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  1. 1. ICT and Pedagogy: Implications for international collaborative learning and learningenvironments Margaret J. Cox King’s College London
  2. 2. Focus of the paper • What do teachers’ pedagogies include? • What types of ICT resources and communications technologies are being used by teachers and pupils and for what purposes? • What is the relationship between different types of ICT use and teachers’ pedagogical practices? • What ways is networked learning being integrated with other more traditional teaching methods? • Implications for international educational collaboration and learning environments
  3. 3. Three main developments • Technological • Educational initiatives • Applications to teaching and learning
  4. 4. Technological developments Educational Initiatives ICT as a subject ICT to enhance teaching and learning Educational ICT resources Implications For teachers and leaners
  5. 5. Technological developments • Reducing costs and increasing diversity • Impact and migration from the IT industry • Domination of commercial technologies • Widespread use of office software in education
  6. 6. Growth of IT resources Decline in IT costs 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s
  7. 7. Educational initiatives • Major government policies regarding ICT in education • Different priorities from nation to nation • Two main directions: IT as a subject and ICT across the curriculum • Extending the boundaries of educational settings
  8. 8. Applications of ICT to teaching and learning • Vocational need to meet demands of the IT industry • Changing nature of ICT representations • Networked technologies used for sharing of peripheral educational activities • Networked learning within single institutions
  9. 9. Tutorial style software Fixed model Few variables confirmation of correct answers help for incorrect answers USER decisions practice choice of variable values
  10. 10. Simulations semi-fixed model range of variables results of hypotheses and investigations USER choice of variables and values study relationships hypothesise investigate theories
  11. 11. Framework software choice of model learning framework creation and analysis of user’s theories USER framework develop model choose variables analyse data build theories
  12. 12. What do educators understand by teachers’ pedagogies • Teachers’ ideas and beliefs about teaching • Includes the whole practice of teaching before and after the class activity as well as during the teaching itself • How ICT is used will have a positive or negative effect on pupils’ learning • Teachers’ pedagogies will affect how ICT is integrated with other more traditional teaching methods
  13. 13. Pedagogical reasoning model Teachers’ knowledge, beliefs and values Teachers’ behaviours Pedagogical reasoning Pupils’ knowledge, beliefs and values Pupils’ behaviours Actions and activities Learning outcomes Affordances
  14. 14. Affordances • The properties of a teaching and learning system as perceived by the user which allow certain actions and specific types of behaviour. • For ICT, affordances which are influenced by the teacher and the learner would include providing learning opportunities for the student using different ICT environments
  15. 15. Pedagogical reasoning • Subject content knowledge • Knowledge related to general teaching issues, e.g. teaching approaches, classroom management • Curriculum knowledge - “tools of the trade”: schemes of work, resources etc. • Pedagogical content knowledge - their own special form of professional understanding • Knowledge of learners and their characteristics; • Knowledge of educational contexts: groups, classes, school and wider community • Knowledge of educational ends, purpose and values and their philosophical and historical grounds.
  16. 16. ICT hardware • Stand-alone computers • Computer networks in classes • Laptop computers for personal uses in class and at home • Personal digital organisers • Interactive whiteboard • Measurement and control devices • Range of other ICT devices: mobile phones, Web pads, tablet PCs etc.
  17. 17. ICT software • Office software: word-processing, spreadsheets, databases, • Subject based simulations • Computer based modelling • Measurement and control • On-line communications • Web-based courses • Researching on-line evidence • Computer based assessment
  18. 18. Hardware Software Expanding range of Representations systems Different modes of Human computer interactions New forms of knowledge
  19. 19. What do we know about ICT and teachers’ knowledge? • Teachers subject knowledge - greatest attainment when teachers understand their own subject in depth and detail • Access to ICT resources- teachers who take the initiative to acquire relevant ICT resources are able to use them with more consequent benefits to their pupils • Teachers who understand the range and scope of ICT can achieve greater integration and higher learning outcomes
  20. 20. Relationship between ICT and teachers’ pedagogical practices • Teachers who were confident in using specific ICT resources were able to plan and implement appropriate learning activities • Pedagogical practices of the teacher using ICT - depended upon their subject knowledge, ICT skills and their understanding of ICT • Organisation - the class organisation had an important impact on the attainment of the pupils • Beyond the classroom - ICT pedagogy includes all aspects of teaching, not just in the lesson.
  21. 21. ICT as a subject/across the curriculum • IT/ICT as a subject – Insufficient teachers competent to teach ICT – Dominated by Microsoft Office – Insufficient time-tabled time to teach ICT well – Curriculum poorly understood – Quality of learner’s achievements limited by the above • ICT across subjects – Insufficient teachers motivated to use ICT – Lack of expertise in how to use it effectively – Lack of support from school principals – Competing for resources with ICT teachers – Dominated by Microsoft office
  22. 22. Integration of networked learning • Use of the Internet for distance learning • Web-based courses • Extending pupil-pupil and teacher-pupil communications: – Email – On-line assignments – Pupil-pupil evaluations – On-line evaluations • Distance learning whole courses
  23. 23. Emerging issues • Pedagogical conflicts • Teachers’ subject knowledge • Teachers’ pedagogical knowledge • Teachers’ knowledge of the potential of ICT • Pedagogical practices and affordances • Access to ICT networking resources • Managing a community of learners • Balancing local and international educational priorities
  24. 24. Pedagogical conflicts • Using office based software • New knowledge and new representations • Challenges of networked learning environments • Using subject based software • Using existing knowledge and traditional representations • Abilities of teachers to use ICT National curriculum requirements
  25. 25. Teachers’ subject knowledge Teachers need to know • that some ICT uses will change the nature and representations of knowledge and of the way the subject is presented to and engages the pupils • the potential of ICT and networked resources not only in terms of its contribution to pupils’ presentation skills but in terms of its facilities for challenging pupils’ thinking and extending pupils’ learning in a subject • how to prepare and plan courses and lessons where ICT is used which will challenge pupils’ understanding and promote reflection and thinking, in the subject
  26. 26. Teacher pedagogical knowledge Teachers need to know • how to organise pupils when using ICT resources within a range of learning settings • the relationship between a range of ICT resources and the concepts, processes and skills in their subject • how to obtain and select appropriate ICT resources to meet a range of learning opportunities; • how and when to decide on the four approaches to using networked technologies
  27. 27. Four approaches to using networked technologies • Substitution approach • Integrated approach • Enhancement approach • Complimentary approach
  28. 28. Loss of control of the learning process • Informal learning outside the formal institution • Learners’ access to other ‘teachers’ and ‘experts’ • Learners’ perceptions of the value of IT in society • Changing roles of the teacher
  29. 29. Balancing local and international educational priorities Within formal courses • Using goal oriented international communities - new on-line courses • Using international communities of interest to support networks of teachers at national and international level • Facilitating learners’ communities across nations • Communities of practice to contribute to students on formal courses
  30. 30. Balancing local and international educational priorities Within informal learning • Providing opportunities for informal learners collaborating within a community of interest • Providing specific Web-sites to support informal learners to exchange ideas and knowledge • Communities of practice could contribute to students engaged in informal learning • Educational collaborations need to benefit the whole community of partners
  31. 31. Implications for learning environments Learning environments Communication resources Simulations Tutorial software Framework software The teachers The learners Learning Affordances Other resources Other experiences
  32. 32. Possibilities for international collaboration • Setting up international communities of practice • Setting up international projects on course development and evaluation • Exchanging students and academics • Providing professional development in the uses of ICT • Sharing best practice in using ICT in teaching and research