SUBMITTED BY :NEHA PANKAJMEGHA ANANDPIYUSHPOONAMJOT KAURMENTAL HEALTH
INTRODUCTION Mental health describes a level of psychological well-being , or an absence of a mental disorder. The World Health Organization defines mental health as "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community".
• There are different types of mental health problems, some of which are common, such as depression and anxiety disorders, and some not so common, such as schizophrenic and Bipolar disorder.• Most recently, the field of Global Mental health has emerged, which has been defined as the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving mental health and achieving equity in mental health for all people worldwide.
SIGNIFICANCE Evidence from the World Health Organization suggests that nearly half the worlds population are affected by mental illness with an impact on their self-esteem, relationships and ability to function in everyday life. An individuals emotional health can also impact physical health and poor mental health can lead to problems such as substance abuse. The importance of maintaining good mental health is crucial to living a long and healthy life. Good mental health can enhance one’s life, while poor mental health can prevent someone from living a normal life.
• The importance of maintaining good mental health is crucial to living a long and healthy life. Good mental health can enhance one’s life, while poor mental health can prevent someone from living a normal life.
MENTAL ILLNESS AS A STIGMA Stigma is defined as a sign of disgrace or discredit, which sets a person apart from others. The stigma of mental illness, although more often related to context than to a persons appearance, remains a powerful negative attribute in all social relations. Mental illness, despite centuries of learning and the ‘Decade of the Brain’, is still perceived as an indulgence, a sign of weakness. Self-stigmatization has been described, and there are numerous personal accounts of psychiatric illness, where shame overrides even the most extreme of symptoms.
THE EXPERIENCE OF STIGMA SOCIAL EXCLUSION SHAME BLAME SECRECY ISOLATION DISCRIMINATION
ETIOLOGY METABOLICORGANIC DISEASES,NEOPLASM,NEURO- LOGICAL DISEASES,ENDOCRINE DISEASES e.g. Epilepsy e.g. IF BOTH PARENTS AREHEREDITARY SCHIOPHRENIC WORRIES, BROKENPSYCHOSOCIAL HOMES,POVERTY,STRESS, CHANGING FAMILY STRUCTURE,REJECTION, ECONOMIC INSECURITY TOXIC SUBSTANCES – MERCURY DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISMENVIRONMENTAL MINERAL DEFICIENCY- IODINE TRAUMATIC FACTORS RADIATION
OTHER CONTRIBUTING FEATURES Social and environmental causesThese might be things such as: Where we live Our place of work Whether we have close family and friends How and where we can relax.
Where we live The physical environment where we live can be very stressful, particularly when there are problems with neighbours, or if there are high crime rates and other such issues. Where you work Whether you enjoy your work, or feel you are under too much pressure, are unable to find employment or hold down a job, can all put pressure on your mental well-being. Families and Friends When we face difficult times our support networks become very important – those who do not have close friends or families, or those who do not live near the people who support them may find it increasingly difficult to cope alone. How and when to relax All these kinds of problems will increase the amount of stress people are under, and can cause depression and anxiety especially in situations where people dont have a time or a place to relax.
INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OFDISEASE OF MENTAL HEALTHORGANIC - Delirium DISORDERS OF ADULT PERSONALITYMENTAL & BEHAVIORIAL – Drug abuse , MENTAL RETARDATIONalcoholismSCHIZOPHRENIA DISORDERS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT – Childhood autismMOOD DISORDERS – Depressive disorders BEHAVIOUR DISORDERS OCCURING IN CHILDHOOD & ADOLESCENCENEUROTIC,STRESS RELATED DISORDERS UNSPECIFIED MENTAL DISORDERSBEHAVIOUR SYNDROME – EATINGDISORDERS
PSYCHOLOGICAL SIGNS ANDSYMPTOMS Feeling sad or down Confused thinking Excessive fears or worries Withdrawal from friends and activities Problems sleeping Detachment from reality (delusions) or hallucinations Inability to cope with daily problems or stress Alcohol or drug abuse Significant changes in eating habits Sex drive changes Excessive anger, hostility or violence Suicidal thinking
PHYSICAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Fatigue Back pain Chest pain Digestive problems Dry mouth Headache Sweating Weight gain or loss Rapid heart rate Dizziness
TREATMENT ASPECT OF MENTAL ILLNESS The initial assessment The role of psychiatrists and general practitioners Help is available through both public and private health care Psychological treatment Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) Interpersonal psychotherapy Dialectical behavior therapy Treatment with medication Other forms of treatment
TREATMENT WITH MEDICATION Medications are mainly helpful for people who are more seriously affected by mental illness. Different types of medication treat different types of mental illness: Antidepressant medications – about 60 to 70 per cent of people with depression respond to initial antidepressant treatment. These medications are now also used (in combination with psychological therapies) to treat phobias, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and eating disorders
Antipsychotic medications – are used to treat psychotic illnesses, for example schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Newer antipsychotic medications may have some side effects, but tend to have fewer of the effects that were associated with the older medications, for example stiffening and weakening of the muscles and muscle spasms Mood stabilizing medications – are helpful for people who have bipolar disorder (previously known as manic depression). These medications, such as lithium carbonate, can help reduce the recurrence of major depression and can help reduce the manic or ‘high’ episodes
OTHER FORMS OF TREATMENT Effective treatment involves more than medications. Treatment may also involve: Community support – including information, accommodation, help with finding suitable work, training and education, psychosocial rehabilitation and mutual support groups. Understanding and acceptance by the community is very important Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) – this treatment can be a highly effective treatment for severe depression and, sometimes, for other diagnoses when other treatments have not been effective. After the person is given a general anaesthetic and muscle relaxant, an electrical current is passed through their brain
Hospitalization – this only occurs when a person is acutely ill and needs intensive treatment for a short time. It is considered better for a person’s mental health to treat them in the community, in their familiar surroundings. Involuntary treatment – this can occur when the psychiatrist recommends someone needs treatment but the person doesn’t agree. In general, people receive involuntary treatment to ensure their own safety or that of others.
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES Early diagnosis and treatment Rehabilitation Group and individual psychotherapy Mental health education Use of modern psychoactive drugs After care services
MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMES IN INDIA National mental health programThe Government of India has launched the National MentalHealth Program (NMHP) in 1982, keeping in view the heavyburden of mental illness in the community, and the absoluteinadequacy of mental health care infrastructure in the country todeal with it.It includes Integration mental health with primary health carethrough the NMHP.Provision of tertiary care institutions for treatment of mentaldisorders.Eradicating stigmatization of mentally ill patients and protectingtheir rights through regulatory institutions like the Central MentalHealth Authority, and State Mental health Authority.
District mental health programs It includes training programs of all workers in themental health team at the identified Nodal Institute inthe State. Public education in the mental health to increaseawareness and reduce stigma. For early detection and treatment, the OPD and indoorservices are provided. Providing valuable data and experience at the level ofcommunity to the state and Centre for future planning,improvement in service and research
CURRENT STATUS Annual data of PGI Walk in clinic – 7555 new cases 3921 old cases Refer from other departments-1267 DDTC (De addiction center) 1297 new cases 644 old cases Maximum cases 22-50 yr age group 350 cases per year - 22-50 yr of age