   return
  •   Q11. See the Fig. below. The spring constants (force constants) k 1 > k 2 . Both the masses are oscillating with the same amplitude on a frictionless surface. Which mass will have maximum velocity at equilibrium position. (a)     (b)    Mass in (2) (c)    Both will have the same velocity. (d)    None of the above Reason :       Mass in (1) 12. We have spring of spring constant k, length L and mass m. The spring is cut into two equal parts such that each part has spring constant k 1 , length L/2 and mass m/2. Then (a) k 1 = k (b) k 1 < k (c) k 1 > k (d) nothing can be said. Reason : return
  • Q13. Which one of the following does not depend on the amplitude of oscillations in SHM (a) velocity (b) frequency (c) energy (d) potential energy Reason :     Q14. Which one of the following is independent of displacement from mean position in SHM? (a) velocity (b) energy (c) kinetic energy (d) force. Reason : Q15. If the frequency of oscillator is υ , what will be the frequency of kinetic energy? (a) υ (b) 2 υ (c) 3 υ (d) 4 υ return